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BINDING LISTEN 1 1923 



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£\. Index to 

July 27, 1922. ^ THE CANADIAN ENGINEER Ml 



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The Canadian Engineer 

Published Weekly — Established 1893 



A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Including chiefly municipal, railroad, hydraulic, 

structural, highway and consulting engineers; 

surveyors ; mine managers ; contractors ; 

and water works superintendents 



a -a ? 2-5 



Index to Volume 42 

January 1 to June 30, 1922 



Published every Tuesday by The Monetary Times Printing Co. ok Canada, Limited 

Head Office: CornerCHURCH and COURT STREETS. TORONTO. ONTARIO 

Telephone Main 7404, Branch Exchange connecting all Departments 
Cable Address: "Engineer, Toronto" 

Western Canada Office: 1206 McArthur Building. Winnipeg 



m 



Index to 
THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



July 25, 1922 



The Canadian Engineer 



INDEX TO VOLUME 42 






January 1 to June 30, 1922 



AAA.'-'icuoicn lp Report of Meeting of 
Engineering Section. 1 t. 

A. A. AS. Discusses Many Topics — Engineering 
109. 
River — Power Allotted on. 500. 
■nt at Hydro Power Plant. 429. 
riK— Highway; G. F. Plneo. 407. 
r Albertl— New Highways. 328. 

Act, Province of Ontario — Engineering Profes- 
sions". Ml] 

aed Sludge Plant at Brampton. Ontario'; 
W. M. Treadgold. 459. 

A rs — Highway Drainage and the Application 
of Drainage; U. W. Christie. 309. 

Adams. Dr. Frank D. (Personal). 638. 

Adams. Thomas (Personal). 275. 

Adams, \V. G. A. (Personal). 390. 

Aerial Photography**; P. J. Barry. 195. 

Aerials — Efficiency of Transmission. 500. 

Aesthetic Standards for Bridgesf. 616. 

African Project — B.C. Engineers Work on. 133. 

Aggregate in Bituminous Macadam Roads — 
Local Mineral: Major W. A. Welch. 449. 

Aggregates for Asphalt Pavements — Standard- 
ized Specifications for Mineral; Roy M. 
Green. 496. 

Aid, Its Implications and Results — Federal*; 
A. W. Campbell. 649. 

Alnlay. Willlamj. 481. 

Air — Lift Pumping — Experiments on. 256. 

Alberta— New Highways Act for. 328. 

Alberta Professional Engineers Meet. 384. 

Alberta Road Districts Mapped Out. 500. 

Alberta — Road Work Opening up in. 505. 



Ale 



W. A. (Pe 



U). 



Alkali on Concrete — Testing Effect of. 216. 
Alkali Problem — Calgary Conference on. 686. 
Alkali Soils — Review of Investigation Into De- 
terioration of Concrete In. 209. 
Allan. E. Blake; Toronto Highway Entrance 

Bridges, at Hamilton*. 397. 
Allen, James: Portland Cement Concrete Roads. 

629. 
Allen, Thomas C.{ 571. 
Allwood, F. W.; Substructure. Johnson St. 

Bridge. Victoria, B.C.*. 677. 
Aluminium Sulphate — Treatment of Hard. Im- 
pure Water With; William Gore. 619. 
Amendment to Engineering Institute By-Law — 

Pros and Cons Re. 333. 
American Concrete Institute Convention. 133. 
American Good Roads Congress — Program. 114. 
American Good Roads Convention. 136. 
American Metric Association Meet in Toronto. 

113. 
American Society for Testing Materials. 37». 
American Water Works Association. 423. 
American Water Works Association*. 628. 
American Water Works Association — Annual 

rig of Canadian Section of. 601. 
American Water Works Association — 'Nominees 

P. 60. 
American Water Works Association — Philadel- 
phia Convention. 4(8. 
Aqueduct Undcrdralnage — Winnipeg. 452. 
Arch Ilrldge. Winnipeg— Maryland Street Con- 

• J. F. Greene. 339. 
Arch — Unexpected Test of an. 114. 
Arches — Stresses In Skewt. 633. 
Architects and Foreign Materials**; W. B. 

Ramsay. 313. 
Architects Annual Meeting — Manitoba Associa- 
tion of. 198. 
Areas — Creation of Urbant. 594. 
Armstrong. William H.|. 3»0. 
Artery at Ottawa — Diagonal Traffic*. 613. 
Asphalt Pavement Yardage — Increase In. 461. 
Asphalt Plant at St. Catharines, Ont.. Mui.lcl- 

279. 
■awmial lot Benefit, K. w. McKay. 349. 

atari of ■.'. i rurifying 
. mtnt. i7i 
Atlanta— Mechanical Engineers Meet in. 460. 
Austin. R. de Bruno; Beach Wafer Worka 

Pumping Plant at Hamilton*. 4(1. 
Auto — Eductor— Otlerson*. 2(1. 
Auto Tires — Power Lose In. 6(7. 
Automatic Train Control — Extension off. 570. 
AW W.A. Brantford Meeting -Canadian Sec- 

442. 
A w W A. Meeting — Canadian Section. 4J7. 



B 

Baker. G. H. ; Water Works System at Rich- 
mond Hill. Ont.*. 437. 
Baldwin. A. L. (Personal). 390. 
Banting, E. W.f.. 369. 
Hanwell. J. E. (Personal). 370. 
Barnes, A. S. L. ; Libraries for Research Work- 

ers**. 294. 
Barnes, A. S. L.»*. 331. 
Burr. Win. M. ; Water Softening as a Factor in 

Municipal Supply. 402. 
Barron. R. E. N. (Personal). 333. 
Barry. P. J.; Aerial Photography**. 193. 
Barry, P. J.: Claims to be Valid Must be 

Proved**. 450. 
Base Lines as an Aid to The Engineer — Estab- 
lishing of Plant*: J. LeRoy Underhill. 490. 
Bateman, John H. ; Controlling Quality of Mate- 
rials in Highway Construction. 631. 
Bathurst, N.B. — Hydro-Electric Developments 

Near*: James Dick. 181. 
Batiscan River, Que. — 'New Highway Bridge 

Over*; Edward Holgate. 487. 
B.C. Engineers Work on African Project. 133. 
B.C Forest Products Bureau. 64S. 
Beacb Water Works Pumping Plant at Hamil- 
ton**; C. D. Thomas. 568. 
Beach Water Works Pumping Plant at Hamil- 
ton*; R. De Bruno-Austin. 462. 
Bean. L. H. ; January Index Numbers**. 313. 
Beardmore-Tosi Engine Test. 690. 
Beattie, Adamf. 138. 
Beatty. Harvey (Personal). 333. 
Bell. Fred C. (Personal). 370. 
Bell, Herbert D. ; The Maintenance of Clean 

Filtering Medium In Sewage Filters. 150. 
Bell. James A. (Personal). 481. 
Berg, Anton §. 198. 
Biggs, Hon. F. C. ; Good Roads System In 

Ontario. 327. 
Bilodeau, Ignace§. 370. 
Bischoff, W. H. (Personal). 616. 
Bituminous Foundations For Street and Road 

Pavements; Hugh W. Skldmore C.E. 247. 
Bituminous Gravel and Sand Roads — Preparing; 

W. D. Sohler. 206. 
Bituminous Macadam Roads — Local Mineral 

Aggregate In; Major W. A. Welch. 449. 
Bituminous Pavements — Plant Inspection to In- 
sure Good; Francis P. Smith. 591. 
Bituminous Spraying Company of Canada — The 

p. 16 
Bituminous Surfaces on Gravel Roads: Paul D. 

Sargent. * 606. 
Bituminous Treatments on Macadam Roads; 

Alan K. Hay. 385. 
Blanchard, Arthur H. ; The Railroad as an 

Operator of Highway Transport. 661. 
Board of Health — Valuable Work of the On- 

tarlot. 637. 
B.ard of Trade Building, Toronto — Alterations 

B'.n.l, Wm.§. 260. 

Bonds — Surety Companies' and Contractors'; W. 
H. Hall. 192. 
I Reviewed: 
Columns, by E. 11 Salmon. 669. 

i and Construction of Dams— The. by 

Edward Wegmann. 11 1 

Design "f Btsel Mill Buildings and the 

.r the Stresses In Framed 

Structures by MHo s. Ketchum. reviewed 

ft. Young. 330. 
Fire Prevention ami Fire Protection as ap- 
dlng Construction, by Joseph 

Lines, by Dr. W. F. 

Durand, reviewed by The*. H. Hogg. 636. 

Band Brumal ' ■ W L powers sod T. A. 

wsd by Douglas L. McLean. 

M ,„n: land Cement by Arthur 

,,.,,. reviewed by A. C. Taggc. 6(1. 

..] Tasting, by R. O. Batson and 

J II llyil". reviewed by Peter Gillespie. 

SM. .. .. 

.1 Land Surveying, by James Under- 
hill. reviewed by K. w. Banting. 1(9. 
Sanltallnn and 8ewago Disposal for Farm- 

■■« and Country F.stalcs, by William 
P. Oerhar<l. revl> wed by Hector 8. Phil- 
lips. 293. 



Sewage Purification, by S. H. Adams, re- 
viewed by Hector S. Phillips. 353. 
Sewerage and Sewage Disposal, by Leonard 
Metcalf and Harrison P. Eddy, reviewed 
by R. O. Wynne-Roberts. 293. 
Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, by Harold 
E. Babbit reviewed by Dr. George G. 
Xasmlth. 479. 
The Architects' and Builders' Hand Book. 
Data for Architects Structural Engineers, 
Contractors and Draughtsmen, by the 
late Frank E. Kidder, etc.. reviewed by 
C. R. Young. 330 
Charles S.§. 412. 
Borden, H. P. (Personal). 452, 638. 
Bostock Hon. Hewitt W. (Personal). 238. 
Bostock. Senator Hewitt W. (Personal). 158. 
Boswell. Maitland C. : School of Engineering 

Research, University of Toronto. . 609. 
Bott. Edward§. 616. 
Bottomley. Sampson J.§. 616. 
Boulanger Jos. L. (Personal). 615. 
Boundary Waters — Engineering Problems of. 

313. 
Bowlby, Lt.-Col. H. L. ; Economical Methods 

of Handling Materials. 657. 
Boyd, William B. (Personal). 634. 
Boyden. Lieut. -Col. H. C. (Personal). 4S1. 
Bracing of Buildings — Uncertainties Respecting 

Wind., 370. 
Bradfield, J. J. C. (Personal). 452. 
Bradford, Eng. — Water Suppy. 443. 
Bradley. N. H. (Personal). 695. 
Brampton. Ontario — Activated Sludge Plant 
at*; W, M. Treadgold. 459. 

H. Eltinge; Importance of Surface 
Finish on Roads. 478. 
Bralthanpt J. C. (Personal). 158. 
Brian. M. E. ; Intercepting Sewer in the Essex 

Border District*. 321. 
Bridge at Leaside — May Build. 173 
Bridge Cables — Life of Wiref. 157 
Bridge. Calgary — Hillhurst*; John F. Greene. 
499. 

Elora. Ont. — High Level Concrete*; A. 
W. Connor. 517. 
Bridge Opened Over Sixteen Mile Creek- New 

Road*; T. D. Mylrea. 203. 
Bridge Over Batiscan River. Que. — New High- 
way*; Edward Holgate. 487. 
Bridge Over Sydney Harbor. New. 498. 
Bridge Structures — Gunlte Encasement of 

Steelf. 660. 
Bridge — Substructure of Edmundston — Mada- 

waska*: Q. MoN. Stewes. 646. 
Bridge. Victoria, B.C. — Substructure. Johnson 

St •; F. W. Allwood. 577. 
Bridge— Weatherprooflng Hudson River. 518. 
Bridge, Winnipeg — Maryland Street Concrete 

Arch*; .1. F. Greene. 339. 
Brldgland. M. P.; Developments In Photogra- 

I in Surveying*. 369. 
Bridges — Aesthetic Standards fort 616. 

as and Culverts -Concrete; W. J. Moore. 

Bridges— Artistic Design of; Charles Evmn 

Fowler. 611. 
Bridges, at Hamiton Toronto Highway En- 
Allan. 397. 
Bridges at the 1'. rrot — Will Build. 584. 
Bri'iK.s v.tkus Tunnels*. :37. 
British Firm Celebrates Cent. nary. 593. 
British Firm Extends Hydro-Electric Dept. 517. 
British Research I* Ambitious. 426. 
British Town Planning Convention. 410. 
Brook.-. Thomas s 5. 356. 
Brown. Hubert (Personal). 171. 
Building Industries Association Elects Officers. 

172. 
Building Operations on the Increase*. 6S3. 
Buii.hng Record In Dsoensbsr. 181, 
Building Trade — Good Year Expected In 21S. 
Building Trades Exhibition In Montreal— Will 

Hois 
Bureau of Research — Manufacturers Would Aid. 

366. 
Bus Arrives — The Trolley*. S64. 
Bus Transport Extending— Motor*. S1J. 
• 'I. .ration Costs of Motor. 5S3. 
Business outlook Improves 410. 
Business. Training— Engineers Require. 114. 
By-Law — Pros and Oons Re Amendment to 
ring Institute. 333 



•Illustrated. ••Letter to the Editor, factorial. jAuthor of Book Review. {Obituary. 



July 25, 1922 



Index to 
THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



1*7 



uodtty Prices Approaching Normal Level*. Depot — Town Planners Hear Scheme for Ce 



Cables— Life of Wire Bridget- 157. 

Cadwell. M. D. ; Central Heating Plant at North 

Battleford. 103. 
Caisson Disease Becoming Less Deadly. 557. 
Calgary Conference on Alkali Problem. 586. 
Calgary Engineers Make Presentation to Sec- 
retary. 479. 
Calgary — Hillhurst Bridge*; John F. Greene. 

499. 
Campbell. John A. (Personal). 177. 
Canada — A Review of Hydro-Electric Progress 

in*. 241. 
Canada — Water Power Resources of; J. T. 

Johnston. 343. 
Canadian Companies Incorporated In 1921 — 

New. 185. 
Canadian Construction Industries Leading Prob- 
lems Now Facing; J. Clark Reilly. 214. 
Canadian Engineering Standards Association. 

567. 
Canadian Engineering Standards Association 

Justifying Itself!. 432. 
Canadian Engineering Standards Association- 
New Cement Specification. 428. 
Canadian Good Roads Convention at Victoria*. 

643. 
Canadian Railway Construction — Development 

of; H. K. Wicksteed. 104. 
Canadian Section A.W.W.A. Brantford Meeting. 

442. 
Canadian Section A.W.W.A. Meeting. 427. 
Canadian Section of American Water Works 

Association — Annual Meeting of. 501. 
Canadian Section of Waterworks Association to 

Meet in Brantford, May 12. 386. 
Canadian Steel — New Record Output of. 165 
Canadian Water-Powers. 549. 
Canal Advocated — Georgian Bay. 215. 
Canal — Engineers Explain Increase in Cost of. 

Jan. 10, p. 50. 
Canal — Large Contract for Welland. 554. 
Canal Progress — Welland. 531. 
Canals, Headworks and Surge Tanks — Design 

of Power. 582. 
Canals — Large Expenditures on. 524. 
Cannell. William§. 355. 
Cap De La Madeleine Water and Sewe 

terns*; Romeo Morrissette. 403. 
Garbonizlng Irish Peat — Tests on. 152. 
Cards — Call for Nomination. 423. 
Oarlyle. Arthur William (Personal). 509. 
Carmichael, Lieut. -Col. (Personal). 314. 
Carswell, J. B. (Personal). 197. 
Carswell, J. B. ; Characteristics of Rail-Carbon 

Steel. 281. 
Cast Iron Pipe — Causes of Failure In; F. A. 

Mclnnes. 563. 
Castings — Production of Steel Ingots and. 500. 
Cement Concrete Roads — Portland; James Al- 
len. 629. 
Cement-Gun — Masonry was Repaired by*. 255. 
Cement Specification, Canadian Engineering 

Standards Association — New. 428. 
Census — Highway Traffic; J. Gordon McKay. 

580. 
Centenary— Britsih Firm Celebrates. 593. 
Central Depot — Town Planners Hear Scheme 



Sys 



154. 



Central Heating Plant at North Battleford; 
M. D. Cadwell. 103. 

Central Mixing Plants — Haulage of Concrete 
Fromt- 609. 

Challies, J. B.*». 175. 

Chalmers, G. H. ; Construction of Kettle Creek 
Dam. St. Thomas*. 444. 

Channel — International Joint Commission Rec- 
ommends 30-ft. 155. 

Charleson. William G.§. 638. 

Chemical Spectrometer — Hilger. 613. 

Chilean Railways to be Electrified. 346. 

Chlorination Tastes and Odors!. 451. 

Christie, Prof. H. R. (Personal). 238. 

Christie. U. W. ; Highway Drainage and the Ap- 
plication of Drainage Acts. 309. 

Cities — Transportation and Developments of 
Modern; Paul Seurot. 130. 

City Plan for Montreal — Will Prepare a. 267. 

City Planning and Zoning to the Selection of 
Type of Pavement — The Relation of; Jeffer- 
son C. Grinnalds. 408. 

Claims to be Valid Must be Proved**; P. J. 
Barry. 450. 

Clark. Dr. K. A. ; Experiments In Improving 
and Maintaining Our Prairie Roads. 658. 

Clark. Frederick (Personal). 390. 

Clay and Sand Roads — Improving Earth; J. D. 
Robertson. 655. 

Clay Products Association Hold Annual Meeting. 



'_'::.' 



City— Effect 



of 



Cleaning Water Mains In Ka 

of*; Charles S. Foreman. 101. 
Cleaton, R. E. (Personal). 412 
Coal — A Substitute for Steam; J. E. Mlddleton 

Jan. 10, p. 50. 
Coal for Heating Purposes — Utlllzatl 

White; A. Langlois. 121. 
Coal Mining — Submarine. 406. 
Coatings — Present Day Tars for Pipe; Willianr 

R. Conard. 560. 
Column Footing — Improved Steel*. 322. 
Commercial Engineering— Conference on. 431. 
Committees in Charge of Construction Confer 

ence Work. 194. 



Companies Incorporated In 1921 — -New Cana- 
dian. 185. 
Conant. Gordon D. (Personal). 158. 
Conard. William R. ; Present Day Tars for Pipe 



of Oils Upon. 115. 

Bridge. Winnipeg — Maryland 



Ing Plants— Haulage 



Coatings. 560. 
Concrete — Actior 
Concrete Arch 

Street*; J. F. Greene 
Concrete From Central Mi 

off. 609. 
Concrete in Alkali Soils — Review c 

tion into Deterioration of. 209. 
Concrete Mixtures — Hydrated Lime 

erick B. Young. 369. 

Pipe for Building Storm and Sanitary 



avestlga- 
'•; Rod- 



Sewers — The Use of*; M. W. 

Concrete Proportioning — Modern. 531.' 
Concrete — Recent Developments in. 491 
Concrete Road Surfaces: L. A. Pardo. 383 
Concrete Roads^Portland Cement; James 



SS. 



629 
ete Spe 



-Modifications in 



forcedf. 411. 
Concrete— Testing Effect of Alkali on. 216 

Concrete Through Moisture Variation— Ei- 

pansion and Contraction off 274 
Concrete Work, Vol. 2, by William Kendrick 
by H. S. Van Scoyoc. 219. 
nllton — Construction Indus- 



Hall 
Conference 

tries. 159. *191. 
ngress on Good R 



371. 



ds — Canada Wants World. 
High Level Concrete Bridge, 



Connor. A. 

Eiora. Ont.* 517 
Conservation of Electric Energy!. 432 
Cost Keeping on Highway Constructs 



Work — Committees in 



Tosh. 440. 
Construction Conference 

Charge of. 194. 
Construction — Developmer 

way; H. K. Wicksteed. 
Construction Industries Conference in Hamilton. 



Canadi: 



Rail- 



159, 



►191. 



Construction Indust 

Facing Canadian; 

Construction Outlc 

_ Branch. E.I.C. ] 

ation in Ontario" — Discussion on 
"Prevention of Sewage. 601. 
ation in Ontario — Prevention of Sew- 
A. Dallyn. 522. 
Contract for Welland Canal — Large. 
Contraction of Concrete Through Mo 

ation — Expansion andf. 274. 
Construction — Road**; John A. Wilson. 388. 

Bonds — Surety Companies and; W. 



Pap 

Contai 
age 



Cont 



s — Leading Problems Nov 
. Clark Reilly. 214. 

Discussed at Toront. 



sture Vart- 



H. Hall. 

Control — Extension of Automatic Train!. 570. 

Control Provided for Lake of Woods. 115, 

Convention at Montreal — Engineering Insti- 
tute's. 186. 

Convention at Victoria — Canadian Good Roads*. 
643. 

Convention at Victoria — Good Roads 

Convention — The Good Roads!. 660. 

Co-operative Road Improvement ai 
Policies; Thos. H. MacDonald. 603. 

Corkill, E. T. (Personal). 616. 

Cost Distribution for the St. Lawrence Water- 
way!. 314. 

Cost of Canal — Engineers Explain Increase in 



634. 
Future 



Cost 



10. p. 50. 



Equipment Should Represent Actual 
Cost — Capital. 246. 

Costs — Importance of Knowing. 296. 

Costs — Queenston-Chippawa Power Develop- 
ment!. 274. 

Costs of Motor Buses — Operation!. 633. 

County Road Superintendents Held Eighth An- 
nual Conference — Ontario's. 308. 

Couplings — Standardization of Hose; Norman 
R. Wilson. 502. 

Cowie. Frederick W. (Personal). 275. 

Cox, Robert W.§. 616. 

Coyne, E. F. A. (Personal). 371. 

Craig. L. C. ; Pumping Plants for Land Drain- 
age. 525. 

Cramp Co 



Cutting of Metals — Underwater!. 



Dale, William P. (Personal). 238. 
Dallyn, F. A.; Prevention of Sewage Contam- 
ination in Ontario. 522. 
Daly. Wllliam{. 333. 
Dam. St. Thomas — Construction of Kettle 

Creek*; W. C. Miller and G. H. Chalmers. 444. 
Daoust. E. (Personal). 238. 
Date for Good Roads Meet — Change of. 443 
Dawson, A. S. ; The Importance of Irrigation 

Work. 134. 
Dean, Peter Payne; Electrical Operation of 

Gate .Valves. 448. 
de Carteret, S. L. ; Scope of the Engineer In 

Forest Industries. 245. 
Department, its Financing Organization and 

Operation — A Maintenance; W. A. Van Duzer. 

166. 



Deterioration of Concrete In Alkali Soils Re- 
view of Investigation Into. 209. 

Determination by Paper Models— Stress!. 

Determination by Polarized Light — Stress! 197 

Detroit City— Water Waste Survey and Meter- 
ing In*; George H. Fenkell. 261. 

Development of Modem Cities— Transportation 
and: Paul Seurot. 130. 

Diagonal Traffic Artery at Ottawa*. 613 

Dick. James: Hydro-Electric Developments 
near Bathurst. N.B.*. 181. 

Diesel Engine Equipped Shovel. 442 

Dill. c. W. (Personal). 570. 

Dilution in the Treatment of Sewage; Peter 
Olllespfe. 2o4. 

Dimsdale. H. G. (Personal). 570 

Disinfection of Public Water Supplies and Its 
nin , l ° " C Heatn — Th «: C. A. Jei- 

Di Th S eat r r7! LeS 2 5 n 9 8 FT °"' "" Knlckerb °<*er 
Discussion on Papers "Prevention of Sewage 

Contamination in Ontario." 601 
Disease Becoming Less Deadly— Caisson 557 
Districts— Organization of Metropolitan!. 295 
Districts— The Organization of Metropolitan- 

Langdon Pearse. 227. 
Diversion at Niagara Falls— Would Increase 

Dobbin. Ross L. (Personal). 616. 

Doerr, Bert (Personal). 197. 

Dominion Engineering Works— Important Order 

for. 113. 
Dominion Land Surveyors — Annual Convention 

of Association of. 233. 
Doucet, A. E. (Personal). 219. 
Dowsley. D. F. (Personal). 432. 
Drainage and the Application of Drainage Acts 

— Highway; U. W. Christie. 309 
Drainage Methods for Prairie Roads- H R 

Mackenzie. 653. 
Drainage — Pumping Plants for Land; L C 

Craig. 525. 
Dredger — Electrical Operation of Suction. 226 
Dryland. Alfred (Personal). 197. 
Dryland. Alfred**. 156. 
Dutort, Hermegllde§. 571. 
Duncan. G. H. (Personal). 23S. 
Dunlap. John H. ; The Operation of Sewage 

Treatment Plants. 170. 
Durley. R. J.; Engineering Standardization. 124. 

E 

Earth, Clay and Sand Roads — Improving- J D 
Robertson. 655. 

Eastern Canada— Tidal Research Work In 5"7 

Economical Methods of Handling Mater a'* 
Lt.-Col. H. L. Bowlby. 657. 

Economics of Bridgework. by J. A. L. Waddei;. 
reviewed by H. M. MacKay. 610. 

Ed. Gilbert T. (Personal). 433. 

Eddy. Harrison P.; Hydrogen — Ion Concentra- 
tion in Water Purification. 122. 

Eddy. Harrison P. (Personal). 355. 

Edmundston — Madawaska Bridge — Substruc- 
ture*; G. McN. Steeves. 545. 

Education for the Industries — Professional 
Engineering; Chas. F. Scott. Jan. 3. p. 44. 

Edwards. George$. 219. 

E.I.C. — Annual Meeting of the Toronto Branch. 
351. 

E.I.C. Committee on Policy!. 389. 

E.I.C. — Construction Outlook Discussed at To- 
ronto Branch. 174. 

E.I.C. — Incinerators Discussed Before the To- 



mo Br 



HE 



E.I.C. — Rail -Carbon Steel Discussed at Toronto 
Branch. 273. 

Electric Energy — Conservation of!. 432 

Electric Power — New Developments in. 211. 

Eectrical Machinery — Rating and Testing. 659. 

Electrcai Operation of Gate Valves: Peter 
Payne Dean. 448. 

Electrification Discussed at Ottawa — Railway!. 
451. 

Electrified — Chilean Railways to be. 346. 

Electrolysis Troubles In Underground Water 
Pipe — Prevention of; E. B Stewart 60S 

Ellis. C. Howards. 219. 

Eiora. Ont. — High Level Concrete Bridge* ; A. 
W. Connor. 517. 

Empey. J. M. ; Report of Committee on Engi- 
neering. Roads and Pavements. 312. 

Encasement of Steel Bridge Structures — Oun- 
Itef. 660. 

Energy — Conservation of Electric!. 432 

Energy — Future Sources off. 176. 

Engine Equipped Shovel — Diesel. 442. 

Engine Test — Beardmore-Tosl. 590. 

Engineer as a Manager — The!. 137. 

Engineer In Forest Industries — Scope of the; 
S. L. de Carteret. 245 

Engineer In Public Life — Thef. 615. 

Engineering Activities In Canada — Dean Mit- 
chell DiSCUSSMS. Mar. 7. p. 64. 

Engineering — Conference on Commercial. Ml. 

Engineering Education for the Industrl« 



-Pro- 



il; Cha 



F. Sc 



3. p. 44. 



Engineering In Industrial Life. 439. 
Engineering Institute By-Law — Pros and Coos 
Re Amendment to. 333. 



•Illustrated. ••Letter to the Editor. tEditorlal. {Author of Book Review. SOWtuary. 






Index to 
THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



July 27, 1922 



Engineering Institute Elections 213, 499, 559. 
tig Institute of Canada — Address on 
Good Roads Before Ottawa Branch. 286. 
Engineering Institute of Canada — Peterborough 
I3ran.li. 502. 

Ing Institute of Canada — Quebec 

'•■'• lb, 7. p. 50. 
r,s Institute to Hold General Meeting. 

Engineering Institute's Convention at Montreal. 

Engineering Problems of Boundary "Waters. 313. 

Profession Act. Province of On- 

• 

Engineering Profession Protected — Want. 116. 

Engineering Research, University of Toronto — 

il of: Maitland C. Boswell. 609. 
Engineering. Roads and Pavements — Report of 
Committee on; J M. Bmpey. 512 

A.A.A.S., Discusses Many 
Topics. 109. 
Engineering Standardization: R. J. Durley. 124. 
Engineering Standards. 114. 
Engineering Standards Association — Canadian. 

Engineering Standards Association Justifying 

Itself — Canadian.. 432. 
Engineering — The Law and. 351. 
Engineers Appoint Officers— Halifax. 210. 
Engineers Choose Officers — Vancouver. 103. 
Engineers Elect Oftcers — Hamilton. 613. 
Engineers Elect Officers— Ottawa 174 
Engineers Hold Meeting — Sakatchewan. o4. 
Engineers Make Presentation to Secretary — 

Engineers Meet Alberta Professional. 384. 

Engineers Meet in Atlanta— Mechanical. 4d0. 
Engineers Meet — Quebec. 561, 
Engineers — Precedent for Honoring, llo. 
Engineers — Professional. 388. " 

Engineers— Publicity for'*: Charles A. Mullen. 

r. Require Business Training 114. 

Engineers Tribute to Hydro— An 13S 

Entrance Bridges at Hamilton— Toronto High- 
way*: E Blake Allan. 397. 

Equipment as Affecting Power House Design- 
Hydraulic; Max V. Sauer 

Equipment— Interesting Display of Waterworks. 

Equipment— Limitation to Weight of Railway*. 
oat Should Represent Actual Cost— Capi- 
tal Cost of. 246. 

I -.order District Intercepting Sewer in 

• m B. Brian. 321 

Estimator A Service to the". _;>J. 

Evolution of Transportation; C. R. Toung. 380. 

Ewing. James (Personal). 695. 

Ewing. James; The Montreal Situation With 

Reference to Town Planning. 323. 
Exhibition in Montreal-Will Hold Building 

Ex^Tnsl'on and Contraction of Concrete Through 
Moisture Variation!. 274. 

i.ture on Manitoba Roads. 442. 
Fx p" menl. m Improving and Maintaining our 
Pre rie Roads; Dr. K. A. Clark. 608. 

ration Surveys-Report of Committee on 
• graphical and; J W. Pierce. 26b. 
Explosives— Negligence In Lse of. Feb. 14. p. 
50 



Fare to Canadian Good Roads Convention— Re- 



Foreman, Charles S. : Effect of Cleaning Water 
Mains in Kansas City*. 101. 

Forest Industries — Scope of the Engineer In; 
S. l. de Carteret. 245. 

Products Bureau — B.C. 648. 

Port Rouge Contract — Canadian Firm Has. 387. 

Port William and District — Will Survey. 609. 

Fori William — Municipal League Meets at. 477. 

Portln, S. (Personal). 275, 296. 

tries Evan; Artistic Design of 
Bridges, 611. 

Foundations for Street and Road Pavements — 
Bituminous: Hugh w. Skidmore. C.E. 247. 
Walter J. (Personal). 481. 
■ C E. (Personal). 1»7. 

Fraser William §. 638. 

Freight Rates— Committee to Examine. 439. 

Freight Tonnage to Mileage on Canadian Rail- 
ways 101. 

French, Roger Del. (Persona! i 

French Tidal Power Scheme. 123. 

Frizzel. R. (Personal). 371. 

Fuel Hazard Stil Existst. 411. 

Fuller. C H. R. (Personal). 390. 

Fuller. Henry J. (Personal). 661. 

Future Sources of Energy*. 176. 
ler, H. P. (Personal). 638. 



.-.no 



Gaiden. Charles*. 610. 

Gardner, J. C. (Personal). 481. 

a Motive Power — Sewage*; John D. Wat- 
son. 127. 

Gasoline Revolving Shovel— New*. 149. 

Gate Valves — Electrical Operation of: Peter 
Payne Dean. 44*. 

Geological Formation Under McGIlI University. 

f.7 1 

Georgian Bay Canal Advocated. 21 

Gibson. W. E.§. 333. 

Gillespie, Petert. 353. 

Gillespie, Peter; Dilution in the Treatment of 

! S i 
Glover. T. S. — Some Methods of Fire Preven- 
tion. 564. 

Norman J. (Personal). 390, 616. 
Geodetic Survey — London. 638. 

il ck A. T.i The Structural Design of Pave- 

Etoada Association Makes Progress; T. 

.honey. 320. 

q i Roads Association Meet at Victoria. 489. 

Roads Association — Ontario. 308. 
Good Roads Association — Saskatchewan. 630. 
Good Roads Association to Meet at Victoria. 



,d Roads Convention— Low. May 

52. , .,„ 

■ tals— Guarding Against,. 117. 
lis Implications and Results*; A. 

•or Highways— Large. 136. 
Oram to Ontario. 638. 
■ F I. (Personal). , 

Waste SUTTSJ and 

..en 
p .personal). 260. 

Arthur J. 260. 
I W. H. (Personal) 
'Tiarles E.* 412. 

Falls, Ont— Pumping 

Hum in Sewage F.lters-^The Maln- 
,„", of Clean. Herbert D B.1I. 150 
- -Th« Maintenance of Clean Filtering 
D. Bell. 150. 
FlnYnVed?-How Bh ■! Highways 

i h. Richardson 347. 

Hon a Patriotic Duty. Hal 

Ion and Protection In Municipal!- 
, rank C. Jorda" 

,.„-Some Method, of. T. 9. Glover. 

i Large. * 08 - 

>'•'* '-x.*?2'a. „f liftlnr 

li of Lifting 

231 

•'V. , -• ■>■>■> 

.. 



111 



ciation Will Meet in Victoria. 



Good Road 

Jan. 31. p. 44. 

Good Roads Before Ottawa Branch Engineer- 
ing Institute of Canada — Address on. 286. 

Good Roads — Canada Wants World Congress. 

Good Roads Congress — Official Program for. 532. 

Q 1 Roads Congress — Program American. 114. 

ntlon at Victoria. 634. 
Good Roads Convention — Low Fares for. May 
30. p. 52. .„. 

Good Roads Convention— More Speakers at. »9». 
Good Roads Convention — Thet. 660. 
Gocd Roads Movement — Some Aspects of On- 
,'. \. Mi [«an. 350. 

i; | Roads System In Ontario: Hon. F. C. 

BiggS. 327. 

i; Iman. George A. (Personal). lo». 

Gore William; Treatment of Hard, Impure 

Water With Aluminium Sulphate. 519. 
Graduates In Railway Work— Technical*. 637. 
Graduation— McOHl Englneerini 

m Germain P. i Person ,ii 260 
and Sand Roads — Preparing Bituminous: 
w i> Bohler. 206. 

n„ I stone Road Maintenance; 



Plneo. 



101 



-Bltur 



us Surfaces on; Paul 



ivsl Road 
D. Sargent. 506. 
Oravsl Roads — Maintenance of; D. 

Wilson*. 370. 
,;,.,.., Winnipeg Suburban Problem of. 61.. 
ii lardlzed Speclllcatlons for 
Mim-ral 'Aggregates for Asphalt Pavements. 
Ill 

.l.lin F: Hlllhurst Bridge. Calgary*. 

I. P.j Maryland Str 
Bridge, Winnipeg*. J39. 

(Irinnal.ls. JsHsrsjon C ■ Jhe 
nlng and Boi 

408 

Bridge Structures*. 

. 
,; ,. - proti 



J. Kean. 






Relation of City 
the Selection of 



r« App 












. 





Hall. W. It : Surety Companies' and Contractors' 
Bonds. 192. 

Ed. (Personal). 412. 
Hamilton — Beach Water Works Pumping Plant 

at**; C. O. Thomas. 668. 
Hamilton — Beach Water Works Pumping Plant 

at*: R. de Bruno-Austin. 462. 
Hamilton — Construction Industries Conference 

in. 159. »lll. 
Hamilton Engineers Hear Address on Standard- 

288. 
Hamilton — Toronto Highway Entrance Bridges 

at*: E. Blake Allen. 397. 
Harding Endorses St. Lawrence Scheme. 194. 
Harire. T. W. (Personal). 200. 315. 
Haulage of Concrete From Central Mixing 

Plantst. 509. 
Hay, Alan K. : Bituminous Treatments on Mac- 
adam Roads. 385. 

■i C. R. (Personal). 333. 
Hamilton Engineers Elect Officers. 613. 
Handling Materials — Economical Methods of: 

Lt.-COl. H. L. Bowlby. 657. 
Headworks and Surge Tanks — Design of Power 

la 582. 
Health — Valuable Work of the Ontario Board 

037. 
Heating Plant at North Battleford — Central; 

M. I> Cadwell. 103. 
Helme, J. B. (Personal). 452. 
Henry. Gabriel (Personal). 481, 615. 
Hersey, Dr. Milton (Personal). 238. 
High Falls, Que. — Power Development at*; A. 

Langlois. 319. 
Highway Accounting; G. F. Pineo. 407. 
Highway and Transportaton Problems; Hon. S. 

J Latta. 651. 
Highway Bridge Over Batiscan River, Que. — 

New*: Edward Holgate. 487. 
Highway Commission — RaifVay Department 

Formed by Wisconsin. 352. 
Highway Conference — University of Michigan. 

234. 
Highway Construction — Controlling Quality of 

Materials in; John H. Bateman. 631. 
Highway Construction — Cost Keeping on: A. R. 

Losh. 440. 
Highway Development in Ontario. 154. 
Highway Development — Present Trend of; Pre- 

vost Hubbard. 635. 
Highway Drainage and the Application of 

drainage Acts; U. W. Christie. 30». 
Highway Entrance Bridges, at Hamilton*; E. 

Blake Allan. 397. 
Highway — Expenditure on Lincoln. 679. 
Highway Problems — Practical Issues of. 491. 
Highway Program — Ontario. 495. 
ray Projected — Peace. 607. 
Highway Traffic — Analysis of Present*; John 

II Mullen. 655. 
Highway Traffic Association Meeting — National. 
Highway Traffic Association — National. 386. 
Highway Traffic Census; J. Gordon McKay. 

580. 
Highway Transport — Railways andt. 637. 
Highway Transport — The Railroad as an Oper- 
ator of: Arthur H. Blanchard. 561. 
Highways Act for Alberta — New. 
Highways be Financed? — How Should Provin- 
cial: F. H. Richardson. 347. 
Highways — Effect of Speed on; W. G. Robert- 
son. 307. 
Highways — Large Federal Loan for. 135. 
Highways — Ontario Provincial: George Hogarth. 

Highways Outside Municipalities — Traffic Capa- 

- ml Widths of. 558. 
Highways — -Report of Saskatchewan. 310. 
Highways— 8afety and Beauty In the Layout 

and Design of; A. R- Hirst. 583. 
Hllger Chemical Spectrometer. 613. 

Lrthur B. B.J. 177. 
Hlllhurst Bridge. Calgary*: John F. Greene. 
Ill, 

introller W. W. (Personal). 197. 
-. u,., ,o p .p. taonal). 433. 
Hirst. A. R.; Safety and Beauty In the Layout 

and Design of Highways. 58S. 

Hogarth, George (Personal). Ill, 4-1 
Hogarth, Oeonge; Ontario Provincial Highways. 

Hogg. Thos. H.J. 630 

Holgal K .!■■- ghway Bridge Over 

111 
Honoring Bnginsers precedent for. 111. 
II...... Couplings siandardlxallon of; Norman 

I; u ils.o, 602. _ 

Howard. Norman J ; Statistical Record of To- 

" ,6! * . ... u 

Hubbard, Prevosl, Present Trend of Highway 

l, nieiu. 636. 

Road Itulldlng in Ontario. 

Hudson River Bridge Wealherproofing. 61». 

Rlvsr Vehicular Tunnel 111, 
Humpback Reservoir Overt ■'•- «•»• 

,,.. ,„ Concrsta Mixtures* •: Roder- 
■ 
Hydratsd Urns In Paving Oonorsta -Advan- 
,.ii li Bhsrtasr, m 

i as Attctlng Power House 

Dsslgn Mas \ Ban 

rulatlon and Testing 



,r i.. 






•Illustrstsd. ••Letter to the Editor. .Editorial. 'Author of Book Review. 5 



July 27, 1922. 



Index to 

THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



-< : 






Hydro — An Engineers Tribute to. 13S. 
Hydro Congratulated by Distinguished Engi 



Hydro-Elect 

527. 



Dept. — British Firm Extends 



Hydro-Electric Developments Near Bathurst, 

N.B.*; James Dick. 181. 
Hydro-Electric Plant — Extension to Shawini- 

gan*; Julian C Smith. 299. 
Hydro-Electric Power Development — Some 

Economic Aspects of. 586. 
Hydro-Electric Power Situation at St. John. 

364. 
Hydro-Electric Progress in Canada — A Review 

of*. 241. 
Hydro Indebted to Scientists. 113. 
Hydro Plant Officially Opened — Queenston. 116. 



Hydr 

Hydr 
Hydr 

Hydr 
Hydr 



r— Halifa 
Power — Murray Report on. 430. 
Power Plant — Accident at. 429. 
Power Users — Economies. 571. 
Proposals for St. Lawrence Developn 
-Wooten-Bowden Scheme versus**; D. 
Mcbacnlan. 115. 
Hydro Radial By-laws Passed. 136. 
Hydro — To Investigate Ontario. 431. 
Hydro Transmission Lines — New. US. 
Hydrogen — Ion Concentration in Water Pi 
cation: Harrison P. Eddy. 122. 



He Perrot — Will Build Bridges at. 284. 
Incinerators Discussed Before the Toronto 

Branch. E.I.C. 215. 
InJenniteness in Speciflcationst. 594. 
Index Numbers — January**; L. H. Bean. 313. 
Industrial Life — Engineering in. 439. 

Industries Association Elects Officers — Building 

172. 
Industries Conference in Hamilton — Construc- 



159. 



•191. 



Industries— Leading Problems Now Facing Can- 
adian Construction; J. Clark Reilly. 214. 

Industries — Professional Engineering Education 
for the; Chas. F. Scott. Jan. 3. p. 44. 

Industries — Scope of the Engineer in Forest; 



S. L. de Car 
Ingots and Castings — Product 
Institute Branch Secretaries 
Institute Meet — Town Plannii 
Institute — National Research 
Inst 



of Steel. 



5 00. 



Build National Research 



4 2'; 



in the Essex Border Dis- 

i. 321. 

Commission Recommenda- 



lission Recommends 



Intercepting Sewei 

trict*; M. E. Br 
International Join 

tions. 173. 
International Join 

30-ft. Channel. 155. 
Irish Peat — Tests on Carbonizing. 152. 
Iron and Steel in Canada — Production of. 1 
Iron Output— Increase in Pig. 46S. 
Irrigation Structures Discussed. 320. 
Irrigation Work — The Importance of; A. 

Dawson. 134. 
Irvine. C. C. ; Smoky Falls Development 

the Sturgeon River*. 377. 
Irving Iron Works — Agents for. 346. 



Jackson. Milton C.f. 177. 

James. E. A.; Stone Roads Maintenance. 311. 

January Index Numbers**; L. H. Bean. 313. 

Jardine. H. (Personal). 616. 

Jennings. C. A.; The Disinfection of Public 
Water Supplies and its Relation to Public 
Health. 146. 

Jennings, Percy J. (Personal). 355. 

Johnson St. Bridge, Victoria, B.C. — Substruc- 
ture*; F. W. Allwood. 577. 

Johnston. J. T. ; Water Power Resources of 
Canada. 343. 

Joint Commission Recommendations Inter- 
national. 17'J. 

Jordan. Frank C. ; Fire Prevention and Protec- 
tion in Municipalities. 652. 



K 



Tho 



R.§. 158. 



Kaelin. Frederick T. (Personal). 433. 
Kansas City— Effect of Cleaning Water Mains 

in*; Charles S. Foreman. 101. 
Kean. D. J.; Maintenance of Gravel Roads. 329. 
Keith. J. Clark; Water Supply in Its Relation 

to Sewage Disposal. 608. 
Keith. William (Personal). 177 
Kelley. Russell T. (Personal). 661. 
Kennedy. Hon. William C. (Personal). 1m, 238. 
Kerr. Merle (Personal). 333. 
Kettle Creek Dam. St. Thomas— Construction 

of*- W C. Miller and G. H. Chalmers. 444. 
King. Brig-Gen. W. M. B. (Personal). 412 
King. Hon. Dr. James H. (Personal). 452. 
Kirbs. Gordon (Personal). 638. 
Klingner. Captain Lewis \V.§. 433. 
Knickerbocker Theatre Disaster — Lessons 

Fromt. 259. 
Koivre. Alex. (Personal). 452. 
Krick. D. E. (Personal). 534. 



A.; 



La Belle 

Lafeur, Eugene D.§. 

Lake of the Woods Control Controversy Ground- 

lessf. 218. 
Lake of the Woods — Control Provided for. 115. 
Land Drainage — Pumping Plants for; L. C. 
Craig. 525. 

S (Personal). 118. 
Power Development at High 
319. 
Utilization of White Coal for 
g Purposes. 121. 
Eugene (Personal). 432. 
L. (Personal). 509. 
J.; Highway and Transportation 
Problems. 651. 
Laurendeau. Camille (Personal). 259. 
Law and Engineering— The. 351. 
Layout and Design of Highways — Safety and 

Beauty in the; A. R. Hirst. 583. 
Lea. R. S. and W. S. (Personal). 275. 
Leaside — May Build Bridge at. 173. 
Leclaire, Paul (Personal). 280. 
Lee. G. W. ; Libraries for Research Workers**. 



Lande 
Langlois. 

Falls, Qu 
Langloii 

Heati: 
Lapoint 
Latornell 



355. 



314. 



Legislation in Ontario — Professional! 
Legislation in Quebec — Good. 495. 
Legislation Needed in Ontariof. H«, 
Leonard, Col. R. W. (Personal). 238. 
Lessons From the Knickerbocker Theatre Dis- 



Libraries for Research Workers* 



355. 



Research Workers* 



G. W. Lee. 



Herbert 



Libraries fo 

C. Powell. 481. 

Life — The Engineer in Publicy. 615. 

Lifting Sewage — Comparative Methods of; F. 
G Floyd. F.C.S. 231. 

Light — Stress D termination by Polarizedf. 197. 

Lime in Concrete Mixtures — Hydrated**; Rod- 
erick B. Young. 369. 

Lime in Paving Concrete — Advantages of Hy- 
drated; Tyrrell 'B. Shertzer. 111. 

Limitations to Weight of Railway Equipment-)-. 
660. 

Lincoln Highway — Expenditures on. 579. 

Lines as an Aid to the Engineer — Establishing 
of Plant Base*; J. LeRoy Underhill. 490. 

Lines — Mechanical Stresses in Transmission*; 
E. Maerker. 417. 

Loan for Highways — Large Federal. 135. 

Local Materials — Advocates Use of. 388. 

London Bridge Works New Plant. 489. 

London Geodetic Survey. 638. 

London, Ont. — Topographical Survey of*; Doug- 
las H. Nelles. 550. 

Long Branch Water Works — Report on. 112. 



Highway Con- 



Losh. A. R. ; Cost Keepii 

struction. 440. 
Lovelace, E. S. M. (Personal). 595. 
Loveland. Chas. P.: Solving the Problem of St. 

Lawrence Navigation. 189. 
Loving. M. W.; The Use of Concrete Pipe for 

Building Storm and Sanitary Sewers*. 2S5. 
Lucey, Eugene T.§. 412. 
Lumber Prices Are Increasing. 217. 
Lunderville, E. A. (Personal). 177. 



Mc 

McCallum, J. R.|. 315. 

McCarthy. G. A. (Personal). 534. 

McConnell, Ira W. (Personal). 570. 

McDonald. N. G. (Personal). 390. 

McDonnell, R. E. (Personal). 432. 

McDougald, W. L. (Personal). 158. 

McGill Engineering Graduation. 521. 

McGill University — Geological Formation Un- 
der. 571. 

Mclnnes. F. A.; Causes of Failure in Cast Iron 
Pipe. 563. 

McKay. E. B.§. 315. 

McKay, J. Gordon; Highway Traffic Census. 
680. 

McKay, K. W. ; Assessment for Benefit. 349. 

McKay. J. J. (Personal). 259. 

McKr.ight. Major Robert (Personal). 238. 

McLachan. D. W. ; St. Lawrence Waterway**. 

Md.achlan, D. W. ; Wooten-Bowden Scheme 
versus Hydro Proposals for St. Lawrence De- 
velopment**. 116. 

McLaren. James F. (Personal). 432. 

McLean, Douglas L.J. 410. 

McLean, W. A.: Some Aspects of Ontario Good 
Roads Movement. 350. 

McLellan. Prof. J. A. (Personal). 113. 

McMillan. Thomas (Personal). 661. 

McMurrlch, Prof. J. P. (Personal). 138. 



M 

MacDonald, Thus. II.: Co-Operative Road Im- 
provement and Future Policies. 603. 
MacDonneH, Col. A. (Personal' 
MacDoUgall, >'.'"rge Dewar (Personal). 412. 615. 



MacFarland. John F.{j. 370. 

MacKay. H M t- 510. 

Mackenzie. II R, ; Drainage Methods for Prairie 

Roads. 663. 
Macadam Roads — Bituminous Treatments on; 

Alan K. Hay. 386. 
Macadam Roads — Local Mineral Aggregate In 

Bituminous: Major W. A. Welch. 449. 
Machinery— Power House. 

Machinery — Rating and Testing Electrical. 659. 
Machinery — Regulation and Testing of Large 

Modern Hydraulic. 447. 
Mackenzie, Major Harold J.*. 481. 
Madawaska Bridge — Substructure of Edmund- 

ston*; G. MeN. Steeves. 5 15 
Maerker, E. ; Mechanical Stresses in Transmis- 
sion Lines*. 417. 
Mahoney. T. J.; Good Roads Association Makes 

Progress. 326. 
Mailhiot. Adhemar; The Sub-Soil of Montreal. 

493. 
Mains in Kansas City — Effect of Cleaning 

Water*: Charles S. Foreman. 101. 
Maintenance Department, Its Financing. Organ- 

ization and Operation — A; W. A. Van Duzer. 

166. 

Maintenance — Stone Roads; E. A. James. 311. 

Manager — The Engineer as at. 137. 

Manitoba Association of Architects Annual 

Meeting. 198. 
Manitoba Roads — Expenditure on. 442. 
Manitoba University — Mining Short Course at. 

294. 
Manson. A. B. (Personal). Sl« 
Manufacturers Would Aid Bureau of Research. 

355. 
Marsh. Henry H.§ 219. 

Maryland Street Concrete Arch Bridge. Winni- 
peg*; J. F. Greene. 339. 
Masonry Was Repaired by Cement-Gun*. 255. 
Materials — Advocates Use of Local. 388. 
Materials — Architects and Foreign**; W. E. 

Ramsay. 313. 
Materials — Economical Methods of Handling: 

Lt.-Col. H. L. Bowlby. 657 
Materials in Highway Construction — Controlling 

Quality of; John H. Bateman. 631. 
.Maxwell, Andrew§. 260. 

Mechanical Engineers Meet in Atlanta. 450. 
Mechanical Stresses in Transmission Lines*: 

E. Maerker. 417. 
Medium in Sewage Filters — The Maintenance 

of Clean Filtering; Herbert D. Bell. 150. 
Mercer. Walter F.§. 661. 

Metals — Guarding Against Fatigue inf. 117 
Metals — Underwater Cutting ofT. f,70. 
Metering in Detroit City — Water Waste Survey 

and*; George H. Fenkell. 261. 
Metric Association Meet in Toronto — American. 

113. 
Metropolitan Districts — Organzationt. 295. 
Metropqlltan Districts — The Organization of; 

Langdon Pearse. 227. 
Michaud, Benjamin (Personal). 355. 
Middlesex County — Roads in. 401. 
Middleton. J. E. : A. Substitute for Steam Coal. 

Jan. 10. p. 50. 
Mikel. Martin (Personal). 370. 
Mileage of Good Roads Built in Quebec In 1921. 

169. 
Miller. W. C. ; Construction of Kettle Creek 

Dam. St. Thomas*. 444. 
Million— Volt Single Transformer*. 420. 
Mineral Aggregate in Bituminous Macadam 

Roads — Local; Major W. A. Welch. 449. 
Mineral Aggregates for Asphalt Pavements — 

Standardized Specifications for; Roy M. 

Green. 496. 
Mining Short Course at Manitoba University. 

294. 

Mitchell Discusses Engineering Activities In 
Canada — Dean. Mar. 7. p. 54. 

Mixing Plants — Haulage of Concrete from Cen- 
tral!. 509. 

Models — Stress Determination by Papert. 354. 

Modifications in Reinforcd Concrete Speciflca- 
tionst. 411. 

Modular Ratio Questioned Utility of" 

Modular Ratio Under Flret. 509. 

Montague. J. R. (Personal). 638. 

Montreal — Engineering Institute's Convention 
at. 186. 

Montreal — New Pumps for City of*. 417 

Montreal Planning Board. 630. 

Montreal Situation With Reference to Town 
Planning — The; James Ewing. 323. 

Montreal — The Sub-Soil of; Adhemar Mailhiot. 
493. 

Montreal — Town Planning Board for. 272 

Montreal Water Supply Increased. 379. 

Montreal— Will Prepare a City Plan for 267. 

Moody, Lewis F. ; Hydraulic Turbine** 

Moore, W. J.; Concrete Bridges and Culverts. 

Morrlruette, Romeo: Cap De La Madeleine 

Water and Sev-.r Systems*. 403. 
Motion Pictures — U.S. Government. 406. 
Motive Power for Steam Rallways^Specialf. 

615. 
Motive Power from Sewage. 25S. 
Motive Power— Sewage Qas as*; John D. Wat- 
son. 127. 
Motor Bus Transport Extendingt. 3J2. 
on Costs oft. 533. 
transport on the lureaset 370. 



to the Editor. tEdltorial. JAuthor of Book Review {Obituary. 



wo 



THE 



Index to 

CANADIAN 



ENGINEER 



July 2."., 1922 



rucks — Regulations Covering Speed. 
I 
Moulton. Prof. F. R. (Personal). 13S. 
Mu.r R. C. (Personal). 510. 
Mullen. Charles A.; Publicity for Engineers**. 

■ 
Mullen. John H. ; Analysis of Present Highway 

Traffic*. 556. 
Municipal Asphalt Plant at St. Catharines. 

■ \V. P Near 
Municipal League Meets at Fort William. 477. 
Municipalities — Sewage Disposal for Small. 421. 
Murray Report on Hydro Power. 430. 

ns Ltd.. Out of Liquidation. 379. 
Myhea. T. D. ; New Road Bridge Opened Over 
Sixteen Mile Creek*. 203. 



N 

Nasmith. Dr. George G.J. 479. 

National Dept. of Public Works — Engineers Ad- 

• 8*. 
National Highway Traffic Association Meeting. 

National Research Instituted 295. 

National Research Institute — Plan to Build. 
126 

Navigation and Power Investigation — St. Law- 
rence*. 139. 

Navigation — Solving the Prr/blem of St. Law- 
rence. It*. 

\V. P.; Municipal Asphalt Plant at St. 
Catharines. Ont.*. 279. 

Nelles. Douglas H. : Topographical Survey of 
London. Ont.*. 550. 

Kelson. J. B. (Personal). 638. 

Neptune Meter Co.. Limited. To Extend Toronto 
Plant. 17*. 

New Brunswick Engineers Elect Officers. 217. 

New Ontario — The Development of Townsites 
in; H. T. Routley. 270. 

New. Ryland H (Personal). 238. 

New York Commission Opposes St. Lawrence 
Project. 217. 

New York Stock Exchange Extension — Heavy 
Trusses Used In. 216. 

Niagara Falls — Would Increase Diversion at. 

Niagara to Montreal — Power Line from. 198. 

Nomination Cards — Call for. 423. 

Nominees — American Water Works Association. 

- p. 50. 
Norman. E§. 510. 
North Battieford — Central Heating Plant at: 

M D. CadwelL 103. 
Numbers — January Index**; L. H. Bean. 313. 





O'Brien. W. (Personal). 219. 

Odors — Chlorinatlon. Tastes and|. 451. 

Officers — Building Industries Association Elects. 

172. 
Officers— Hamilton Engineers Elect. 613. 
Officers — Town Planners Elect. 521. 
: Com r.l.j — Action of. 115. 
vnnual Meeting. 269. 
Ommany. O. C. (Personal). 260. 
Ontario Board of Health — Valuable Work of 

thet. 6S7. 
Ontario County Road Men Meet. 371. 
Ontario — Engineering Profession Act. Province 

of*. 

Ontario — Federal Road Grant to. 638. 
Ontario Good Roads Association. 308. 

rio Oood Roads Movement — Some Aspects 
..< . W. A Mi Lean. 360. 
Ontario — Oood Roads System In; Hon. F. C. 

327. 
Ontario — Highway Development In. 164. 

Highway Program 
Ontario Hydro— To Investigate. 431. 
Ontario — Legislation Needed Int. 176. 
Ontario Government Considering Radial Laws. 

Jan. 10 p II 
Ontario — Prevention of Sewage Contamination 

A I'allyn. 622. 
Ontario — Professional Legislation Int. 311 

,va; Oeorge Hogarth. 
616. 
Ontario— Road Building In. Prevost Hubbard. 

Ontario's County Road Superintendents ll-ld 
Eighth Annual Conference. 308. 

I'.usest. 638. 
. i.illes in 1922 1. 432. 
Organisation •" Hlstrict.it. 

B| Institute of Canada 
286. 
nal Trafri. Artery at*. 613. 

171. 
268. 
■ »on«l). J»6. 
ii II } 616. 



nation byt. 164. 
888. 

• in Design of. Fre.l E. Todd. 

Parrish. R a III. 



Parsons. J. F. (Personal). 433. 
ion. Roy (Personal). 670. 

Patriotic Duty — Fire Prevention a; Harold S. 
Wei. I. in. 606. 

Pavement Construction — Development In; Chas. 
M. Upham. 424. 

Pavement — The Relation of City Planning and 
Zoning to the Selection of Type of; Jefferson 
| Hrlnnalds. 408. 

Pavement Yardage — Increase In Asphalt. 461. 

Pavements for Streets — Factors Determining the 
Selection of; C. M. Pinckney. 153. 

Pavements — Plant Inspection to Insure Good 
Bituminous; Francis P. Smith. 591. 

Pavements — Reconstruction and Resurfacing of 
Old: J. Schmltt. 253. 

Pavements — Report of Committee on Engineer- 
ing. Roads and: J. M. Empey. 312. 

Pavements— The Structural Design of*; A. T. 
Goldbeck. 223. 

Peace Highway Projected. 607. 

Pearse. Langdon: The Organization of Metro- 
politan Districts. 227. 

Peat — Tests on Carbonizing Irish. 162. 

Pelton Co. — Cramp Co. Now Owns. 401. 

Perron. Hon. Joseph Leonide (Personal). 661. 

Peterborough Branch. Engineering Institute of 
602. 

Philadelphia Convention American Water Works 



itlon for the In 



itin 



468, 



Phillips. Hector S.$. 293, 353. 

Phillips, Herbert (Personal). 534. 

Phone Companies Plan Years Ahead. 216. 

Photographic Surveying — Developments in*; M. 

P. Bridgland. 359. 
Photography — Aerial**; P. J. Barry. 195. 
Pierce. J. W. ; Report of Committee on Topo- 

grapical and Exploration Surveys. 266. 
Piers — Tests on Concrete. 605. 
Piers to Reduce the Cost of Handling Freight — 

Rehabilitation of Old; Francis Lee Stuart. 



Pig Iron Output— Increase in. 468. 
Piles by Gunile — Protection of*. 559. 
Pinckney. C. M. ; Factors Determining the Se- 
lection of Pavements for Streets. 163. 
Pineo. F. : Gravel and Stone Road Maintenance. 

306. 

Q P.; Highway Accounting. 407. 
Pip. — Causes of Failure In Cast Iron; F. A. Mc- 

Innis. 563. 
Pipe Castings — Present Day Tars for; William 

R. Conard. 560. 
Pipe for Building Storm and Sanitary Sewers — 

The Use of Concrete*; II, W. Loving. 285. 
Plan for Montreal — Will Prepare a City. 267. 
Planners Elect Officers — Town. 521. 
Planning and Zoning to the Selection of Type 

of Pavement — The Relation of City; Jefferson 

C. Grlnnalds. 408. 
Planning Board— Montreal. 630. 
Planning Convention — British Town. 420. 
Plant Iiase Lines as an Aid to the Engineer — 

Establishing of*; J. LeRoy Underhill. 490. 
Plant Inspection to Insure Good Bituminous 

Pavements; Francis P. Smith. 691. 
Polarized Light — Stress Determination byt. 187. 
Policy— E.I. C. Committee ont. 389. 
Pooler. M. A. I Personal). 616. 
Population — Traffic Increase and Growth oft 

i 87. 



l\.v 



■II. 



w.. 



181, 



Powell. N. H. (Personal). 638. 

Power Allotted on Abltlbl River. 600. 

Powe r Canals. Headworks and Surge Tanks — 

Design of. 582. 
Power l> High Falls, Que.*; A. 

Langloli 
p..u.r Development Costs — Queenston-Chtp- 

274. 
power for Steam Railways — Special Motive*. 

616. 
Power from Sewage- Motive. 268. 
p..wer. i 'era i.i (Personal) 

llgn— Hydraulic Equipment as 

Air.-, tint , Mai \ Saner. 287. 
Power !!■ ' ' 689. 

stlgation — St. Lawrence Navigation 



ind« 



Line from Niagara to Montreal. 188. 
P..w.r Loss In Auto Tire« 
Power Miltr.iv Report on Indr.i 430. 

mi m Blectrtc. 811. 

Power Situation Along ths T. and NO. Ry. 458 
Power i Diss '" Hydro 671. 

Prairie Ron. is Drainage Methods for. H It 

Mackensle. 663. 
Pralrls Roadt Bxpsrlmsnti In Improving and 
Maintaining Our. It K a. Clark. 868. 

Honoring Bng r*. 116. 

Secretary — Calgary Engineers 
479. 

ing Normal I 
• 

i.iw .r.i m (Person . I 

1\ D.i Construction S.arboro Twp. 

u atsrworks System* 1 1 I 

Profession • of Ontario — Engineer- 

' 



Professional Engineering Edu 

dustries: Chas. F. Scott. Jan 3, p. 44. 
Professional Engineers. 388. 

Professional Engineers' Association Meets. 112. 
Professional Engineers Meet — Alberta. 384. 
Professional Legislation In Ontarlof. 314. 
Program for Good Roads Congress — Official. 

632. 
Program — Ontario Highway. 495. 
Programs — Early Preparation of Road Building; 

Frank Rutherford. 387. 
Proved — Claims to be Valid Must be**; P. J. 



Bai 



460. 



Provincial Highways be Financed? — How 

Should; F. H. Richardson. 347. 
Public Life — The Engineer Int. 615. 
Public Works — Engineers Advocate National 

Dept. . i 
Publicity for Engineers**; Charles A. Mullen. 

868. 
Pumping and Filter Plant at Sturgeon Falls, 



i mt 



689. 



Pumping — Experiments on Air-Lift. 256. 
Pumping Plant at Hamilton— Beach Water 

Works'* : C. O. Thomas. 568. 
Pumping Pant at Hamilton — Beach Water 

Works*; R. De Bruno-Austin. 462. 
Pumping Plants for Land Drainage: L. C. Craig. 

Pumps for City of Montreal — New*. 447. 



Quebec — Aid for Rural Water Systems in. 294. 
Roads Program for. 589. 

Quebec Branch Engineering Institute of Can- 
ada Feb. 7. p. 50. 

Quebec Engineers Meet. 551. 

Quebec — Good Roads Legislation In. 496. 

Quebec in 1921— Mileage of Good Roads Built 
In. 16* 

Quebec Road Policies. 659. 

Quebec Water Powers and the United States*. 
332. 

Queenston - Chippawa Power Development 

274. 
Queenston Hydro Plant Officially Opened. 116. 
Queenston Operating — Second Unit at. 831. 



It 



Radial By-laws Passed — Hydro. 186. 

Radial Laws — Ontario Government Considering. 

Jan. 10. p. 48. 
Radial Issue — Calls Conference on. Jan. 10. p. 

48. 
Rail-Carbon Steel — Characteristics of; J. B. 

Carswelt. 281. 
Rail-Carbon Steel Discussed at Toronto Branch. 

B n: 273. 
Railroad as an Operator of Highway Transport 

— The; Arthur H. Blanchard. 561. 
Railroad — Getting the Most Out of at- 117. 
Railroads — Rolling Stock Economies for. 890. 
Railway Construction — Development of Cana- 
dian; II K. Wicksteed. 104. 
Railway Department Formed by Wisconsin 

Highway Commission. 362. 
Railway Development During the Past Tear. 

Railway Electrification Discussed at Ottawat. 
151 

Equipment — Limitations to Weight oft. 
880 

Policy In the Makingr. 167. 
Rates — Topography andt- 874. 

1 1 Graduates Int. 637. 
and Highway Transports 
Ralways — Appropriations for National. 519. 

Freight Tonnage to Mileage on Can- 
Railways — Improved Showing for ths. 889. 
Railways In Canada — Suggests Two Groups of. 

I 14 

Railways — Special Motive Power for Steamt. 

tied— Chilean. 346. 
Ramsay, W E. ; Architects and Foreign Mate- 
rials". ;ii.; 

Ot|]l.t) of Modular*. 4*1. 
Ratio Under Fire — Modulart. 609. 
Ralolplug Co, Now Organised to Supply Cana- 
Market. 172. 

t-onal). 177. 
Ri lUgh, B. ■ (Personal). 61*. 
Recommsndatlons— International joint Oommla- 

■Ion 173. • 

Reconstruetlon and Re-Surfacing of Old Pave- 
iiniltt 263. 

Iflt aliens for. 664. 
m , • Old Plsrs to Reduce the Cost 
of Handling Freight; Francis Lee Stuart. (19. 
Raid Incinerator Co Reorganised. 379. 

Itellly. J i Of Problems Now Facing 

IB Industries 214. 
icIRcatlona 
ii l 
Report on Hydro Power — Murray. 410. 

•Uonalf. 195. 
Research Institute — Plan to Build National. 416. 
» Ambitious— nrltlsh. 426 

< Would Aid Bureau of 
366. 
Reaenr.il, 1'niverslty of Toronto — School of En- 
gineering. Maltland C. Boswoll. 609. 

Work in Eastern Canada — Tidal. 517. 



iFolltorlul J Author of Book Review {Obituary. 



July 25, 1922 



Imli X tu 

THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 






104 



Research Workers — Libraries for**; A. S. L. 

Barnes. 294. 
Research Workers — Libraries tor**: G. W. Lee. 

Research Workers — Libraries for": Herbert C. 

Powell. 481. 
Reservoir Overflow Completed — Humpback. 613. 
Resurfacing of Old Pavements — Reconstruction 

and; J. Schmitt. 253. 
Richardson. F. H. ; How Should Provincial 

Highways be Financed? 347. 
Richmond Hill, Ont.— Water Works System at*; 

G. H. Baker. 437. 
Rival St. Lawrence Waterway Projectsr. 196. 
Road Building in Ontario; Prevost Hubbard. 

289. 
Road Building in the U.S. 348. 
Road Building Programs— Early Preparation of: 

Frank Rutherford. 387. 
Road Construction — Conference on. 236. 
Road Construction": John A. Wilson. 388. 
Road Districts Mapped Out— Alberta. 500. 
Road Grant to Ontario — Federal. 638. 
Road Grants— Expect Demands for. ! 
Road Improvement and Fut 

Operative; Thos. H. MacDoi 
Road Maintenance — Gravel anc 

306. 
Road Materials— To Draft Speclficatior 

Types of. 194. 
Road Men Meet — Ontario County. 371 
Road Policies— Quebec. 659. 
Road Problems in Canada. 387. 
Road Superintendents Held Eighth Am 

ference — Ontario's County. 308. 
Road Surfaces — Concrete; L. A. Pardo 
Road Surface — Heavy Trucks Damage. 5 
Road Work Opening Up in Alberta. 505 
Roads and Pavements — Report of Commi 

Engineering; J. M. Empey. 
Roads Association Convention — Good. 35 
Roads Association Makes Progress — Good 

Mahoney. 326. 
Roads Association Meet at Victoria — Gooc 
Roads Association — Ontario Good. ; 
Roads Association — Saskatchewa 

630. 
Roads Association to Meet at *■ 

Roads Association Will Meet 



Policies — Co- 
603. 
■; F. Pineo. 



3 S3. 



Good. 208, 
ctoria — Good. 



31, p. 44. 



Surfaces 



Victoria. — Good, 
in Gravel; Paul 



Roads — Bitu 

D. Sargent. 506. 
Roads — Bituminous Treatments on Macadam; 

Alan K. Hay. 385. 
Roads Built in Quebec in 1921 — Mileage of 

Good. 169. 
Roads Congress — Official Program for Good. 

532. 
Roads Congress — Program American Good. 114. 
Roads Convention — American Good. 135. 
Roads Convention at Victoria — Canadian Good*. 

643. 
Roads Convention at Victoria — Good. 634. 
Roads Convention — Low Fares for Good. May 

30, p. 52. 
Roads Convention — More Speakers at Good. 595, 
Roads Convention — Reduced Fare to Canadian. 



.Mill. 



-The Good! 



for. 



nd 



of Surface Finish on; H. 



Roads Convi 

Roads Convention — Tra: 

Roads — Drainage Methods for Prairie 

Mackenzie. 653. 
Roads— Experiments in Improving 

taining Our Prairie; Dr. K. A. Clark 
Roads — Expenditure on Ma 
Roads— Improving Earth, 

Robertson. 655 
Roads — Important 

Eltinge Breed. 
Roads In Middles 
Roads Legislation 
Roads — Local Mil 

Macadam; Maj 
Roads — Maintenance 

Roads Maintenance — Stone; E. A. James. 311. 
Roads Meet — Change of Date for Good. 443. . 
Roads Movement — Some Aspects of Ontario 

Good; W. A. McLean. 350. 
Roads — Portland Cement Concrete; James Allen. 



rounty. 401. 
Quebec. 495 
1 Aggregate 
A..' Welch 
Gravel; 



W 



Bltumino 
449. 

J. Kean 



629 



Gravel and 



Roads — Preparing Bitumin 

Sand*; W. D. Sohier. 206. 
Roads Program for Quebec — Big. 589. 
Roads System in Ontario — Good; Hon. F. C. 

Biggs. 327. 
Roads — Work on York County. 590. 
Roberts. Albert (Personal). 158. 
Roberts, H. L. (Personal). 390. 
Robertson, J. D. : Improving Earth, Clay and 

Sand Roads. 655. 
Robertson. W. G. ; Effect of Speed on High- 
ways. 307. 
Rocchetti. T.**. 156. 

Rolling Stock Economics for Railroads. 390. 
Routley. H. T. ; The Development of Townsites 

in New Ontario. 270. 
Ruark, Milton J.; Problems in Sewer Design and 

Maintenance. 687. 
Rutherford. Frank; Early Preparation of Road 

Building Programs. 387. 
Ruttan, Brigadier-General H. N. (Personal). 118. 
Ryley, A. St. C. (Personal). 138. 



St. Catharines. Ont. — Municipal Asphalt Planl 
at*; W. P. Near. 279. 

St. John — Hydro-Electric Power Situation at. 
364. . 

St. Laurent. Arthur (Personal). 177. 275. 

St. Lawrence Development — Wooten-Bowden 
Scheme versus Hydro Proposals for**; D. W. 
M. I.achlan. 115. 

St. Lawrence Navigation and Power Investiga- 
tion*. 139. 

St. Lawrence Navigation — Solving the Problem 
of: Chas. P. Loveland. 189. 

St. Lawrence Project — Bill Introduced in Favor 
of. 251. 

St. Lawrence Project in Abeyance. 410. 

St. Lawrence Project — Xew York Commission 
Opposes. 217. 

St. Lawrence Project — West Favors. Jan. 3, p. 
46. 

St. Lawrence Scheme — President Harding En- 
dorses. 194. 

St. Lawrence Scheme — Uncertain Aspect of. 607. 

St. Lawrence Waterway — Cost Distribution for 
thef. 314. 

St. Lawrence Waterway**: D. W. McLachlan, 
331. 

St. Lawrence Waterway Projects — Rlvalf. 196. 

St. Lawrence Waterway — U. S. Senate Issues 
Report Approving of. 

St. Maurice River — Water Power on. 384. 

St. Thomas — Construction of Kettle Creek 
Dam*; W. C. Miller and G. H. Chalmers. 444. 

Sand Roads — Improving Earth, Clay and: J. D. 
Robertson. 655. 

Sand Roads — Preparing Bituminous Gravel 
and; W. D. Sohier. 206. 

Sanderson. W. K. (Personal). 177. 

Sanitary Quality of a Water Supply — Apprais- 
ing; George C. Whipple. Feb. 28, p. 52. 

Sargent, Paul D. ; Bituminous Surfaces on Gra- 
vel Roads. 506. 

Saskatch 

Saskatci 
630. 

Saskatchewan Highways — Report of. 310. 

Sauer. Max V. ; Hydraulic Equipment as Affect- 
ing Power House Design. 287. 

Scarboro Twp. Waterworks System — Construc- 
tion*; W. D. Proctor. 119. 

Schmitt. J.; Reconstruction and Resurfacing of 
Old Pavements. 253. 

School Building Program — Toronto. 174. 

School of Engineering Research, University of 
Toronto; Maitland C. Boswell. 609. 

Scientists — Hydro Indebted to. 113. 

Scott. Chas. F. ; Professional Engineering Edu- 
cation for the Industries. Jan. 3. p. 44. 

Sears. John (Personal). 333. 

Secretaries Meet — Institute Branch. 210. 

Selection of Pavements for Streets — Factors De- 
termining the; C. M. Pinckney. 153. 

Service to the Estimator — At. 259. 

Seurot. Paul; Transportation and Development 
of Modern Cities. 130. 

Sewage — Comparative Methods of Lifting; F. G. 
Floyd, F.C.S. 231. 

Sewage Contamination in Ontario" — Discussion 
on Paper "Prevention of. 601. 

Sewage Contamination in Ontario — Prevention 
of: F. A. Dallyn. 522. 

Sewage — Dilution in the Treatment of; Peter 
Gillespie. 254. 

Sewage Disposal for Small Municipalities. 421. 

Sewage Disposal — Water Supply in Its Relation 
to; J. Clark Keith. 608. 

Sewage Filters — The Maintenance of Clean Fil- 
tering Medium in; Herbert D. Bell. 160. 

Sewage Gas as Motive Power*; John D. Watson. 



127. 



Sewage— M.itiv. 
Sewage Treatn 

John H. Dun 
Sewer Design 

Milton J. Ru. 



iron 



Operation of; 



ent Plants — The 
lop. 170. 

ind Maintenance — Problems In: 
Lrk. 687. 

Sewer in the Essex Border District — Intercept- 
ing*; M. E. Brian. 321. 
Sewer Systems — Cap de la Madeleine Water 

and*; Romeo Morrissette. 403. 
Seymour, Horace L. (Personal). 118. 
Seymour, Horace L. ; Report of Committee on 

Town Planning. 312. 
Shanks. Gordon L. (Personal). 433. 
Shaw. John Henry§. 534. 
Shawinigan Hydr.. -Electric Plant — Extension 

to*; Julian C. Smith. 299. 
Shertzer. Tyrrell B. ; Advantages of Hydrated 

Lime in Paving Concrete. 111. 
Shovel — Diesel Engine Equipped. 442. 
Shovel — New Gasoline Revolving*. 149. 
Showier. John Edgar§. 177. 
Silcox, A. B. (Personal). 356. 
Sixteen Mile Creek — New Road Bridge Opened 

Over*; T. D. Mylhea. 20S. 
Skew Arches — Stresses Int. 533. 
Skidmore. Hugh W. ; Bituminous Foundations 

for Street and Road Pavements. 247. 
Slack. Robertj. 510. 
Sludge Plant at Brampton, Ontario — Aetlvat- 

• .!•; W, M Treadgold. 469. 
Smart, J. W. (Personal). 197. 
Smith. Francis P.; Plant Inspection to Insure 

Good Bituminous Pavements. 691. 



n the B 

602. 
153. 
inlclpal Supply — 



Smith. Hon. George Robertj. 296. 

Smith. Julian C. ; Extension to Shawinigan 
llyilr.i -Electric Plant* 

Smith. W. (Personal). 634. 

Smith. W. C. (Personal). 314. 

Smith, William H.j. ' 634. 

Smoky Falls Development 
River*: C. C. Irvine. 377. 

Snow Plow in Winnipeg — Ne 
II for Telegraph Posts. 

Softening as ■ Factor in I 
Water; Win. M. Barr. 402. 

W. !>.: Preparing Bituminous G 
and Sand Roads — 206. 

Speakers at Good Roads Convention. 695. 

Specification, Canadian Engineering Standards 
Association — New Cement. 428. 

Specifications for All Types of Road Materials 
To lirnft. 194. 

Specifications for Mineral Aggregates for 
Asphalt Pavements — Standardized; Roy M. 
Green. 496. 

Specifications for Refractories. 654. 

Specifications — Indcfinitcness Int. 694. 

Specifications — Modifications in Reinforced Con- 
cretet. 411. 

Spectrometer — Hilger Chemical. 613. 

Speed on Highways — Effect of; W. G. Robert- 
son. 307. 

Spooner. Henry J. (Personal). 60». 

Spraying Company of Canada — The Bituminous. 
Jan. 31. p. 46. 

Squire. S. L. (Personal). 219. 390. 

Standardization — Engineering; R. J. Durley. 124. 

Standardization — Hamilton Engineers Hear Ad- 
dress on. 288. 

Standardization of Hose Couplings; Norman R. 
Wilson. 502. 

Standardized Specificatio 
gregates for Asphalt 
Green. 496. 

Standards Association — Canadian Engineering 
Mi 7. 

Standards Association Justifying Itself — Cana- 
dian Engineeringt. 432. 

Standards — Engineering. 114. 

Standards for Bridges — Aesthetict. 615. 

Statistical Record of Toronto Water. 1912-22*; 
Norman J. Howard. 469. 

Steam Coal — A Substitute for; J. E. Mlddleton. 



Steanr 
615. 

Steel 



10. p. 50. 
Railways — Special Motive Power fort. 



Bridse Structures — Gunite Encasement 
oft- 660. 

Steel — Characteristics of Rail-Carbon: J. B. 
Carswell. 281. 

Steel Column Footing — Improved*. 322. 

Steel Discussed at Toronto Branch. E.I.C. — Rail- 
Carbon. 273. 

Steel for Building Work — Structural. 153. 

Steel in Canada — Production of Iron and. 185. 

Steel — Inspection of Structural. 610. 

Steel — New Record Output of Canadian. 165. 
i Hit. F. P. (Personal). 615. 

Steeves. C. McNaughton (Personal). IIS. 

Steeves. G. McN. : Substructure of Edmundston- 
Madawaska Bridge*. 545. 

Stenton. Rufus (Personal). 355. 

Stephenson, George (Personal). 333. 

Sterilization of Swimming-Pool Supplies*; J. 
Van Benschoten. 477. 

Stewart. E. B.; Prevention of Electrolysis Trou- 
bles in Underground Water Pipe. 503. 

Stewart. General J. (Personal). 259. 

Stirling. George P.§. 481. 

Stitt. Capt. W. J. (Personal). US. 

Stock Exchange Extension — Heavy Trusses Used 
in New York. 216. 

Stone Roads Maintenance; E. A. James. 311. 

Stone Road Maintenance — Gravel and; F. Pineo. 
306. 

Storrie. William (Personal). 333. 

Stress Determination by Paper Modelst. 354. 

Stress Determination by Polarized Lightt. 197. 

Stresses in Skew Archest. 533. 

Stresses in Transmission Lines — Mechanical*: 
E. Maerker. 417. 

Structural Steel for Building Work. 153. 

Structural Steel — Inspection of. 610. 

Stuart. Francis Lee; Rehabilitation of Old Piers 
to Reduce the Cost of Handling Freight. 629. 

Sturgeon Falls, Ont. — Pumping and Filter Plant 



:.r.>. 



Sturgeon River — Smoky Falls Development on 

the"; C. C. Irvine. 377. 
Submarine Coal Mining. 406. 
Sub-Soil of Montreal — The; Adhemar Mailhlot. 

493. 
Substructure, Johnson St. Bridge. Victoria. 

B.C.* F. W. AllWOOd. 677. 
Suburban Area-May Extend Toronto. 252. 
Suburban Problem of Greater Winnipeg. 612. 
Suction Dredger — Electrical Operation of. 226. 
Sullivan. John G. (Personal). 198, 
Sulphate — Treatment of Hard. Impure Water 

With Aluminium; \Villiam >;..re. 519. 
Surety Companies' and Contractors* Bonds; W. 

ii Hall. 192. 
Surface Finish on Roads— Importance of; H. 

Eltinge Breed. 478. 
Surface — Heavy Trucks Damage Road. 618. 
Surfaces — Concrete Road: L. A. Pardo. 183. 
Surfaces on Gravel Roads — Bituminous; Paul 

D. Sargent. (06. 



•Illustrated. ••Letter to the Editor. tEditorlal (Author of Book Re 









Index to 
THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



July 27, 1922 



Survey Port William and District— win. 609. 
Survey of London Om. — Topographical*; Doug- 

Surveying — Developments in Photographic*: M. 
P. Bridgland. 359. 

! Some Problems in. 491. 

Surveys — Rerort of Committee on T. 

cal an 
Sutherland. Dr. W. H. (Personal). 21». 
i. 481. 

r.09. 
Bweesey, Robert O. (Personal) irj 
Swimming-Pool Supplies — Sterilization of*; J. 

Van jT7. 

Sydney Harbor— New Bridge Over. 498. 



T. .v ' r Situation Along the. 452. 

661. 
- "f Power Canals. Headw-orks 
and 9 in 

Tars for Pipe Coatings — Present Dav; William 
R. Conard. 560. 

Tastes and Odors — Chlorjnationt- 451. 

Taylor. Thomas (Personal). 534. 

Teasda'.e. Charles M. (Personal). 510. 

Technical Graduates In Railway Workj. 637. 

Telegraph Posts— Sockets for. 153. 

Terreault. H. A. (Personal). 296. 509. 

Test — Beardmore-Tosi Engine. ;;"0 

Test of an Arch — Unexpected. 114. 

Testing of Large Modern Hydraulic Hachj 
447 

Tests on Concrete Piers. 605. 

Theatre Disaster — Lessons from the Knicker- 
bocker ■ 

Thomas. C. O. : Beach Water Works Pumping 
• Plant at Hamilton. 568. 

Thompson. J. W. (Personal). 412. 

Thomson. T. Kennard (Personal). 177 

Thomson. Robert W.g 177. 

Tidal Power Scheme — French. 123. 

Tidal Research Work in Eastern Canada. 527. 

Tires — Power Loss in Auto. 567. 

Tisdall. Aid. C. E. (Personal). 177. 

Todd, Fred. E. ; Character In Design of Parks. 

Tonnage to Mileage on Canadian Railways — 
Freight. 409. 

Topographical and Exploration Surveys — -Report 
■ mmittee on: J. W. Pierce. 266. 

Topographical Survey of London, Ont.*; Doug- 
las H. Mellee 

raphy and Railway Ratesf. 274. 

Toronto Branch. E.I.C. — Incinerators Discussed 
Before the. 215. 

Toronto Branch. E.I.C. — Rail-Carbon Steel Dis- 
cussed at. 273. 

Toronto Highway Entrance Bridges, at Hamil- 
ton*; E. Blake Allan. 397. 

Toronto School Building Program. 174. 

Suburban Area — May Extend. 252. 

Toronto Water, 1M2-22 — Statistical Record of*; 
■1 .r. id. ward. 469. 

Town Planner! Bled Officers. 521. 

Town Planners Hear Scheme for Central Depot. 
1:. I 

Town Planning Board for Montreal. 272. 

Town Planning Committee Formed. 593. 

Town Planning Convention— British. 420. 

Town Planning Course Starts at University. 154. 

Town Planning Institute Jl«l. 442. 

Town Planning — Interest shown in. 118. 

Town Planning Mistakes „f Toronto — Avoid. 156. 

Town Planning — Ontario Leads In. 155. 

Town Planning — Report of Committee on*; 
Horace U Seymour. 312. 

Town Planning — The Montreal Situation with 
Reference to; .lame, Ewing. 323. 

Townsltes In New Ontario — The Development 
of: 11 T. Routlsy. 270. 

Trade, Exhibition In Montreal— Will Hold 
Building 1(S. 

.1 Ottawa — Diagonal*. 613. 

Traffic Capacity and Widths of Highways Out- 
■ld< Muni palltles. 568. 

Traffic Increase and Growth of Population! 
1.17. 

Personal). 638. 

Trains for Roads Convention — 313. 

Transformer — Million- Volt Blncls*. II* 

Transmission Aerials — Efficiency of. 600. 

Transmission Lines— Mechanical Stresses In*; 
■ Maerkef 111 

Transmission Lines N. w Hydro. 112. 

Transport Emending Motor Bust. 332. 

Transport on 370. 

Transportation nod Development ol Modern 
■ 1 

Trans; lutlon of. C II. Veung. 380. 

Transportation Problems Highway and; Hon. 

Toronto Mr.,, eh. B.I.C Annual Meeting ol the. 

■ 

I- ,f IT. se„t Highway*; John 
II Mullen. 
Traffic A>So.|alion — Nail. .rial Illghwaj 
rralfll CeaSUS Highway. J, Gordon '! 

Train Control— -Extension .f Automatic*. 670. 

-Railways and Highway*. 137. 
Transport — The Railroad ss an Operator of 
Highway. Arthur H nianrhard. Sfl. 



W. M.: Activated Sludge Plant at 
Brampton, Ontario*. 459. 
Treatment of Hard. Impure Water With Alu- 

um Sulphate; William Gore. 519. 

[am Roads — Bituminous; 
Alan K. Hay. 385. • 

Tremblay, Altheod (Personal). 595. 
Troil.y Bus Arrives — Thet- 354. 
Trotter. Lt.-Col. H. L. (Personal). 510. 595. 
Trucks Damage Road Surface — Heavy. 518. 
Trucks — Regulations Covering Speed, etc., of 
Motor. 554. 

Trusses Dsed In New York Stock Exchange Ex- 

■ Heavy. 216. 
Tunnel — Hudson River Vehicular. 521. 
Tunnels — Bridges versus*. 237. 
Turbine Described — Large. 210. 
Turbines— Hydraulic*: Lewis F. Moody. 626. 
Turpln, Louis B.§. 15S. 
Twitchell. Frederick G.5. 481. 
Tye. Howard W. (Personal). 595. 



u 



Undefdrainagc — Winnipeg Aqueduct. 162. 
rjnderhlll, .1. LeRoy; Establishing of Plant Base 
as in Ail to the Engineer*. 490. 
- nng of Metals*. 570. 
Unit at Queenston Operating — Second. 333. 

ites — Quebec Water Powers and the*. 
332. 
University of Michigan Highwav Conference. 

234. 
University of Toronto — School of Engineering 

arch: Maitland C. Boswell. 609. 
Upham, Charles M.: Development in Pavement 

Construction. 424. 
Urban Areas— Creation oft. 594. 

I. (Personal). 219. 
O. S. Government Motion Pictures. 406. 
L". S. Senate Issues Report Approving of St. 

Lawrence Waterway. 257. 
Utilities Commission Water Works Project. 447. 



to be**; 



of Gate 



Peter 



Must be Proved — Clain 
Barry. 450. 

Valves — Electrical Operation 
Payne Dean. 448. 

Van B. us, -hot. -n. .T. ; Sterilization of Swimming- 
Pi.. .1 Supplies*. 477. 

Vancouver Engineers Choose Officers. 103. 

Van Duzer. W. A.: A Maintenance Department, 
..incing, Organization and Operation. 
166. 

Vanler, J. Emile (Personal). 197. 

Van Scoyoc, H. S.J. 219. 

Vaughan, Frank P. (Personal). 570. 

ilar Tunnel — Hudson River. 521. 

Victoria, B.C. — Substructure. Johnson St. 
Bridge*; P. W. Allwood. 577. 

Victoria — Canadian Good Roads Convention at*. 

'. ia 

Victoria — Good Roads Conventit 
Victoria — Good Roads Associate 
Victoria — Good Roads Associat 



at. 634. 
Meet at. 4 

to Meet 



Victoria — Good Roads Asso 
Jan. 31. p. 44. 



w 

Wa.l.l.ll, p M (Personal). 333. 

Walker. William (Personal). 177. 

Wallace A Tlernon Company — *=taff Changes of. 
KS. 

Ill • ting the Fir. r. 480. 

Watel nstlcal Record of Toronto*; 

Norman J Howard. 469. 

Wai.r and s.wer Systems — Cap de la Madc- 
• , Rome.. Morrlasstte. 403. 

Water District— Greater Winnipeg. 176. 

Water Mains in Kansas City — EfTcct of Clean- 
ing*; Charles B. Foreman 101. 

Water 1 Prevention of Electrolysis Troubles 

In Underground; B. b Stewart. 603. 

Water Power Development at University — Lec- 
tures on 24C 

Wai.r Power -Development In Canada and the 
United Stalest. S64. 

Wat.-r Power Development — Short Course In. 

River. 3S4. 
Water Power Resources of Canada; J. T. Johns- 
ton. 343. 

WatST Powers an. I 

Water Powers — Canadian 649. 
Water Purification Hydrogen ton C.n.-entra- 
Harrlson P Bddy 122. 
- Purifying Bqulpmsnl associated Manu- 

'- -( l?4 
Water Softening as a Factor In Municipal 8up- 
M Marr. 402. 
• s and its Relation to Public 

Health— The Disini n ..f Fubli, . I \ 

. 

Tanks — Design of PoWSI Canals. Head- 
works and. 682. 



Water Supply — Appraising Sanitary Quality of 
a ; Qeorge C Whlpp 

Water Supply — Bradford. Eng. 443. 

Wat.r Supply In Its Relation to Sewage Dis- 
posal; J. Clark Keith. 64)8. 

Supply Increased — Montreal. 379. 

Water Systems in Quel..-. —Aid for Rural. 294. 

Wat.r Waste Survey and Metering in Detroit 
City*; George H. Frenkell. 261. 

Water with Aluminium Sulphate — Treatment of 
Hard. Impure: William Core. 519. 

Waters — Engineering Problems of Boundary. 

Waterway — Cost Distribution for the St. Law- 
rencet. 314. 

Waterway Project— Government Has Not Con- 
sidered. 439. 

Waterway Projects— Rival St. Lawrence*. 196. 

Waterway — St. Lawrence**; D. W. McLachlan. 
331. 

Waterways Plan Given Approval. Jan. 10. p. 48. 

Waterworks Association to Meet in Brantford. 
May 12 — Canadian Section of. 386 

Wat-r Works Convention. 1923. 616. 

Waterworks Equipment — Interesting Display of. 
t :.'•.'. 

Water Works Progress*/. 480. 

Wat.r Works Project — Utilities Commission. 

447. 
Water Works Pumping Plant at Hamilton — 

Beach**; C. O. Thomas. 568. 
Water Works Pumping Plant at Hamilton— 

R. De Bruno-Austin. 462. 
Water Works — Report on Long Branch. 112. 
Water Works System at Richmond Hill. Ont.*; 

G. H. Baker. 437. 
Water Works System — Construction Scarboro 

Twp.«. W. D. Proctor. 119. 
Watson. George L. (Personal). 390. 
Watson. John D. ; Sewage Gas as Motive Power*. 

12? 
Weatherproofing Hudson River Bridge. 518. 
Weight of Railway Equipment — Limitations tot. 

660. 
W.-lsh. Major W. A.; Local Mineral Aggregate 

in Bituminous Macadam Roads. 449. 
Weldon. Harold S. ; Fire Prevention a Patriotic 

Duty. 606. 
Welland Canal — Large Contract for. 554. 
Welland Canal Progress. 531. 
Whipple, George C. ; Appraising Sanitary Qual- 
ity of a Water Supply. Feb. 28, p. 52. 
White Coal for Heating Purposes — Utilization 

of; a. Langlois. 121. 
Wicksteed, H. K.; Development of Canadian 

Railway Construction. 104. 
Wilson. John A.; Road Construction**. 388. 
Wilson (Jr.) John (Personal). 296. 
Wilson. Norman R. ; Standardization of Hose 

Couplings. 
Wind Bracing of Buildings — Uncertainties Re- 

spectingy. .170. 
Winnipeg Aqueduct Underdrainage. 452. 
Winnipeg — Maryland Street Concrete Arch 

Bridge*; J. F. Greene. 339. 
Winnipeg — Suburban Problem of Greater 
Winnipeg Water District — Greater. 175. 
w,r. Bridge Cables— Life oft- 157. 
Wisconsin Highway Commission— Rallwa 

partiii.-iit Formed by. 352. 
Withers C II i Personal). 433. 
Wolfe. Fred J. (Personal). 219. 
W. ...ten- Itow ,1.11 Seh.ine versus Hydro Pi 

ais for st. Lawrence Development •• ; D. w. 

McLachlan. 115. 
Workers — Libraries for Research**; O. W 

Workers — Libraries for Research* •; Herbert C. 

4M. 
World Congress on Good Roads — Canada Wants, 

271. 

Wright. .;. .. .' •• 175. 

Wynne-Roberts, L. W. (Personal). 333 

Wynn- Roberts. R. O.*.. 293. 



York County Roads' Work on. S9S. . 
Young Prof. C. R. (Personal). 168. 

330. 
Young, C It . Bvolutlon of Transportation. ISO. 

i. iderlck B . Hydrated Lime In Con- 

Mlxtures**. 369. 



Zoning of Buildings Under Town Planning. 290. 
/...lung to the Si 

il City Planning and; Jefferson 

c. Cnnnalds 



•Illustrated 



• (he Edlto 



•Editorial (Author of Book Review. (Obituary. 




S1II)M« 




A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Effect of Cleaning Water Mains in Kansas City 

Volume of Flow Restored to Capacity of NeHv Pipe — Saving in Coal 
Consumption Almost Paid for Cost of Cleaning — Does Not Damage 
Pipe — Method of Testing Mains Described — Cost of Operation 

BY CHARLES S. FOREMAN" 
First Asst. Engineer, Kansas City Water Dept. 



ITH'ATER works engineers and superintendents usually 
" know the necessity of cleaning certain water or feed- 
er mains in the system which they may be operating but 
before they are able to obtain authoriziation and appro- 
priations to cover such work, they are called upon to answer 
many questions which may be put to them by a Board of 
Commissioners. 

The author believes that the publication of his ex- 
perience in water main cleaning in Kansas City during the 
past three years will be of value to other water works sup- 
erintendents desirous of instituting similar work in the 
system under their jurisdiction, and that knowledge of the 
following essential facts, based upon his experiences, will 
help them to answer some of the questions which are usu- 
ally asked. 

1. That the cleaning can be so arranged that a main 
need not be out of service longer than 12 hours. 

2. That the cleaning process is not injurious to the 
main. 

3. That an increase in carrying capacity of from 60 
per cent to 85 per cent was obtained in large mains and that 
the carrying capacity of such mains was restored to that 
of new pipe. 

4. That the saving in coal costs alone, derived from 
cleaning will pay the entire costs of cleaning within from 
one to three years. 

5. That the laying of additional mains to obtain in- 
creased capacity can be postponed until the consumption 
demands are equal to the maximum capacity of the old 
main on the basis of new pipe. 

6. That when taking as credits, .such items as coal 



lines. 2 in. pipe was connected to each of these taps and 
Baltimore, a distance of approximately 6,000 ft., for deter- 
mining the interior condition and carrying capacity of this 
pipe: the pipe having been laid in 1886. The tests were 
made by making taps exactly 1,000 ft. apart upon a straight 
length of the main, there being no services or connections 
to the main between guaging points. At each of these 
points 1 inch corporation cocks were installed for inserting 
pitometers and additional corporation cocks for pressure 
1,000 ft. of this pipe laid along the surface of the ground 
bringing the two together so that a U tube could be con- 
nected in to measure the differential pressure between the 
two points. The 30 in. pipe was double traversed at each 
pit and the average traverse coefficient obtained. A pito- 
meter was then set at each pit for checking quantities flow- 
ing through the 30 in. main. 

The scale on the differential U tube was graduated in 
1/100 ft. divisions and by using a liquid of specific gravity 
of 2.00 in this tube, the readings obtained were in feet loss 
of head per thousand feet. The advantages inherent in this 
method are that it is not necessary to obtain the difference 
in elevation between the two points, and that it eliminates 
the use of spring gauges. Piezometers could not be used 
because of the high pressure, all of the lines being under 
pressure of 125 to 150 pounds per square inch. The pipe 
and connections for bringing the two pressures to the 
differential U tube should be water tight for accurate re- 
sults. However, we found no difficulty in making them up 
tight. We also found that with pipe of 1 \i> to 2 in. diam- 
eter a slight leak did not materially affect the results. The 
test extended over a 24 hour period so that both maximum 




MILLION GALLONS PER 24 HOURS 

CHART XO. 1 — RESULTS OBTAINED AFTER CLEANING 80-IN. MAIN 



saving and postponment of obligatory laying of new mains, 
the entire cost of cleaning is saved within from six months 
to one year. 

In Kansas City. Mo., for two or three years prior to the 
summer of 1918 there was always a lack of adequate pres- 
sure in the north and east portions of the city. This district 
is fed from the Turkey Creek pumping station through one 
20 in. and one 30 in. cast iron water main. The question 
of laying additional feeder mains into these districts was 
abandoned because of the exceedingly high prices of ma- 
terial and the lack of funds. Therefore the proposition of 
increasing the carrying capacities of the old mains by the 
cleaning process was resorted to in the fall of 1918. 

Tests of High Pressure Mains 

Tests were run on the 30 in. high pressure discharge 
line extending from Turkey Creek station to 17th and 



and minimum velocities in the pipe could be obtained. The 
result of this test is shown graphically on Chart No. 1. 

It will be noted that the average pipe coefficient as 
computed by Williams & Hazen formula was 69.69, this 
ibeing lower than that in the Williams & Hazen tables for 
pipe 40 years old. From these tests it was evident that the 
30 in. line was far below the carrying capacity of new cast 
iron pipe. A contract was awarded to the National Water 
Main Cleaning Co. for the cleaning of 6,000 ft. of this 30 
in. pipe. 

Pipe Coefficient Increased 

Similar tests were run after the pipe had been cleaned 
and the results thereof are shown on Chart No. 1. The 
average pipe coefficient was brought up to 116, and at low 
velocities as high as 120. The carrying capacity of this 
pipe having been restored to nearly that of new pipe. The 
cleaning of the 30 in. pipe gave such excellent results that 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



a contract was let to the same company tor the cleaning 
of additional teeder mains into the n 

city: there being 30, 24. 20 and 16 in. pipe lines in this dis- 
trict. 

re run on each of these pipe lines both 
before and after cleaning and the results thereof are 
shown on the accompanying charts. In all of these cases 
it will he noted that the pipe after being cleaned was re- 
stored to carrying capacity and corresponding loss of head 
as indicated in Williams ..V- Hazen tables under coefficient 
120. 

In making the test on the smaller, lines, we were un- 

jauging taps 1,000 ft. apart because of 

service connections and connections at street intersections. 



so that it is only necessary to have the main out of service 

tin- that length of time. The actual cutting and rep 
of the various mains was done by department forces while 
all of the other work such as excavating, backfilling, 
tag of machine, etc., was done by the contractor. 
Cost of Cleaning Mains 

The contractor's price for cleaning ranged from 26 
cents per not for 18 inch pipe to 4 5 cents per foot for 36 
inch pipe and the total cost, including all expenses for oper- 
ating valves, cutting and repairing pipe and for all neces- 
s.irv sleeves and material was $22,046.09 for 43.S37 lineal 
feet of pipe cleaned or 50.3 cents per lineal foot for all 
sizes. 




II 12 13 14 15 16 17 

MILLION GALLONS PER 24 HOURS 
CHART X(i. 2 — LICSLLTS OBTAINED AFTER CLEANING 36-IN. MAIN" 



They were placed a; 200 ft.. 250 ft. and 500 ft. apart, de- 
pending upon conditions encounte 

The liquid used in the differential 1' tube was a mix- 
ture of carbon tetra chloride and bromoform brought to the 
required specific gravity by the addition of gasoline. The 
specific gravity was varied in accordance with the variation 
in distances between taps on the line to be tested so that in 
each case the readings on the V tube were directly in feet 
loss of head per thousand t 

In the spring of 1919, similar tests were made on the 
36 in. flow line from the low ttlon at Quindaro to 

the Kas River tunnel, a distani i ft. it was found 

that the average pipe coefficii iputed by the wu. 

liams £ Hazen formula was 71..". and that by cleaning this 
line the coefficient was restored to 1 i 

Method of Cleaning Mains 

The methods used by the -National Water Main Clean- 
ing Co. for cleaning large mains leave for the Water De- 
partment no Intricate <><■ expensive co-operative work. The 
section o; pipe to be cleaned is valved off and a cut made at 
each end sufficient to admit entering and removing the 
cleaning machine. After cuts are made and the machine 
inserted, the pipe is then sleeved up and the joints poured, 



The total cost of cleaning the various sizes including 
pavement repairs and operation of valves, etc.. was as fol- 
lows: 

7.202 ft. of 16 in. pipe — $2,472.52 or 34.3 cents per lin. ft. 
• 7,280 ft. of 20 in. pipe — $3,056.80 or 41.9 cents per lin. ft. 

3,371 ft. of 24 in. pipe — $1,813.56 or 53.5 cents per lin. ft. 

8,984 ft. of 30 in. pipe — $5,640.93 or 62.3 cents per lin. ft. 
17,000 ft. of 36 in. pipe— $9,098.28 or .".:'...". cents per lin. ft. 
Referring again to Chart No. 1. the average flow through 
the 30 in. pipe from Turkey Creek Station to 17th and 
Baltimore before cleaning was 11.1 million gallons per day 
and the friction loss was 4.23 ft. per thousand feet. After 
being cleaned, with the same quantity of water passing 
through the pipe, there was a friction loss of 1.6 ft. pet- 
thousand feet or a net gain of 2.63 ft. per thousand feet 
amounting to 57.8 ft. for a total of 6,000 ft cleaned. This 
was also checked approximately with pr 
each end of the line and is equivalent to a saving of 1,460 
million foot pounds of work per 24 hours. Had this been 
a line through which we desired to deliver 11.1 million 
gallons of water per day at a certain head, there would have 
been an actual saving in coal of $6.67 per day or $2-,504.00 
per year, so that the saving in one year in coal alone almost 
equals the cost of cleaning. 




MC»N vtLOCITV FEET PCR JCCOND 

CHART NO. 3 SHOWS INCREASE IN CAPACITT! OF 24-IN MAIN AFTER CLEANING 



after which the ned on behnd the machine 

After tlo- in rap 

idly lb. nd i. coming out 

n to becleaned and brio 

all the dirt and em on) ahead of it 

ut of service 
depend nil h can be made 

in making thi pipe and sleeving them 

up as ' 'g of the machine from one end to 

the other of a section of pipe requires but very little time. 
Usually the cuts on large mains can be so arranged that 
tbey can be made and repaired In approximately 12 hours 



Increased Carrying Capadtj 

However, as we carry a constant pressure ol 160 pounds, 

the cleaning resulted either in increasing the pressure in 
the down town district 16.78 ft. with the same quantity of 
wafer passing through the line or with the same loss of head 

leaning, the quantity delivered through the line 

would be approximately 1 !<'._, million gallons per 2 1 hours. 
or an increase In carrying capacity of 8.4 million gallons per 
day. or nearly 80 per cent. 

To obtain the same increase In capacity as the cleaning 
of the 30 In. pipe resulted In, would mean the laying of an 
additional 24 In. feeder main. The estimated cost of such 



January 3, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



a line at that time was $SS.800.00 and the annual interest 
on this amount at 5 per cent is $4,440.00, making a total 
annual saving of $6,944.00, as agains a total cost for clean- 
ins of $3,720.50. In the case of high pressure distributing 
mains the cleaning of the 26,000 ft. of various sized pipe 
now enables the delivery to the northeast section of town of 
approximately 12 million gallons per day more than before 
cleaning without increased head at the pumping station. 
Therefore it will he readily seen that the laying of addi- 
tional feeder mains can be postponed for some time by 
keeling the present feeder mains up to their maximum 
carrying capacity. 

In the case of the 3 6 in. flow line, it was found on the 
test before cleaning that with a loss of 2.7 ft, per thousand 
feet the line was flowing 16 million gallons per 24 hours. 
This was practically the maximum amount of water that 
it was possible to put through this line with the limiting 
head of 50 ft. on the Quindara pumps. The test after 
cleaning indicated that with the same loss of head, the ca- 
pacity had been increased to approximately 26 million gal- 
lons or 75 per cent. In other words, this gave the depart- 
ment an increase in flow line capacity of approximately 10 
million gallons per day, which was greatly needed during 
the periods of maximum consumption in the summer of 
1919. Under normal conditions of consumption, the clean- 
ing of this flow line actually resulted in a saving of 1.7 
;eet cf friction loss per thousand feet. 

Cleaning Does Not Damage Pipes 

Inspection of the interior of the mains after cleaning 
disci jsed that the machine had no injurious effect upon the 
interior surfaces. The springs on the machine are not set 
stiffly enough to cut into the cast iron and in many in- 
stances where inspection was made, it was found that the 
old coating was still in the grains of the iron. The ma- 
chine in many instances we sent around sharp curves, some 
as much as 60 degree bends and also through open gate 
valves without injurious effect. It cleans the walls of the 
pipe very thoroughly and leaves it practically as smooth as 
new pine. 

As to the question of how long the benefits derived 
from the cleaning of water mains may be expected to last, 
the author has heard it stated many times that after a pipe 
had once been cleaned the corrosive effect or the formation 
of barnacles was much more rapid than before cleaning. 
In fact, the contractor stated that the carrying capacity 
might decrease the first year but would be less rapid there- 
after. Will a view to ascertaining what this effect would 
be on the 30 in. main, permanent pitometer pits were put 
in so that tests could be run from time to time after the 
cleaning. Accordingly pitometer and loss of head tests 
were run again in the fall of 1920 on this main and the 
results of these tests are also shown graphically on Chart 
No. 1. It will thus be noted that two years after cleaning, 
there was practically no change in results .rom the test 
run immediately after the pipe was cleaned. This would 
tend to indicate that the corrosive action is no faster after 
cleaning than on ordinary new pipe. 

The author believes that in the designing and laying 
of new feeder mains, serious consideration should be given 
to the advisability of building permanent pits with re- 
movable sections of flanged pipe so that a main can be 
readily and cheaply cleaned from time to time. It is now 
the common practice among engineers, when computing the 
size of pipe required to deliver a certain quantity of water, 
to use the loss of head figures as given in Williams & Hazen 
tables under coefficient 100, thus providing a larger size 
than necessary under coefficient 120. It can be readily seen 
that the Interest on the saving in first cost between the 
smaller and larger pipe will far more than pay the cost of 
maintaining the smaller pipe at its maximum capacity by 
cleaning it whenever necessary. Paper read at the Am- 
erican Water Works Association Convention at Cleveland, 
June 1921. 



CENTRAL HEATING PLANT AT MiitTll BATTLEFORD 



VANCOUVER ENGINEERS CHOOSE OFFICERS 

THE annual general meeting of the Vancouver Branch of 
the Engineering Institute of Canada was held in the 
Auditorium of the Board of Trade on Dec. 21. The result 
of the ballot for the election of officers for the year 1922 
was; Chairman. C. Brakenridge; vice-chairman, A. C. Eddy: 
secretary-treasurer. P. II. Buchan. The three new members 
of the executive to hold office for 1922 and 1923, elected in 
place of the three retiring members of a total of six are: J. 
N. Anderson, Maj.-Gen. R. G. Edwards Leckie and Wm 
Smalll. Two amendments to bylaws were carried. 



Bj M. I). < adwcll 
Superintendent of Ctilities 

CENTRAL steam beating was first introd 
merciai circles m North Battleford in the summer of 
1916 when the steam main was laid from the power plant 
to the new public library which was built that year, loi 
on Main Street, 750 feet distance therefrom. 'I 
was so successful that it was decided to extend the -. 
to serve the business section of the city after the close of 
the war, provided ways and means could be arranged to 
finance the initial cost of the installation. 

A very comprehensive research was conducted by the 
superintendent of utilities for a period of nearly four 
years covering the merits of a central heating plant and its 
adaptation to conditions prevailing in North Battleford. 

In the summer of 1920 it was decided that the proposed 
installation would prove both advantageous and profitable, 
and the City Council signified its willingness to proceed at 
once with the installation, provided the patrons wool 1 
finance the cost oi the undertaking. An advance de] 
representing the fixed figure on a unit basis, and propor- 
tional to the requirements of each consumer, was a reel 
upon, and tenders were called for the supply of neci 
material. A part of the installation was made in the fall 
of 19 20, but, due to the lateness of the season, less than tea 
consumers received service during the season of 1920-21. 
Meanwhile, materials were received from time to time and 
in the spring of the present year, practically all supplies ne- 
cessary for the' completion of the system were on the ground. 
By the end of September, 1921, thirty consumers were 
receiving steam service and the installation of the distribu- 
tion system was completed. 

The popularity of the service and the ever increasing 
demand for steam necessitated the installation of a new 
and larger steam main to supplement the original one laid 
down. This installation has recently been completed and 
was put into operation November 2 6th. 

Amount of Piping: Used 

The complete installation now comprises 5077 lineal 
feet of piping arranged as below. 

Under Ground Mains 
743 lineal feet of 12 in. pipe. 
270 lineal feet of 10 in. pipe. 
326 lineal feet, of S in. pipe. 
920 lineal feet of 5 in. pipe. 
1218 lineal feet of 4 in. pipe. 
90 lineal feet of 3 in. pipe. 
56 lineal feet of 2% in. pipe. 

Under Ground Sen ices 
131 lineal feet of 4 in. pipe. 
407 lineal feet of 3 in. pipe. 
5 22 lineal feet of 2 V2 in. pipe. 
147 lineal feet of 2 in. pipe. 
9 8 lineal feet of 1% in. pipe. 

Under Ground Drains 
94 lineal feet of 1 % in. pipe. 
55 lineal feet of 1 V* in. pipe. 

All piping Is thoroughly insulated and enclosed in a 
circular casing manufactured in, North Battleford and 
every lineal foot has been graded with an engineer's, level, 
and all lines set with transit. 

Complete and perfect drainage has been provided for 
all piping placed below the ground level. The estimated 
life of the plant is 5 years. 

The total cost of the system, as installed, was approxi- 
mately $35,000. The system was designed bj the writer 
and was installed by the employees of the utilities depart- 
ment under his personal supervision. There are now up- 
wards of 4o consumers with the prospect of tins number 
being increased in the very near future. 

During the recent inclement weather. UpV 
000 lb. of, steam were delivered to the patrons 1 verj twenty- 
four hours. Exhaust stea generating nuns a t the 
power plant is used as the source of heat. 

While North Battleford now owns and operates a com- 
prehensive and ideal central heating plant, making u tne 
first municipally owned plant of its kind in Canada t 
it has not cost the ratepayers a single farthing and is greatly 
augmenting the revenue from the utilities. 

The operation of this new utility is being watched bj 
engineers and other Interested municipal officials from 
coast to coast, and it is hoped that the example set will in 
the near future, result in similar installations elsewhere. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 42 



Development of Canadian Railway Construction 

Author Describes Early Trade Routes and the Economic Conditions 
Which Resulted in Construction of Railways in Canada — Problems 
Solved by Engineers When Locating Trans-Continental Roads 

BY H. K. WICKSTEED 

Formerly Chief Locating Engineer, C.N.R. 



/CANADA is a very big stretch of country with a vast 
^ amount of undeveloped and onlv partially develop- 
ed territory. The older portion tributary to Quebec. 
Halifax and St. John was comparatively compact and 
accessible. It had a great extent of sea coast, excellent 
harbors, and its only exports were fish and furs The 
fish, of course were carried on their own element, and 
the initial fur trade prospered by reason of the watery 
highways which nature had provided. Furs were enor- 
mously valuable in proportion to their weight and even if 
the lines of communication were much broken by rapids 
and falls and watersheds, the native Indians had' already 
devised means of utilizing them and evolved the bark 
canoe, one of the most perfect of semi-savage products. 
Express freight could be carried in them with really 
extraordinary speed and certainty into the heart of the 
continent, on the lakes and rivers of Canada. These are 
an especial feature of the eastern provinces, covered 
largely by the Laurentian belt of rocks, an enormous U- 
shaped formation extending from the Hudson Strait 
clear around by the Atlantic and the North Shore of the 
St. Lawrence, the Ottawa and the Great Lakes. From 
Lake Superior it bends to the northward passing within 
fifty miles of "Winnipeg and then forms the eastern shore 
of Lake Winnipeg and extends on northward to the Arc- 
tic Ocean. The average width of this broken country 
is 200 to 300 miles. The outcrop first seen and known 
along the St. Lawrence is very bold and high, high 
enough to be spoken of as mountains, and the cognomen 
was derived of course from the river itself. As a matter 
of fact there are no mountains properly so called, but 
merely a very broken and wrinkled plateau with a very 
bold front to the south and east and a much flatter slope 
to the north and west. The highest elevations we have 
are in the neighborhood of 2,500 to 3,000 feet and in 
one or two cases the watersheds are very much lower 
than this, not much more than 1,000 feet above sea 
level, but the surface of this plateau is almost incredibly 
broken up. and the rocks being very hard and compact'. 
The hollows have become filled up with water and the 
result is some thousands of lakes and ponds, some of 
them very large, some only a few acres in extent Oi 
rivers properly BO called there are hardly any in some sec- 
tions, the surplus water dropping from one lake to another 

over rock- ledges, and expanding again, Even the Ottawa 
draining a very large territory Is, except for the last 150 
miles of Its course, which is just without the Laurentian 
formation, a succession of lake expansions. 
The "Great Barrier" 
This rough country has been designated the "great 
barrier" because it separates the fertile lands of the St. 
Lawrence valley and the Oread Lakes liasin from the great 
central plain of Canada, and it was at one time Considered 
a great Obstacle to modern methods travel. Iml n 

early days of the hark canoe m made Hi'- e t ei i plains more 

tnd even the three uppermost Croat Lakes were 

reached by the Ottawa much and rapldlj than 

by the st Lawrence, Champ] d Lake Huron, and 

the French fur traders following after him reached Lake Sn 

perior, long before P\ather Hennepin flrsl ipen the 

• ■■ of Niagara. Verandyre easlrj i 100 

from Lake Superior \o Lake Wlnnlpi 

which were kept in regular Communication With Montreal 

iioe, and the generatloi readied the 

base of the Rocky Mountains by tl 

and the Missouri by mai from these 

outposts long before anyone b 

From a stlli . bain of 

communication Mai mi MM Of travel. 

voyaged down the great river which bear- 
Arctic Ocean and up a tributary, the Peace, to where It 
breaks through the mountains and down the Eraser to with- 
in a few marches of the Pacific Ocean which he reached 



long before the Lewis and Clarke expedition by way of the 
Missouri and the Columbia. 

The fur trade was the incentive for practically all this 
enterprise and exploration, and so far from being a "bar- 
rier," this heavily wooded country of lakes and rocks not 
only supplied the fur but the means of transporting it 
to the sea and of bringing in articles of trade for 
barter with the Indians. Even in the depths of a 
northern winter, communication was not entirely blocked 
and the same routes followed by Indian runners and dog 
trains, carrying the mails with wonderful dispatch and regu- 
larity over the frozen lakes, when the routes across the 
prairies were practically closed. The forest furnished fuel 
for the camp fire and shelter from the bitfter wnds. 

After the fur trade came the timber trade and again 
this rough country was the principal source of supply, not 
merely because of the forests with which it was covered, 
but because the lakes furnished the means of floating it 
out to the St. Lawrence. If the supply of water was too 
small to float it from one navigable stretch to another the 
parent lake was dammed back for a few days or hours and 
the level raised. Then a sluice -ate was opened and the 
logs were carried through with the rush of water to the 
next floatable stretch and the operation repeated until a 
navigable river was reached. All the forest timber was 
not in Laurentian country, much o. it was floated down the 
St. Lawrence and the Ottawa themselves from other tribu- 
tary streams, hut these natural reservoirs contributed 
greatly to the ease with which it was floated out from re- 
mote districts and to this day while the timber men of 
Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Pacific coast have been Being 
light railways for a generation or more, those of Northern 
Ontario and Quebec are still "driving" by water. 
Reservoirs of Potential Power 

These same natural reservoirs, actual and potential, 
have of recent years acquired a new value as affording op- 
portunities for the storage of water tor power purposes, and 
as the timber industry has begun to wane in eastern Can- 
ada, this "barrier" region ha the front again as 
one of the greatest depositaries of potential power in the 
world. Nearly all the tributaries of Lie St Lawrence on 
the north except the Ottawa and the Saguenej have verj 
steep pitches on their lower courses, while the made, of 
the upper reaches are comparatively flat. Where the ail is 
greatest the volume is also greatest and these points are 
also nearest to great centres of population. This is a very 
happy conjunction indeed; but the run off of the natural 
streams Is very Irregular, melting snows In spring often 
swell the volume to many times that of midsummer, the 
natural reservoir sites and the hard. Impervious rocks make 
another Ideal combination for the storage of water In this 
region, and by using these opportunities the potential value 
of the St. Maurice has i doubled. The Ottawa 

and the nionai have been much Improved, and the Winni- 
peg will soon he one oi the great assests of Manitoba. One 

river, the Niplgon, has in common with the St. Lawrence 
of which it is the ultimate source, so great a natural reser- 
voir at its head that its How Is almost as remilar as that 
of the meat river itself, the latter, however, is not a Laur- 
entian river, although It has given its name to the region of 
its birth, The "barrlei a has developed a large 

amOUUl of mineral wealth, the nickel of Sudbury, the silver 

of Cobalt, tb Id o the Porcupine districts, and the iron 

..i tie \i. ante and Vermilion ranges, Vnd lastly in ce? 

tain weii defined depressions and on its northern slopes the 

"barrier" has developed a capacit\ for agriculture on a \ er\ 

so that all things considered the title of 

"great harrier" has turned out to be something of a mis- 

n oner, although i" or 60 yean ago when the Brat railway 

s were being made through it it did Beem to d< 
the name. Early trade. It will be seen, was more fostered 
by the Ottawa than b] the Upper st Lawrence, hut, when 
agriculture became a recognized Industry the greater rive 



: 



January 3. 192 2 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



came into play as a means of transport. The lower reaches 
from Montreal to Prescott were much broken by turbulent 
rapids and the navigation was arduous and difficult, but 
once the lake expansions were reached a large portion of 
the arable lands of the original Upper Canada were within 
reach of schooner and later, steamboat navigation, with only 
one break between Queenston and Chippawa, some nine or 
ten miles, only one portage in 700 or 800 miles. Upper 
Canada also offered <a milder climate than lower, and a very- 
large unbroken stretch of fertile land along the lake and 
river shores. So that when larger vessels came into use 
as settlement progressed the Upper Ottawa was abandoned 
as a principal trade route. The Lower river was a great 
drawback and improvement became a necessity. Partly as 
a military measure and partly because it avoided many con- 
structive difficulties on the main river, the Ottawa was 
improved as far as the Chaudiere Falls, and the Rideau and 
Cataraqui Rivers made navigable to Kingston for barges 
of five .''oot draft. This was a great improvement, of course, 
over the "Durham" boats. 

An Old Trade Route 

Another trade route which led to Lake Champlain and 
through it to the Hudson and New York was by the Riche- 
lieu, a route travelled in the very earliest times by the 
French to and from the country of the Iroquois and used 
by them in their raids upon the settlers in and about Mon- 
treal. The Richelieu navigation was broken by a long 
rapid at Chambly, and a minor one at St. Ours, and the very 
first application of the railway in Canada, was a tramway 
from the St. Lawrence at Laprairie to the Richelieu at St. 
John's. This portage railway, not only avoided the broken 
navigation, but shortened the distance from Montreal to 
Lake Champlain, by some seventy miles. The next steam 
railway was another portage railway, from Montreal to 
Lachine, avoiding the Lachine Rapids, and as a corrollary to 
this, was the Carillon and Grenville, avoiding a series of 
three rapids on the Ottawa. These two railways in con- 
junction with two river steamers, permitted a very good 
service to be established between Montreal and Ottawa, 
which was kept up until a few years ago, and the trip was 
made in twelve hours, or at the rate of ten miles per hour. 

Owing to the difficult transportation on the river, be- 
tween Montreal and Prescott, the trade of Upper Canada 
had been rather with the south shore of the lake, through 
Rochester, Oswego and Buffalo than with the east. This 
was brought about by ;he Erie Canal, opened in 1825. It 
was only a ditch, with four feet of water, but it was a con- 
tinuous ditch, carrying barges through from Lake Erie or 
Lake Ontario to the sea, without breaking bulk and bringing 
it, moreover, to the sea at a port whic'h was open all the year 
round, and which had an established import as well as ex- 
port trade. 

Then, as now, the St. Lawrence was the river god of 
Canada, and Canadians looked to' It, not only as a means 
of carrying their own trade and cementing the bonds be- 
tween Upper and Lower Canada, but of diverting the trade 
of the West, of what are now the United States, through 
Canada to Montreal. 

The Welland Canal was built and followed by the St. 
Lawrence canals, with nine feet draught. The whole was 
completed in 1848, but in the meantime, the Erie canal had 
built up cities and towns, and these had, in their turn, built 
up a railway system between New York and Buffalo, and 
except for passenger service, the canals were almost useless. 
The nine foot canal open for only seven months in the year, 
was obsolete before it was completed. The effort of build- 
ing this canal was a prodigious one for the time and for a 
struggling colony of small population, and the disappoint- 
ment was keen. The enterprise for a time exhausted the 
revenues and credit of the colonies, and while they began 
to turn their attention to railways, many schemes were 
originated, but few came to anything. The early roads, it 
will be seen, were all of the nature of "portage" roads, 
bridging gaps in navigation. The Champlain and St. Law- 
rence, before referred to, was opened in 1837. The Mon- 
treal and Lachine, in 1S4 7, and in 1S5 2 it was extended by 
means of a car ferry across the St. Lawrence to the south- 
ern boundary of Canada. In 185 4. the Erie and Ontario, 
from Queenston to Chippawa. A more ambitious scheme, 
but in the same direction and with the same object was the 
Northern Railway from Toronto to Collingwood. It was 
begun in 1851 and opened in 1855. It has been a useful 
development road, but quite failed as a shortcut from Lake 
Ontario to Chicago. 



Portage Roads 

A still more ambitious project had its birth about the 
same time, that of a winter portage from Montreal to Port- 
land. The St. Lawrence and Atlantic was to be built from 
Montreal to the international boundary. The Atlantic and 
St. Lawrence was to meet it there and carry it to Portland. 
This project worried along incomplete for some years, and 
finally became part of the Grand Trunk Ralway of Canada, 
in common with the Montreal and Kingston and the King- 
ston and Toronto Railway. 

Another portage road was the Buffalo and Lake Huron. 
which, however, was a little different from the others, in 
that it merely sought to carry American traffic to the Am- 
erican roads at Buffalo, en route to New York. 

All these roads, it will be noticea, were complementary 
to navigation. Then, as now, there was a feeling that, in 
the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence, Canada, the North 
American continent, in fact, had a great link between the 
West and the sea, that should be made use of and from 
which Canada should derive some benefit. The Great 
Western was the first which recognized the principle of 
through long distance haul by rail. New York had a 
through system to Buffalo. Chicago was the origin of lines 
coming east to Detroit. The map showed that the shortest 
connection was through the western peninsula of Canada. 
The West in those days was the west of the United States. 
Our own West had no commercial existence whatever. Even 
the Grand Trunk, although immensely valuable to Canada as 
a development line, catered to the same trade. The Great 
Western had already taken possession of the natural route 
through Hamilton, and the Valley of the Thames to Detroit. 
but the Grand Trunk was not to be thwarted and built 
to Sarnia and down the Michigan side of the river to De- 
troit when, finding its share of the through traffic to be got 
in that way small, fostered the Detroit and Grand Haven 
with a car ferry across the Lake Michigan to Milwaukee. 

Great Western Railway Built 

The Great Western proved a considerable success in 
its youth and the policy of competition began to take shape, 
the American roads building a similar cut off, the Canada 
Southern, between Buffalo and the Detroit river, which a- 
voided the heavy drop from the Lake Erie to Lake Ontario 
level, and also the steep grades by which this rise and fall 
was overcome. The Canada Southern was probably the 
first line located on really scientific principles in Canada, 
the grades being as low as three tenths of one per cent, and 
it contributed greatly to the New York Central's attaining 
the commanding position which it has always held as the 
cheapest east and west carrier on the continent. In an 
attempt to bluff the Canada Southern into abandoning its 
enterprise, the Great Western built its "air line" accomplish- 
ing some of the objects of the Canada Southern, but in a 
much inferior way. The Canada Southern had the advan- 
tage of knowing just what its function was with existing 
traffic to count on and foster. The allied New York Central 
on the one hand and Michigan Central on the other were 
lines of exceptionally high standard which It could not con- 
sistently underrun, and the country through which it ran 
was generally a very easy one; but it was never the less a 
fine piece of work. 

The year 1867 was that of Confederation and as one of 
the articles of agreement with the eastern provinces the 
Intercolonial was initiated to connect the Nova Scotia sys- 
tem at Truro with the Grand Trunk at Riviere du Loup. 
The Intercolonial was located and built under the direction 
of Sandford afterwards Sir Sandford Fleming, and is another 
consistent piece of work as has been abundantly proved by 
nearlv fiftv vears of operation. The location was largely 
influenced bv political and military consideration; but it is 
doubtful even if Hie Ashburton treaty had given the I nited 
States much less of Maine than it did. whether a much more 
favorable line could have been secured although a shorter 
one certainly could. The Intercolonial has the advantage of 
crossing the Appalachian chain at an extremely low point— - 
the lowest between the Hudson River and Gaspe — -50 feet 
as compared with 1,700 on the C. V. R.'fl short line and 
1,310 on the National Transcontinental, the latter bum 
avowedly as an improvement many years later. This 
is itself an enormous advantage and In addition, it served a 
great number of the older settlements of New Brunswick and 
Quebec which were naturally along the sea-coast. 

In 1870 surveys under the same eminent engineer were 
commenced for the Canadian Pacific a much more onerous 
and greater task — so much so that an effort was made In 



106 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



the first case to temporarily evade the construction of a 
line across the "great harrier" which we have described 
and dwelt upon and to use as much as possible of the 
navigable lakes and rivers, and connect these by portage 
railways as a temporary measure. One amphibious route 
was actually opened up between Lake Superior and the Red 
River, using a great number of the Laurentian lakes with 
wagon roads between them and some hundreds of settlers 
and their effects were actually taken into Manitoba in this 
way. but the transport was necessarily excessively slow and 
cumbersome, and even as a temporary expedient it was 
soon abandoned. 

Birth of the C. V. R. 

Construction on what was originally called the Thunder 
Bay Branch was started in 1S74 and completed in 1879. 
Meantime a branch had been built from Winnipeg to the 
boundary line at Emerson. This gave a through service all 
the year round via St. Paul or Duluth, and Manitoba was 
definitely placed on the map. A start had also been made 
on the Pacific end and a certain amount of line built through 
the Fraser canyon. It was supposed from the results of 
surveys made that the main line would pass far north of 
Lake Superior — but no definite line was laid down at this 
time although tolerably complete surveys had been carried 
across the plains and through the mountains. Progress on 
actual construction was slow as was the settlement of the 
western prairie country. The scheme for using the minor 
water stretches had to be abdandoned and it became evident 
that the only thing which would satisfy the needs of popu- 
lation and bind the new Confederation together was a 
through rail communication from one end of the country 
to the other, which would be serviceable during the entire 
year. British Columbia was grumbling about its not being 
nearer to accomplishment and yet is was a tremendous un- 
dertaking for a small population to undertake. Attention 
was again turned to the possibility of enlisting private 
enterprise, as in the case of the Grand Trunk and aiding 
it by concessions of land as had been done in the case of 
the Union and Central Pacific. A tentative arrangement 
with Sir Huirh Allan and some associates developed into 
the famous "Pacific Scandal" and the overthrow of a gov- 
ernment and a delay of several years but it soon came into 
power again, and a new syndicate, a combination of capital, 
railway experience, and political acumen, came into exis- 
tence. The railway experience was that of J. J. Hill, the 
man Canadian, the the experience that of the new west of 
Minnesota and Dakota. The capita] was represented by 
George Stephen, now Lord Mount Stephen and the political 
manipulation by Donald Smith, afterwards Lord Strathcona. 

There were many stormy debates in the Canadian 
House of Commons when the question of the "great barrier" 
and its avoidance was very much in the foreground; but in 
the end the deal was consummated and it was probably on 
the whole a very good bargain for Canada. The contract 
was ratified ;"i In February, 1881. 

Problems in Locating the C.P.R. 

One of the points in dHCUSSlon was whether the line 
should not go south of Lake Superior instead of north. 
crossing the boundary at Sault Ste Marie. In the end 
both lines were built and the question of a direct route 
through eastern Canada itself was never in doubt. Callan- 
der, at the east end of Lake Nipissing was fixed as the 
official eastern terminus and the old route of the early ex- 
plorers and fur traders, the Valley Ol the Ottawa, became 
<>n<-e more the national highway from the Atlantic to the 

I .1 Hill very early dropped OUt of the combina- 
tion; but iii William Van liorne the new company secured 
a general DAI renter genius, and wiio became 

■ the mosl notable of Canadian citizens as veil as its 
i-t railway magnate, Under bis direction construc- 
tion was pre — e d forward a) a pace unprecedented In Ca 
nadian annals, and a direct route along the Immediate shore 

or Lake Superior which had i n reported to the Bbvern- 

iiient at Impracticable, was proved nol to be so. and was 

mally, had very much tO do with this 

demon 1 I bellevs thai under 

the circumstance- ihe choice of route was a wise one U 

introd ■ very heavy work; but the 

b Of Lake Superior and 

■.cry readily by men and 
the romi any was bound to time as n 

by financial resou, ry important considera- 

tion In the second place It avoided the overlapping of 
the Thunder Bay branch by the main line for some 200 
miles si contemplated by Mr. Fleming and made this branch 



actually part of the main line, utilizing to the fullest what 
the government had completed. This represented a great 
saving in initial cost and operation, although the through 
distance was somewhat longer. The standard of grades 
and curvature was somewhat lower than that Mr. Fleming 
had originated and intended to carry through; but this 
was not felt until some years later and it was quite up to 
the average of American roads. West of Winnipeg the 
route was also much altered. Mr. Fleming had practically 
chosen the Yellowhead pass through the Rockies, partly on 
account of its much lower elevation than that of anything 
to the south, partly because the route of it across the plains 
lay through very much better country as it seemed for 
settlement, avoiding the crossing of a corner of the Great 
American Desert, which jutted in from the south. 

C.P.R. Route Through the Rockies 

The Canadian Pacific preferred a more southerly route, 
first because it was shorter, on the map, at any rate, a 
because they feared invasion from the south by American 
lines. The country to the north would be completely at 
their mercy for a great many years to come as far as east- 
bound traffic was concerned. The pass chosen was the 
Kicking Horse, much higher than the Yellowhead. but re- 
markably easy of approach from the east and not 
difficult from the west. The really weak point as compared 
with the Yellowhead was that while tile latter provided for 
an almost continuous decent from the continental divide 
to the Pacific, the Kicking Horse route opposed several in- 
termediate ones. The most important of which is the 
Rogers Pass through the Selkirks. This involved a secon- 
dary rise of 1800 ft. from the valley of the Columbia to an 
elevation of 4300 ft. or only 1000 ft. lower than the main 
divide. This has since been lowered to 3800 ft by the con- 
struction of the Connaught tunnel, five miles long. The 
Eagle Pass through the Gold Range and the Notch Hill 
summit are comparatively insignificant, but troublesome 
nevertheless. The ruling gradients of the line were much 
below those which had been demonstrated to be feasible 
further north, and contemplated by Mr. Fleming. One per 
cent was carried across the plains and to the summit, and 
through the mountains the standard of the American lines 
was adopted, 2.2^; or 113 ft. per mile. Mr. Fleming's 
idea was to build a line which would be superior to all other 
lines, either existent or which could be expected to be built 
for a very long time, a line which would be equal to the 
requirements of the distant future. It is the engineer's 
usual point of view and when funds are plentiful and pros- 
pect of traffic abundant it is a justifiable point of view 
Van Home on the other hand was an operating man His 
idea was to construct a development line h for 

the purpose with the means at his disposal and in the 
shortest possible time, and to improve it afterwards as 
traffic grew. Even from his own point of view the line 
is by no means perfect, but the sequel has shown thai his 
principles were sound. Cheaply built as much of the line 
was, it was a hard financial struggle mpleted and 

taxed the resources of the promoti verely, and 

even after its completion in 1886 it had a bard time to make 
line depending on foreign roads to take care of its traffic 
both end meet. Van Home knew that a transcontinental 
in the east could hardly be expected to pay its way and he 
began early in the game to provide branches and collecting 
lines to give the Canadian Pacific its own entry to the prin- 
ciple centres. Two minor lines, the St. Lawrence and Ot- 
tawa, and the llrockville and Ottawa buill originally in 
the Interests of the Ottawa lumber trade w. I 
Also a branch of the latter, the Canadian Central, and 
the llrockville and Ottawa was extended from Sand Point 
through Renfrew and Pembroke to Callander. Thtl 
an eastern extension to Ottawa and at the same time shut 
out the Orand Trunk from Ottawa. 

The Northern Colonisation ami the North She: 
w.,\ consolidated under the title of the Quebec, Montreal. 
Ottawa and Occidental gave it an entry both to Mantreal 
and (juel.ee. The Kingston and Pembroke conm 
Kingston and an auxiliary new line was bulll limb 

title of the Ontario ami Quebec Irom Montreal 
via Peterboro The credit Vallej 

Thomas and from a point on this Ihe South Ol I 

,i it through London and Chatham I 
Toronto. Orey and Brut 

Owen Sound and a steamship service gave a summei 
route from Toronto to Fort William. Montreal and Quebec 
were not winter ports, the Orand Trunk's terminal, Port- 
land, was, and the C. P. R. was not content without Us own 



January 3. 1922 



THE CANADIAN' ENGINEER 



101 



approach to the sea. This was accomplished by building 
from Montreal to Sherbrooke. The acquirement of the 
International to the Maine boundary and a new line across 
the centre of the state to the New Brunswick boundary and 
by existing lines to St. John. 

C. P. R. Extends to the Soo 

In Northern Ontario the "Soo" branch was built from 
Sudbury to a connection with the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and 
Sault Ste. Marie at the latter point. In a very few years 
the Canadian Pacific had not only built a transcontinental 
line, but an eastern system covering nearly all the principal 
points in Ontario and Quebec. The Grand Trunk had, of 
course, fought hard. It had tried hard to head off both the 
Soo branch and the Toronto and Ottawa, but it was badly 
handicapped by an absentee directorate which not only 
could not act promptly in an emergency but owing to dis- 
tance could not even appreciate the nature of the emergen- 
cies. It did, however, forestall the C.PR. by extending the 
Gravenhurst branch of the northern which it had acquired 
years before, to Callander and North Bay, and secured for 
itsi-1. the all-rail connection between Toronto" and the 
West. After some years of misfortune and discouragements 
due to grasshoppers, the prairie country began to prosper 
and grow in population, but with prosperity came discon- 
tent and dissatisfaction with rates and service, and it 
clamored for a new outlet to the sea. 

Start of Canadian Northern Railway 

The Hudson Bay Railway was much mooted but the 
scheme did not tempt capitalists and the government did not 
want any more railway building and out of this discontent 
grew the Canadian Northern. Two men, both sons of 
farmers in older Ontario who had successfully carried 
through several railway contracts on the Canadian Pacific 
acquired a charter in central Manitoba and built a short 
line from the existing system northwesterly to Dauphin. 
Instead of offering it for sale they elected to retain and 
operate it for a time and in the first year of its operation 
rather to their surprise it paid its way. Another charter, 
the -Manitoba Southeastern, was acquired, as also the Rainy 
River, and they conceived the idea of building a new line to 
Lake Superior, and in IS 9 8 work was started at both ends 
and after a hard struggle completed three years later. 
Then came a great opportunity. The Northern Pacific had 
crossed the boundary and built up a considerable system in 
Southern Manitoba. The parent line was in financial 
trouble and it was arranged that the province should lease 
these lines and re-lease to one or the other of the existing 
lines to Lake Superior. The Canadian Northern secured 
them and not only did it become the third largest system in 
Canada but Manitoba and the territories secured the com- 
petition for which they had been agitating. 

In 1902 the Canadian Northern had nearly 130 miles 
in operation extending from Lake Superior into Saskatche- 
wan with numerous feeders, the idea of a second transcon- 
tinental line began to take shape, and attention was 
turned to the east. The Great Northern of Canada from 
Hawkesbury to R. a Pierre with connections over the Quebec 
and Lake St. John to Quebec and the Saugenay district was 
acquired. The Inverness and Richmond, a coal road, and 
the Halifax and Southwestern were built with provincial 
aid in Nova Scotia. A start was made on the James Bay 
railway from Toronto to Sudbury, besides numerous ex- 
tensions in the west. In 1906 surveys were started on the 
final connecting links east of Port Arthur and soon after- 
wards a connection was established between Toronto, Ot- 
nd .Montreal. The final gap east of Port Arthur, 600 
miles to Sudbury, was not closed until 1914, and the last 
link of all in the transcontinental chain through the Yellow- 
head Pass and the Fraser River canyon to Vancouver was 
not forged until 1916; an extraordinary effort in the face 
of war and other conditions which had arisen in the pre- 
ceeding ten years. 

Beginning of Grand Trunk Pacific 

Among these conditions was the fact that the Grand 
Trunk having realized the bad policy of overseas direction 
and control, had placed in charge a local president in the 
person of Charles M. Hayes, another American railway man 
who was competent both to size up situations and act on 
them. He recognized at once that the Grand Trunk had 
lost its opportunity and had been badly handled but he 
started Somewhat too late to remedy the mistakes of the 
early policy. He would have entered into an alliance with 
the Canadian Northern providing for the use of that sys- 



tem in the west, of the Grand Trunk in the east, and a joint 
section between Port Arthur and North Bay. but apparent- 
ly no satisfactory terms of agreement could be arrived at. 
Such an understanding would have altered the economic 
history of Canada. Failing this a scheme was evolved with 
the government for the construction of an entirely new line 
to be called the Grand Trunk Pacific. The Grand Trunk 
would have been satisfied with a line from North Bay wes- 
terly and so would Ontario and all the Western provinces; 
but politics unavoidably came into a question of such magni- 
tude and the east strenuously objected to governmei 
sistance of great amount being given to a line with an 
American winter port. Quebec wanted its northern ter- 
ritory developed and that western traffic should at least be 
carried past its capital city, and the result was that the 
transcontinental project was tacked on to the Grand Trunk's 
scheme, and the operation of it made part and parcel of the 
contract. The addition involved an enormous bridge over 
the St. Lawrence and not content with this a new line was 
built between the terminals of the Intercolonial at Moncton 
and Quebec, the excuse being that the latter was far too 
long and the grades too steep for economic operation and 
inconsistent with the requirements of a modern, first class 
railway. As a matter of fact the saving in distance is 
trifling, only some forty miles, and it was found necessary 
to break up the high standard of gradients while the total 
amount of rise and fall is much in excess of that on the 
Intercolonial. So thatt he ultimate operating cost will 
probably be higher than on the older road with some small 
improvements. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific parallels the Canadian Nor- 
thern from Winnipeg to and through the Yellowhead Pass, 
and then branches off to the northward while the Canadian 
Northern turns south down the North Thompson. There 
was some excuse for the line through northern Quebec 
and Ontario. As a colonization line it is proving its value, 
but colonization lines are not built on the scale that this 
one was, costing $110,000 per mile. There was an excuse 
perhaps for the Quebec bridge for it had long been in the 
minds of the Quebec population. There seems from an 
economic point of view to be no excuse for the wholesale 
paralleling through the western provinces and to a lesser 
extent in the province of Quebec, of lines which had been 
encouraged and aided by the Federal as well as provincial 
governments. Admitting that a single line would eventu- 
ally have been insufficient for the combined needs of the two 
systems, a second track would have cost very much less even 
than the first and quadrupled the capacity while the second 
line merely doubled it. It would have low«..ed the cost of 
transportation and probably resulted in reduced rates which, 
was the great aim and object of the prairie country when it 
voted its aid. It was well within the power of the govern- 
ment to have avoided this paralleling of lines, which by the 
way is not to be found only in Canada. 

Competition Between Three Roads 

As things turned out the war of competition between 
three rival corporations became a war almost of extermina- 
tion. Two of the competitors, both of which had been of 
great service in the development of Canada, have been 
practically wiped out. The third although too firmly in- 
trenched before the fight commenced to be crippled, has 
been seriously injured. 

There is abundant food for thought in the present rail- 
way situation in Canada. It is popular to blame individuals 
and corporations for their greed and selfishness in situa- 
tions such as this. It is popular to blame governments 
for their unwisdom and short sightedness, sometimes they 
are accused of dishonesty, but it is the people themselves 
who clamored for the competition and encouraged it. It 
is the people who elect the government from among them- 
selves and practically dictate their policy and in the final 
analysis it is the people who pay the piper when things go 
wrong. We all believe that the National consciousness is 
honest and sound but how many of the ordinary voters, how 
many of the members whom they elect understand ordinary 
questions of economics let alone the complicated fiscal ques- 
tions of railway construction and operation. In short how 
many of us are fit to be trusted with the management of our 
own savings, the surplus product of our own industry. 

At the present time the cry is public ownership, and 
22,000 miles of our railways are now publicly owned and 
operated. The staff appointed to operate them is of un- 
questioned honesty and ability, and if let alone it seems 
certain that they will earn a handsome surplus over their 
expenses, that they will eventu«Uy earn the accumulated 



10S 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



interest on their cost seems too much to hope for. but how 
long will the management be let alone? Parliament has 
already shown a disposition to interfere in matters o. 
detail. 

Independently of the public or private 

ownership which is much before the public in these days. 
there are some interesting comparisons to be made between 
th procedures in the case of the building up of the several 
systems. The Grand Trunk was built by English contrac- 
tors and engineers. The difference between an English 
road through thickly settled country with traffic waiting 
to be carried, and a development road through a new coun- 
try of sparse population was not at all understood and 
money was lavishly spent. The line was too costly for its 
function as a development road. 

Difference in Methods of Construction 

The common stock bought in good faith and paid for 
was buried under subsequent issues of debentures and first, 
second and third preference shares and never paid a divi- 
dend even when the road was making good earnings. The 
Canadian Pacific under somewhat worse traffic conditions 
but riper experience, was built with extreme frugality, even 
parsimony, with timber trestles, scant ballast, sometimes no 
ballast at all, sharp undulating grades and somewhat rank 
curvature. It was some time before it paid a dividend but 
when it did have surplus earnings there were scarcely any 
securities senior to the stock and reconstruction was com- 
menced almost at once. 

The same frugal policy in construction was pursued in 
the case of the Canadian Northern and the initial bonded 
debt in the West was for a long time only $13,000 per mile. 
As the road became longer and its future more assured this 
was increased, but for another term of years it was only 
$26,000. The expensive conditions under which the moun- 
tain section was built led to an increase, but there was at 
the same time a very much increased potential earning 
power. The Canadian Pacific was unique in depending 
for capital almost exclusively on stock which it scattered 
broadcast over the world. The Canadian Northern was 
equally singular in marketing no stock at all and depend- 
ing on guaranteed bonds bearing low interest. The Cana- 
dian Pacific was a great finanical success. The Canadian 
Northern has pretty well proved that it would have been a 
great success but for a combination of adverse conditions- 
piling up just before and after completion. 

The Transcontinental and Grand Trunk Pacific, built 
under the precisely opposite policy of lavish expenditure 
and permanent work, have so far been so buy trying to 
meet even their operating expenses that the question of 
•fixed charges has hardly been considered as yet. 

There is still much to be done in Canada. Far as we 
have got to the north with our development we find like 
older explorers that the point we last reached is not the 
limit of habitable country. Stefanson claims that it reach- 
es well to the Arctic ocean and perhaps into it; certainly he 
shows conclusively that we shall not find appreciably lower 
temperatures than we have reached for instance at Long 
Lake 55 degrees Fah. Nor do we have to fear any heavier 
snowfall than in the rockles. We have still to build through 
the Peace River pass and on to the Yukon, down the Atha- 
baska and Slave at least as far as Fort Smith. In the Pen- 
insula of Labrador are enormous mineral deposits and we 
shall have to go after them but it is probable that our mile- 
age will henceforth increase more slowly and it is to be 
hoped more carefully than of late years. We shall probably 
go In more for improvement of existing systems, consoli- 
dation and In some cases I trust elimination. Improvements 
in grades and curvature and probably as traffic grows denser 
and capital cheaper. Into electrical propulsion. 
Rallwaj Pollcj 
It has been our policy on this Continent to build lines of 
communication In advance of settlement. The policy has 
proved a good one up to B certain point and in moderation 
but it may be and has been overdone and especially has it 
been proved unwise to build high cl • • lines which 

can haye for many yean at any rate only low class functions 

• inn Canada for soi 
easy money begot sxpei and standards, and thl 

tsjndancj to extra mded to our railways Our 

nut only Increaa id much faster than our DOPD 

latlon, bnl i mils have pldly at the 

I think tOO thai we nave given perhaps undue 
weight to the needs of the great wheat growing belt In the 
heart of the continent and its necessities for export facili- 
ties. As population grows, we shall probably find as the 



United States did. that we need a larger proportion of our 
own food products within our own borders and have less 
to spare ;'or foreign countries; that the older eastern prov- 
ad the wonderfully rich one in the extreme west will 
be the principal and most profitable markets or the cereals 
of the central provinces, and that such export that goes on ' 
will be more and more through the western gateway on the 
Pacific which is open for the entire year. The wonderfully 
easy grades of the Canadian National lines, as compared 
with the American contribute support to a development of 
this kind. The development in the United States has taken 
similar lines and the Central Plateau being shut off by 
high mountain ranges from both oceans is finding an outlet 
to the Culf of .Mexico at New Orleans. 

All modern roads lead to the sea as the ancient ones did 
to Rome and closely related to the railway development of 
the central plains of the continent is the collossal one of 
bringing the sea itself nearer to the heart of the continent 
of giving ocean navigation a chance to walk up stair:- to 
the suite cf apartments provided by the upper great lak 
the St. Lawrence chain through the original prehistoric 
outlet by the valley of the Ottawa, which is all Canadian, 
or the more modern one which it now uses, which is inter- 
national. 

I have spent much time and thought on this problem 
in the past but it is beyond the scope of this paper and as I 
think our financiers will say, beyond the means of our 8 
or 9 millions of people at the present time, loaded as they 
are with a very serious debt. 

I think, however, that it is safe to say that if the 
boundary between two English speaking peoples had not 
been so absurdly placed in the East, it would long ago have 
been solved and the carriers of the Great Lakes would have 
had access to the sea and picked up jobs on the Atlantic in 
winter instead of lying idle for 5 or 6 months in the year in 
icebound ports, but it must he borne in mind that the ques- 
tion is an International rather than a Canadian one. and 
less of Canada than the United States. 

Writing editorially some years ago on the Georgian 
Bay Canalization Scheme. A. If. Wellington. one of the 
ablest of American engineers used these words: "Our be- 
lief that the Ottawa River affords the best opportunity in 
the world or a well planned ship canal is a fixed one and we 
should be glad to further it by any means in our power but 
under present circumstances with one country (the I 
to reap the chief benefit and the other (Canada) to pay the 
cost what is the use. Had the route been in United State- 
territory it would long ago have been built and thrown 
open to the world as an international highway." The same • 
arguments apply to the St. Lawrence improvement. The 
interest which the great cities of Chicago, Milwaukee 
troit, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Duluth and their tributary 
territory have in the Navigation Scheme is huge compared 
with that of our sparsely populated northern Ontario. 
Toledo, St. Louis and Kansas City have shown an apprecia- 
tion of their interests — our own west has displayed prac- 
tically none but has forced the government to try doubtful 
experiments looking to a seaport at Hudson Hay. A great 
circle through Saskatoon and Liverpool looks almost as well 
on the map as does one through Liverpool and KanSM 
City. Physically both schemes are practicable, commer- 
cially, the first is questionable to many minds The diffi- 
culties in the second are mainly political, hut both are 
open to the objection that the seaports to be used are Ice 
bound for a great portion of the year. 

Fresh in our memory are the experiences whicii 
had with Archangel and the Neva and the opening of a new 
port on the Arctic Ocean Only a little more remote is that 
with Vladivostok and the struggle with .lap. in for Port 
Arthur and the Mauchurian branch of the Siberian railway. 
Paper read before the Engineering Section o. the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. Toronto meet- 
16-80, 1921. 



Willi the Chippawa-Queenston power development 

officially opened, the Provincial Hydro Commission win 

forthwith give notice to private companies from which i 

eivlng power supply of termination of contract! 

Adam Beck, in Ins address at Chippawa recently, announce! 
th. ii the new supply would permit of the practically ltn- 

te ciniing oil' of over 50,000 horsepower orders, such 
power inppl] t" be replaced by thai > the Chip- 

paws In the lama connection he paid a tribute I 
United States privately-owned concerns which had on vari 
ous occasions rendered assistance to tbe Hydro. 



January 3, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



109 



ENGINEERING SECTION, A.A.A.S. DISCUSSES MANY 
TOPICS 



Four-Day Meeting in Conjunction With Society for the 
Promotion oi Engineering Education — Subjects Consid- 
ed Include Natural Resources, Mining, Stress An. 
alysis, Ice Prevention, Standardization, Rail- 
ways, Power Development anil Kilucation 



FOR four days, from December 27 to 30, the Engineering 
Section of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, with the co-operation of the Society for the 
Promotion ol Engineering Education, was in session at the 
University of Toronto. In recent years the Engineering 
Section has been more or less dormant, its members appar- 
ently preferring to confine their activities to the great 
national engineering societies. However, through the en- 
thusiasm of the local committee of the A.A.A.S., this section 
was revived and at most of the seven sessions held, the at- 
tendance was close to one hundred. All sessions but one 
were held in the Electrical Building of the University of 
Toronto. 

Natural Resources of Canada 

At the opening session on Dec. 27, Sir Clifford Sifton, 
formerly chairman of the Commission of Conservation, 
spoke on "Natural Resources and National Welfare." He 
expressed some anxiety concerning the fuel situation in this 
country, especially since the known supply of anthracite 
in the L'nited States will last only SO years. Sir Clinord 
advocated the coKing oi such Nova Scotia and Alberta 
coals as were suitable, pointing out the value of the by- 
products, gas, benzol ana sulphate of ammonia. He thought 
that our peat deposits would yet be found of value when a 
real eftort had been made to utilize them. 

Optical Stress Determination 

Following the opening address, Paul Heymans, who has 
been a co-worker with ^rot. E. G. Coker of University 
College, London ,and who is at the present time installing 
equipment at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for 
stress measurement by means of polarized light, spoite on 
"Ontario Determination oi stress iJistrioution in Engineer- 
ing Problems." uy the aid of an unusually nne series of 
colored slides, Mr. Heymans showed the true variation of 
stress in members of variaoie cross section and in truss mem- 
bers due to secondary bending, comparison with the stresses 
as commonly calcinated showed tne great importance of 
some metnod ot determining stresses more accurately. 

Tne Tuesday session was concluded by a paper by Prof. 
Charles MannebecK, ot the L niversity of L,ouvain, Belgium, 
on "Return Current Along Submarine Cables." 

Ice Formation and Prevention 

Opening the session on Wednesday, Dec. 28, John 
Murphy, Electrical Engineer for the Department ot Rail- 
ways and Canals, Ottawa, described with the aid of moving 
pictures, "Ice Formation and Prevention, with Special Re- 
ierence to Frazil and Anchor Ice." Mr. Murphy advocated 
the introduction of sufficient heat to the metal parts of 
hydraulic installations to keep their temperaure a small 
iraction of a degree above 4a deg. F. This, he contended, 
would be sufficient to prevent frazil clinging to them and 
would obviate the closing down of hydraulic plants due to 
ice trouoles. His own experiences at Ottawa were cited 
as proof of his contention. 

Engineering Standardization 

"Engineering Standardization" lormed the subject of 

the address which followed, given by R. J. Durley, secretary 

of the Canadian Engineering Standards Association. This 

paper will appear in an early issue of the Canadian Engineer. 

Mining in Canada 

Wednesday afternoon, Dec. 2 8, was devoted to papers 
and addresses on mining subjects. John E. Hardman, 
consulting mining engineer, Montreal, spoke on "Fifty 
Years of Progress in Mining in Canada;" Thos. W. Gibson, 
Deputy Minister of Mines of Ontario, spoke on "Metal Min- 
ing in Canada"; A. F. Brigham, general manager of the Hol- 
linger mine, spoke on "Gold Mining in Ontario;" and W.L. 
Dethloff, chief engineer of the Mond Nickel Co., spoke on 
"Nickel Mining and Smelting". The last three addresses 
were illustrated by moving pictures. 

Toronto Harbor Development 

Geo. T. Clark, chief designing engineer of the Toronto 
Harbor Commission, opened the session on Thursday with 
an illustrated address on "Toronto Harbor Development." 



R. A. Ross, chairman of the Honorary Advisory Coun- 
cil for Scientific and Industrial Research, followed with an 
address on "Industrial Research." He traced the develop- 
ment of the work of the council since its formation in 1917 
and explained the means by which the problems of manu- 
facture are being sought out and made the basis of re- 
search. The studentships, fellowships and bursaries have 
grown, said Mr. Ross, from 7 in 1917-18 to 46 in 1921-22. 
Effort is being made to bring about the establishment of a 
research institute at Ottawa, so that the work may be ex- 
tended and made more effective for Industrial development 
in this country. The speaker outlined some ot the diffi- 
culties that had been experienced in the utilization of lig- 
nites, instancing in particular the carbonizing problem. 

Railway Development in Canada 

At the afternoon session. M. K. Wicksteed, formerly 
chief locating engineer of the Canadian Northern Railway, 
spoke on "Railway Development in Canada," tracing the 
building up of our railway system from the initial pioneer 
lines to the present time. The superiority of grades on our 
western mountain divisions, as compared with those on the 
rocky mountain divisions of the l'nited States transcon- 
tinental lines was pointed out by the speaker. Mr. Wick- 
steed's paper appears in this issue of "The Canadian 
Engineer." 

During the afternoon session two addresses on mining 
subjects were given, one by A. M. McQueen, vice- president, 
Imperial Oil Co., Toronto, on "Exploration for Oil in West- 
ern Canada," and the other by James McEvoy, consulting 
coal mining engineer, Toronto, on "Coal Mining in Alberta " 

Hydro Power in Ontario 
The proceedings for Wednesday were concluded by an il- 
lustrated address in Convocation Hall by Sir Adam Beck, 
chairman of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of On- 
tario, on Hydro-Electric Development in Ontario. Sir 
Adam paid a tribute to the servcies rendered to the prov- 
ince by the investigators and engineers with whom he 
had been associated. He contrasted the state ot electric 
transmission when the first developments were made at 
Niagara Falls, with that now existing. Energy was now 
being transmitted economically, said he, 254 miles from the 
Falls to Windsor. 

The saving to the people of Ontario brought about 
by the development work of the "Hydro" was graphically 
presented by Sir Adam. While in Windsor, power is available 
for not over 3 % cents per kw.-hr., and if a certain amount 
be used, tor 1% cents, in Detroit the rate is 8 cents for 
steam — generated electrically. In Toronto, the average 
cost of electricity per month in the 60,000 homes served 
is 87 cents. 

Engineering Education 

The opening address on Friday was an illustrated one 
by D. B. Dowling, of the Geological Survey of Canada, on 
"Engineering Features of the Development of Mackenzie Oil 
Field." 

Following Mr. Dowling's address, the remainder of the 
day was devoted to a consideration of the problems of 
engineering education. 

R. C. Harris, Commissioner of Works, Toronto, opened 
the discussion by an address on the "Relation of Industry 
and the Practicing Engineers to Engineering Education." 
President Chas. S. Howe, of the Case School of Applied 
Science, Cleveland, occupied the chair at this and the suc- 
ceeding sessions. 

Mr. Harris stated in opening that as a result of his 
somewhat extensive experience with engineers, he had come 
to the conclusion that they were in general deficient in 
business training. The engineer is frequently unable to 
relate the creation of physical things to the value of the 
dollar. He should make the highest type of administra- 
tor, but because of insufficient instruction, or some other 
reason, he is disposed to confine his attention too much to 
the physical aspects of his work. On the contrary, he 
should regard himself as a trustee for the physical and 
financial welfare of his fellows. The engineer does not 
study human problems sufficiently, said .Mr. Harris. Not 
often is he able to predict with certainty what given people 
will do under a given set of circumstances. He regards 
himself too much as a builder and not enough as a solver 
of economic and human problems. 

Certain desirable characteristics of engineers were out- 
lined by Mr. Harris. The engineer should have courage. 
Engineering failures sometimes occurred, he said, through 
the engineer giving the client what he wanted rather than 
what the engineer knew to be necessary. He should 



T H E CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



hare Initiative, he should be positive rather than neutral, 
should have foresight, be willing to delegate authority, able 
jume large responsibilities under emergency condi- 
tions, be public spirited and a - u In his community. 
Mr. Harris 6 that the training of engineering 
instructors might be greatly Furthered by the provision of 
travel and contact with the leaders of the 
ol the world. 
Dean Mitchell, of the Faculty of Applied Science and 
Engineering of the University of Toronto, in commenting; on 
.Mr. Hani.-' address, stated that members of the staff of 
the University of Toronto were encouraged to cultivate out- 
side interests. 

Industrial Viewpoint 

S, B. CI t the Massey-Harris Co., supported the 

view of Mr. Harris that the average technical graduate was 
inadequately equipped to deal with the varied economic 
and social conditions with which he is likely to he con- 
fronted. He regarded the graduates as remiss in that 
i Idom 9tated Frankly to the engineering college the 
ils for t.ie success of graduates in the pursuit of their 
profession. 

G. \V. Winckler, Toronto, advocated the granting 
ibatical years to engineering instructors to improve 
their knowledge and give fresh contacts and enthusiasm. 

Prof. R. W. Angus, of the University of Toronto, ex- 
pressed doubt of the practicability of teaching very young 
men in college such things as ruggedness of character and 
ability to act with wisdom in an emergency. He advo- 
cated the more extensive contact of a teaching staff with 
the outside business world. 

Prof. Ernest Brown, of McGill University, stated that 
McGill had introduced instruction in economics some years 
ago with satisfactory results. Engineering courses in Can- 
ada Should be, said Prof. Brown, previously technologic. 
This type of equipment was of immediate value on gradua- 
tion, but as time went on, the engineer's work became more 
and mi i Ines character, being in the case of some 

llting engineers only -u 1 . technologic. The speaker 
believed that engineering college training should be of such 
general and basic character us to lit men for many kinds 
of work, Tlie exact sunjects of study do not much matter, 
Prof. Brown said, if the student is able to sharpen his men- 

H. \\ . Bibber, .Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
advocated the more carfeul selection of students on en- 
nance to engineering colleges. The social qualities, he 
thought, were best brought out in college by college activ- 
ities. 

President Howe stated that at the Case School of Ap- 
plied Science, the men who employ enginers were called 
in and n tharacter of the product 

Engineering Education for the Industries 

At the opening Of the afternoon session on Friday, a 
paper by Prol Charles F. Scott, President or the Society ior 
the Pri Education on "Professional 

Engineering Education tor the industries was read by Prof. 
... ot this paper Will appear in an 
early Issue ol "The t ianadian Engln 

Julius M. Williams, member ol the Hoard of Education, 

Hamilton, in cm, DD the paper, pointed "lit thai 

rners ol business were tr tentlj ui icated men and 

I idii against the claims of tne 
rted man for preferment In Industry, 

. iii Howe exprei ed the tear lest the present 

|r ,. ln l ,1 hi business had been 

.,,, might be o Course in bu lines had been 

9i i i hi I udeni some 

ption of the nature of cue business situations he would 
have to deal with, rather than to imparl much detailed in 
Btructlon. Sinn was desirable he thought, 

b ame i 

I ., or -ii ] ears. 

Prof. Petei I '> of Toronto, qui 

tking the 1 1 

Hi to 'hat 

mg In- 
real i 

i ng i ■ r i -_ I iiiu an. hi \>. \ ooational Training 

On i j on of the dl i o lor ot the previous 

d Tech- 
i the meet' 
I ; the technb al i hoots of Ontario and their 
irk of the engineering colleges. 



A.ter clearly describing the nature of the work carried 
on in the technical schools. Dr. Merchant assured his hear- 
ers that there was no overlapping whatever, between the 
technical schools of Ontario and the engil lOUlties 

of the universities. There is no counterpart in Ontario to 
the polytechnic and technical institutes of the old world 
and of the United States. The legislation governing 
nical education in the province. Dr. Merchant asserted, pro- 
vides that the technical schools shall not undertake engi- 
neering courses of the type offered in the universities. 

The product of the technical schools would be con- 
cerned, said the speaker, with operation and maintenance 
rather than with design on construction. He thought that 
such schools formed an admirable selective agency for the ' 
engineering colleges, and that offered provided 

a good training for entrance to the universities. As an in- 
stance oi the excellent performance of techni 
graduates in engineering courses. Dr. Merchant 

cited the case of the thirty men from the Central 
Technical School in Toronto who entered upon i 
courses in the University of Toronto in the autumn of 1920. 
Of these none failed and the average standing attained was 
very high. He advocated the recognition of the practical 
work in technical schools for university entrance, as equiv- 
alent to one foreign language, on the same basis as prac- 
tical work in commercial schools is recognized for admis- 
sion work in university commerce con 

President Howe stated that while the general opinion 
in the United States appeared to be favorable to the strictly 
academic qualification for entrance to engineering col 
the candidates from the technical schools often did very well. 
Gaps in Industrial Education 

In a paper by Prof. Dugald C. Jackson, of tli 
achusetts Institute of Technology, which was read by Prof. 
C. R. Young following the discussion on Dr. Merchant's 
address, it was pointed out that In the United States there 
was a gap in industrial education between the elementary 
trades schools and the professional engineering schools 
of university grade. "It is imperative." said Prof. Jack- 
son, "to give to thousands of young men who are to make 
the bulk of the corporals and sergeants of industry that 
character of training which makes for self-support in the 
industries." There must, however, be a clear distinction 
between trades and education and the theor- 
etical and advanced education of men planning 
to join the engineering profession. The grade of the 
trades school cannot be exalted without losing its clientele, 
while the schools for training young men for becoming pro- 
fessional engineers should be of university rank. Contin- 
uing, Prof. Jackson expressed the view that "powers of 
exact mental analysis of problems when the facts are ex- 
actly related and beyond that the powers of accurate syn- 
thesis ,are essential to creative industrial practice, and edu- 
cation that does not provide for sound, deep and broad 
study of scientific theory is Inadequate for the Industrial 
engineers who are to become creative leaders 

President Howe, in discussing the paper, outlined 
the effect of entrance conditions on the performance of stu- 
dents in engineering colleges in the United states. \ 

School, he said less than all', of those who id actu- 

ally graduated, more men leaving at the end of the first 
year than at any other time. 

Prof, E. BrOWn, of McGill University, stated that in 

McGill a considerable number of unsuitable students 
in , leared out of the first year at Chrlstn 

Dean George B, Pegram ol Columbia University School 
of Engineering, described the nature of the selection ol 

at Columbia, pointing out that with a sb 
course most of the elimination was likely to be done before 

men reached the ' ring part of thi 

The emu hiding function of the convention, so far as the 

Engil 'lng SBCtloa Was concerned, occurred on Friday 

evening when a joint dinner witli Hi I Section and 

with the Society of Promotion of Engineering Education, 
tiie Engineering institute of Canada (Toronto branch), the 
American Societj ol Mechanical Engineers (Ontario branch) 
the American institute of Electrical Engineers (Toronto 

Hunch i. the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 
into blanch I. and the So,iet\ of Chemical Industry 

i Toronto branch I was held 

Arrangements for the meetings ot the Engineering 

Section and of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering 

Education were made and carried out locally by a commit- 
tee of J B. Tyrreii i Vice-president 

Hon and chairman at the meetings i. Prof. Robert W. Angus, 
Prof. Peter Gillespie and Prof, C. R, Young (.S.P.E.E.) 



January 3, 1922 



THE C A N A D I A N E N GIN'EER 



ADVANTAGES OF HYDRATED LIME IS PAVING 
CONCRETE 



Has Water-tightening Properties and Increases Density "1 
Concrete. Makes Placing Easier 

I5y Tyrrell 15. Shertzer 

Construction Engineer, New York City 

AMONG the most important properties which concrete 
should possess, when used as pavement foundation or 
highway wearing surface, are: 

First: Ease of placing, to reduce costs. 

Second: Density, in order that the internal stresses 
caused by expansion and contraction due to varying moisture 
content may be reduced to a minimum. 

Third: Strength to resist the wear of passing vehicles 
and the impact, more particularly that caused by heavily 
loaded trucks which are using the streets and highways in 
ever increasing numbers. 

The foregoing are dependent upon the pveparatien of 
the sub-grade, provision for drainage, fixing of grades, etc., 
all of which, although subjects_of considerable import;. m , 
will not be discussed. 

"Ease of Placing" involves many considerations and 
does not mean necessarily the laying of the concrete after it 
has been deposited upon the sub-grade. 

One of the most recent innovations, is the adoption of 
the central mixing plant. Time does not permit of a disser- 
tation on the advantages and economies of this system which 
is really the second step in ease of placing, the first step 
being the design and equipment of the storage yard. 

liinie in Central Mixing Plant 

When the central mixing plant was first used, con- 
siderable difficulty was experienced, due to the unmixing of 
the concrete by the jarring and vibration of the transporting 
vehicles. This resulted in a stratification of the concrete, 
the coarse aggregate settling to the bottom and the other 
ingredients separating in superimposed layers in the order 
of their fineness; the top of the mass being composed 
largely of cement and water. This unmixing caused the 
mass to stick in the vehicles, so that frequently it had to be 
dug out. It also necessitated remixing, by hand, on the 
sub-grade. 

Many expedients were tried to overcome this unmix- 
ing, but as tar as the writer knows, none have proven as 
satisfactory as has the admixture of a small percentage of 
hydrated lime. The introduction of hydrated lime seems 
to have prevented in many cases the separation or unmix- 
ing of the wet concrete. 

Hydrated lime imparts a workability or mobility to 
concrete which aids materially in spreading, screeding, belt- 
ing and finishing in general, whatever method is used. All 
of this contributes to ease of placing and consequent econ- 
omy. 

It is generally recognized that one of the greatest 
enemies to concrete is absorbed moisture. Tests have 
shown that the internal stresses set up by alternate wetting 
and drying of a mass of concrete, not to mention the freez- 
ing of the entrained water, are greater than those caused by 
temperature or the application of ordinary external forces. 
The stresses caused by moisture are also the most insidious. 

Density, as applied to concrete, has been the subject 
of much academic discussion, theories and claims as to 
"Mass-volumes," "Relative Specific Gravities," "Fineness 
Modulii," etc., have been advanced and argued pro and con. 

Hydrated Lime a Water-Tightener 

Reduced to its lowest terms, and the one with which the 
practical engineer is most concerned, density may be rather 
loosely defined as that property or condition of concrete 
which causes it to resist the infiltration or passage of water. 
In 'other words, water tightness is a function of density, 
from a practical point of view as it affects the Street and 
highway engineer. 

Hydrated lime is the most efficient water-tightening 
medium available. The satement to the effect that it is the 
most efficient medium, has been made by the United States 
Bureau of Standards as the result of an exhaustive series of 
tests in which all of the available media were experimented 
with. 

The action of hydrated lime, as a water-tightener, is 
purely mechanical. It is much finer in texture than any of 
the other ingredients of concrete so that it slips into and 



fills up what would otherwise be voids o. minute dimen 
Hydrated lime has the property of absorbing it's own 
weight, or more, of water. When wet, it makes a very' 
slippery and sticky paste. The sli] pi larts worka- 

bility to the mass and the lime paste acts as an internal lub- 
ricant. The stickiness holds the particles together and thus 
prevents unmixing. 

The lubricating effect not only makes the handling and 
placing of the mass easier, but also promotes a more com- 
pact arrangement of the particles of the other Ingredients, 
thus, increasing the density. 

The property of absorbing water, for which it has no 
use chemically, being fully satisfied, reduces the free water 
content of the entire mass since the water is restrain* 
the hydrated lime. When the excess water evaporates, it 
does not leave pores or cavities within the mass of the con- 
crete, since it is present, largely, as envelopes of the par- 
ticles of hydrated lime, instead as of globules or droplets. 

The volume of wet hydrated lime varies but little from 
that of the dry, so that the dessicated hydrated lime in the 
mass of hardened concrete occupies practically the same 
space or volume as the wet paste in the mixture. Kx- 
cepting at or near the surface, the hydrated lime in a mobs 
of concrete undergoes no chemical change. That portion 
of it which is near enough to the surface to be acted upon 
by the carbon dioxide of the air does undergo a chemical 
change and becomes crystaline calcium carbonate, or to all 
intents and purposes, limestone. (CaO, H. + CO. = 
CaCOj + H 2 0) this change is accompanied by a slight 
increase in volume of each particle (ratio .74 — 1.00) thus 
making a hard, insoluble surface seal. As the surface of 
the concrete is worn off by traffic, or otherwise .the dessi- 
cated hydrated lime, which is then exposed, starts to take 
up carbon dioxide from the air and forms a new surface 
seal. Should the moisture penetrate the surface seal in 
any w r ay, the dessicated hydrated lime within the mass im- 
mediately adsorbs it and in so doing swells very slightly, 
thus forming an effective barrier against the passage of 
more water. This is the reason why hydrated lime makes 
concrete watertight. 

In passing, it may be of interest to note that when 
Portland cement sets, hydrated lime is liberated, so that 
when we add hydrated lime to Portland cement, nothing 
foreign is being introduced. 

As a general rule, the coarse aggregate is the strong- 
est ingredient and the most resistant to wear, so that cither 
things being equal, the concrete containing the largest per- 
centage of coarse aggregate should offer the greatest resis- 
tance to wear. The aggregates are also the cheapest in- 
gredients of the concrete. 

Experiments and studies, extending over many years, 
by the Delaware State Highway Department, have proven 
conclusively that 1-2-4 concrete with 10% hydrated lime 
gives better service, cracks less, wears better and is cheaper 
than the 1-1V2-3 or 1-2-3 mixes generally used. As a 
consequence of these tests, the 1-2-4 mixture with in of 
hydrated lime has been adopted by Delaware as well a 
states and cities and its use is rapidly growing. A very 
significant approval of this practice is, that the Office of 
Public Roads will approve and extend government aid to 
concrete road projects in which this mixture is specified. 

Numerous tests have demonstrated that the compressive 
strength of concrete is little affected by the presence of 
hydrated lime, the majority show a slight increase, when 
the tests have been conducted under conditions approxi- 
mating field conditions. With the exception of absorbtion 
and permeability, both of which are materially decreased. 
none of the other properties of concrete are affected to any 
great degree. 

The National Lime Association does not advocate the 
substitution of hydrated lime for Portland cement in con- 
crete mixtures, all of the other ingredients of the mixture 
remain the same and the hydrated lime is added as an addi- 
tional ingredient. 

Summarizing the advantages of the admixture of hy- 
drated lime in concrete: 

It prevents segregation or unmixing, resulting in uni- 
formity. 

It lubricates the concrete making placing and finishing 
©cLsifir . 

It forms a hard. Insoluble watertight skin on the sur- 
face. 

It promotes a more compact arrangement of the other 
ingredients. 

It Is the cheapest and most efficient watertightener. 



THE C A N A D I A N ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



Bins moisture which assists in the curing of the 
concrete. Paper read before f " i r x Paving Confei 
•Phildelphia, Oct. 20-21, i ;i2 1 . 

Appendix 

An example as to how a saving may be affected by the 
use of 1-2-1 concrete with 1" of liydrated lime as com- 
pared with a 1-1 ' 2 -3 without liydrated lime. 

- assume a concrete road 16 ft. wide and of G in- 
8 i u .-'"> in. section Such a road will require about 1,800 
cubic yards of concrete per mile. 

Dsing the Tayrbr and Thompson proportioning tables 
and current New York prices for materials (as of Sept. 29, 
1921 i we find the following: 

Quantities and Costs of Materials Per Mile of Road 
1-1 14-3 Mixture: 

Cement 3,600 Ibbs. : ,t $2.50 net . 

Sand 756 c.y. at $1.25 945.00 

Stone 1,512 c.y. at I'M. 2, ST. 

nf Materials Per Mile $12,817.80 

1-2-4 Mixture: 

Cement 2.S26 bbls. at $2. at! $7,065.00 

Sand 792 c.y. at 1.25 090.00 

Stone 1.584 c.y. at 1.90 3,009.60 

Hydrate 53 tons $16.00 840.00 

Cost of Materials Per Mile $11,904.60 

Coal of l-l%-3 mixture $12.S17.80 

Cost of 1-2-4 mixture 11.904.60 

Saving in cost of material per mile 913.20 
Equivalent to a savins o. 7.12 



REPORT ON LONG BRANCH WATER WORKS 



SEVERAL letters paSSed between the New Toronto 
f'tilities Commission and the engineers with respect tc 
Long Branch buying water from Xew Toronto in which Xew 
Toronto was prepared to Sell water on a sliding scale from 
15 cents to gallon for 100,000 gallons per day. 

with a minimum bill of $225 per month. Xew Toronto 
would charge a flat rate of 10 cents per 1.000 gallons, plus 

i - on a 16-inch main to 
the town limits. In a report recently submitted to the Long 
Branch taxpayers on the proposed water works system, the 
engineers, Frank Barber and Associates of Toronto, go into 

the question in detail. 

R O. Wynne-Roberts, a member of that concern. in hit 
report quotes an act of 1 9 l s whereby Etobicoke townsb.il 
was empowered to extend a system ot waterworks to connect 

with B n owned bj another corporation, and 

he considered it more satisfactory to pay cash for an exten. 
sion of the main than to paj for it in the water supply 
charges. This would then remove the difficulty of the 
minimum month •■ bich would be a burden upon the 

it i alcfc Ij pop 
The extension of B n 6th street, New Toronto, 

to 22nd street, or the limits of the town would cost approxi. 
mately $40,000, and to retire 30-year seven and one halt 

at debentun 00 or 62 per cent., won!. 

$510 per day should cash be paid 

\cu Toronto Supply Cheaper 

The engineers' report shows that until the daily con. 

sumption real gallons per day. the New Toronto 

water supply would certainly be cheaper for Long Branch 

New Toronto pum :i la OV62 

'.< gallons p'-r da ent thi 1 1 T B ■ onsume 

about ■' ,000 gallons per day, ■■ Independent 

• ■ for Long Branch district would have to be built up 

ithing. 

Detailed 1 1st Imate of < 'osta 

ttch as 6 Inch malm would doubtless be laid as 
local Improvements, according to petitions received, the sum 
required for the scheme would be: 

16-lnCh mains $36 

12-Inch mains 22.600 

10.000 

Elevated tank, meter 30,000 



6-inch mains 50,000 

Birmingham street extension 24,80.0 

$164,200 
10 per cent, contingencies 16,420 

Total cost $180,620 

This sum includes about 30,000 feet of mains compared 
with 50,000 feet, costing about $300,000 in the July report. 
To retire debentures a tax of S.7 mills would be levied. 

.Mr. Wynne-Roberts in closing his report advised that a 
minimum pressure of 40 pounds per square inch be main- 
tained at all times and 70 pounds for six hours at night to 
provide for fires. 

Supplementary Report 

In a supplementary report in answer to Etobicoke 
council regarding the possibility of obtaining a supply of 
water in Long Branch at a smaller initial cost, the engineer 
points out that as there is already a 6-inch main capable of 
carrying 120 gallons per minute up to 24th avenue. For 
about $8,400 a pumping station could be installed on the 
northwest corner of the Mimico Asylum grounds to raise 
the pressure. For this water Xew Toronto would charge 
10 cents per 1,000 gallons. Surplus water could be pumped 
into an elevated tank. The cost of the main would be 
$60,600, and when a permanent source of supply had been 
decided upon the temporary station could be disposed of for 
around $4,000. 



PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS' ASSOCIATION MEETS 



WITH recommendations urging that steps be taken in 
oo-operation with other associations interested 
to have public estimates prepared earlier in the year so that 
works can be put in hand in February of each year instead 
of July, and that some action be taken toward urging an 
increase in the number of grain elevators in Vancouver, the 
1921 council of the Professional Engineers' Association of 
B. C. brought their year's work to a close at a meeting held 
:n Vancouver, B.C.. on Dec. 26. The appointments by the 
provincial government to the 1922 council were received 
and the government representatives will be Prof. E. O. 
Matheson, J. Peck. G. Wilkinson and W. R. Bounycastle. 

In addition to discussing tentative arrangements for 
closer co-operation and inter-professional business between 
the Professional Engineers, the Mining Institute of Canada 
and the Architects' Institute, the council also made recom- 
mendations to their successors which will result in the cre- 
ation of a legislative committee and a library committee. 
The latter committee will take in hand and improve the 
technical library which is now open to all engineers at 930 
Birki building; and in addition will lurnish a list of tech- 
nical magazines to the city library, as the authorities there 
have reported that such magazines are in great demand. 
.New members enrolled included Col. J. M. Rolson. Alex. 
Barclay. G. W. Allan and G. K. Williams. 



NEW HYDRO TRANSMISSION LINES 



THE Ontario Hydro-Elect ric Commission is making 
progress building another transmission line from the 

Niagara river to Toronto. It Will carry power from the new 
plant at Queenston. When it is completed, the Hydro will 
have lour complete circuits between Toronto and Xiagara 
capable Of carrying 200,000 horsepower. When the Elec- 
trical Development Co. plant is added as a result of the 
I lean-UP deal. the Hydro will have six complete 
circuits A saving of about fifteen miles iu distance 
and Of nearly half a million dollars in the cost of 
the new transmission line is being affected by running it 

across the Burlington beach instead of through Hamilton. 

The towers are being placed well to the north of Jhe 

Niagara est arpmenl The existing towers are on tin- heights. 

They are B8( Which is a record span for swinging 

w hen the Chippawa canal is working to 
maximum capacity the Hydro will require five sets of I 

on five separate rlghtS-Of-way leading from the Xiagara 
river. 



The Water Coinniissioners of SI Catharines, Ont.. 
reference of whose lone terms of office was made in ■ n 
issue of The Canadian Engineer," were a tew days ago re- 
elected once more by acclamation for another two-year term. 



January 3. 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



AMERICAN MHTRIC ASSOCIATION MEET IN TORONTO 



THE Annual .Meeting of the American Metric Association 
was held in Toronto on December 29, 1921. 

Dr. George F. Kunz of New York presided. The mem- 
bers were officially welcomed by Controller Russell Neshil 
o. the Toronto Board of Control and W. H. Alderson, Presi- 
dent of the Toronto Board of Trade. 

W. M. Crocker, who represents the American Metric 
Association in Washington spoke on "The Legal Status of 
the Metric System and Pending Legislation." The Canadian 
members present were unanimous in the opinion that the 
passage o. an effective metric bill by the United States Con- 
gress would soon be followed by similar action in the Ca- 
nadian Parliament. The Association continues to present 
to Congress additional endorsements from National and 
State organizations of the Britten-Ladd metric bill now 
receiving the consideration of the Senate Manufacturers' 
Committee. 

Professor Henry G. Bayer of New York University con- 
cluded the morning session by speaking on "The Evolution 
of Metric Weights and Measures." He cited the speech of 
Talleyrand in April, 179(1, on a "new system" of weights 
and measurers advocating, "that other nations should be 
invited to make it international." Mr. Bayer showed that 
even then this desire for the advantages of international 
weights and measures was stirring in America. He quoted 
as follows from the message of George Washington to Con- 
gress on October 25, 1791: "A uniormity in the weights 
and measures of the country is among the important meas- 
ures submitted to you by the Constitution; and, if it can 
be devised from a standard at once invariable and universal, 
must be no le'ss honorable to the public councils than con- 
ducive to the public convenience.' ' 

Theodore H. Miller, Works Manager of the De Laval 
Separator Co. said in part. "About 1910 we changed to the 
general use of the metric system throughout our plant. The 
advantages gained by the use of so simple a system as the 
metric, have been worth to us more than ten times the 
slight initial cost required to make the change. By placing 
on our drawing's the expression 'All dimensions in milli- 
meters,' we follow the practice recommended by the Am- 
erican Metric Association, and avoid the necessity of placing 
even the familiar abbreviation MM after figures." 

After discussion of the best methods of using the metric 
system the following resolution was adopted: 

"That a copy of the third edition ol the booklet, Metric 
We : ghts and Measures, be sent to the leading industrial and 
commercial associations in Canada and the United States 
with the request that: 

(1) This publication be examined by the proper com- 
mittee or committees with a view to ascertaining whether or 
not the committee or committees approve of the mehods out- 
lined for teaching and using the metric system; and that, 

( 2 Statements or principles in this publication on 
which there may be differences of opinion be noted and sent 
with recommendations for the improvement of the fourth 
edition of Metric Weights and Measures to the American 
Metric Association." 

Chairman E. C. Bingham of the Committee on Local 
Sections has co-operated with the American Chemical So- 
ciety and other organizations in having 300 of the univer- 
sities and colleges order their chemical supplies in metric 
units. Manufacturers and dealers have been found very 
willing to fill order's in this manner. 

Edward Richards and other members present from the 
Society of American Foresters spoke on "The Application of 
the Metric System to Forestry." 

W. W. Pearse of Toronto, well known as a construc- 
tion engineer, spoke on co-operation in the metric campaign. 



KOAD METHODS IN BUILDING WORK 



THE time and labor saving plant and methods employed 
in making concrete roads are seldom applicable to 
ordinary building work in concrete, but can be adopted with 
highly satisfactory results on large contracts where exten- 
sive floor areas have to be concreted at ground level. A 
case in point is the laying of concrete flooring in a factory- 
addition in Milwaukee, the total floor area amounting to 
more than 250,000 sq. ft. By making use of road-paving 
methods, it is stated that the concrete flooring was laid at 
the rate of over 9,000 sq. It. in a working day of 7 ^ hours. 
Railway lines were laid outside the building for the delivery 
of gravel and sand and by trucks, the materials being un- 
loaded by a grab and transferred to a large hopper bin with 



separate compartments. Gravel and sand were conveyed 
from the bin to the concrete mixer by means oi side-dis- 
charge cars running on a narrow-gauge track Cement 

the only material not handled by machinery was wheeled 
to the mixer in harrows. Mechanically-operated trucks 
were used in delivering mixed concrete, which wa 
charged direct into the trucks, and therein transport! 
the required points and rapidly tipped OU( by the front- 
tilting body. About 114 trips wei each truck 
per day of 7 V 2 hours, or one complete trip ever four min- 
utes. The whole operation of mixing, discharging, and 
transporting the mixed concrete was planned bo as to avoid 
the slightest loss of time at any point. 



IMPORTANT ORDER FOR DOMINION ENGINEERING 

WORKS 

rp.iE Water Works Department of the City of Montreal lias 
A recently placed an order with the Dominion Engineering 
Works Co.. Ltd., of that city, for extensive additions to the 
city pumping equipment and distribution system The con- 
tract includes three 30-million gallon, electrically driven 
centrifugal pumps, to operate against a head of approxi- 
mately 250 feet: 12 36-in. Johnson hydraulic valves of a 
combined stop and cheek valve type; 6 42-in. suction gate 
valves. 

The Johnson hydraulic valves are of special design 
and close automatically in case of breakage and drop of 
pressure in the main on the pump side of the valve, pre- 
venting the escape of large volumes of water and conse- 
quent damage to property. 

The feature which makes these valves peculiarly suit- 
able for water works service is the closing movement 'which 
is rapid at first, then slows up during the last part of the 
stroke, effecting a complete closing, promptly, vet without 
water hammer or injurious stress on the piping system 
The valves may also be closed at will by the operation o! 
certain simple means for the purpose. 

The manufacture of large special gate valves has lately 
been taken up by the Dominion Engineering Works as 
their mechanical equipment enables them to handle such 
work in the largest sizes yet produced. This is evidenced 
by the fact that they are now building the largest Johnson 
hydraulic valve ever made, some 20 eet in diameter, for 
installation at Shawinigan Falls. Que., under a head of 140 
feet. Estimated weight of this valve is 365.000 lbs 



HYDRO INDEBTED T<> SCIENTISTS 

T N addressing the general session of the American Assoc! 
•■- ation for the Advancement of Science in Convocation 
Hall, on Dec. 29. Sir Adam Beck, chairman of the Ontario 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission, paid full measure of 
trbute to the part that science has played in the creation of 
the largest electric power system in the world. 

Not a little of the success of the Chippawa develop- 
ment, stated Sir Adam, was due to the intensive work car- 
ried on in the laboratories of the Commission. Problems 
which appeared insurmountable had been overcome by the 
intensive application of the most exhaustive research meth- 
ods. Sir Adam cited the success of the Commission in dis- 
covering a cheaper and better concrete mixture as one case 
in point. Another instance was the invention of an insu- 
lator for high voltage transmission lines which had been 
adopted by almost every country' in the world. 

As illustrative of the advantage which Ontario enjoyed 
in possessing cheaper electrical power than could be gen- 
erated by steam plants the speaker told the visiting scien- 
tists of the difference in power prices between Windsor and 
Detroit. After being transmitted 254 miles, power had 
been sold to the consumer in Windsor for four and one-half 
cents per kilowatt-hour. In Detroit, power generated by 
one of the most efficient steam plants in existence was being 
sold at eight cents. Further than that, the surplus earned 
on the distribution of power to Windsor had been eighty 
thousand dollars in one year, with the result that six months 
ago the cost of power in that city had been lowered to three 
and one-half cents per kilowatt-hour. 

Public ownership and development of Ontario's water 
falls had brought power to the small consumer, to the 
average householder, and to the smallest comunities. A 
village such as Glencoe, which only used ten horsepower, 
had shown an annual surplus of $854. In the City of To- 
ronto the average monthly bill of 60,000 consumers was only 
89 cents per month, 



THE C A X A D I A N* ENGINEER 



Volume 42 



PROGRAM AMERICAS (,i>i>i> ROADS ' ONGRESS 



Till-: following tentative program of paper- has been ar- 
ranged for the sessions of the twelfth American Good 
Roads I bich Will be held at Ihe Coliseum. Chicago, 

on Jan. 16 to 20 inclusive. 

Bituminous Roads 
Bituminous Foundations, by Hugh W. Skidmore, C.E. 
ion of Bituminous Dearing Course, by C. M. 
Pinckney. 

Utilization of I. oral Material for Mineral Aggregate, 
by Major \V. A. Welch. 

Asphalt Specifications. by L. M. Law. 
Specifications of Mineral Aggregates, by Roy M. Green. 
Controversial Construction Requirements in Specifica- 
tions, by Bruce Aldrlch. 

A Simple Graphic Method of Proportioning Sands for 
Sheet Asphalt Mixtures, by 1'revost Hubbard. 
Portland Cement Concrete Roads 
The Selection of the Mineral Aggregate for a Portland 
Cement Concrete Roads by John H. Mullen. 

Design Of Concrete Roads for Heavy Traffic, by W. D. 

Dhler. 

Inspection and Control of Materials for Concrete 
Roads, by R. w. Crum. 

Importance ot Surface Finish and Methods of Control, 
by II. E. I'.reed. 

Single Track Concrete Roads for the Average County, 
by 1'. C. McArdle. 

Pavement Widths for Highway Serving Large Cities, 
by Edward X. nines. 

Common Roads 
mon Roads, by T. .J. Wasser. 

A Systematic Study of Gravels for Road Purposes, by 
Wallace F. Purrington. 

Highway financing 

The Proposed Wisconsin Plan of Highway Finance, by 
A. R. Hirst. 

The Minnesota Experience in Highway Financing, by 
C. M. Babcock. 

Highwa) Traffic and Transportation 

Truck Overloading. It? Relation to Road Construction 
and Maintenance, by .1. G. McKay, Ph.D. 

Highway Research 

Highway Research, by W. K. Matt. 
The Illinois Experimental Road, by Clifford Older. 
Highway Researches' and what the Results Indicate, by 
A. T. Goldbeck. 

The Highway Outlook, by Thomas H. MacDonald. 
Cost Keeping oi Highway Construction, by A. R. Losh. 
Development Of Small Stream Valleys into Traffic 
Routes, by Jay Downer. 

Uniform Legislation as Affecting Highway Traffic and 
Highway Transport, by l>. ('. Fenner. 

:i and Maintenance of Earth Roads, by 
George E. Johnson. 

• ,v Constru< Pacific Coast, by Herbert 

Munn. 

peration 'if ah Parties Interested in the Construc- 
tion of a Modern Road, by William Ord. 

The B I "i a state Highway Department, by 

II, rjpham 
The Highway Contractor's Problems, by H. II. Wilson. 



ENGINEERING STANDARDS 



SKY i ' »ntly 1 D issued by 

the British Engineering Standardi Association, all at 

: posl 
A r> | orl on Standard channel! and beams for struc- 
tural : etrical propi 

momement of Intertla ami the modulus of section 

Table- are also added showing the 

ments, 

ted that til- 

arded as the itandard cill itton Eoi tramway 

lv the lines of tie "U for 

rallwa: ■ ■ "' of phos- 

phorous or sulphur being permitted in the Bteel, though no 

reiiuired to be adopted 

Among electrical Qi one deals with metallic 

resistance materials, which are divided Into five classes ac- 



cording to the purposes for which they are required. It 
has not been found possible to specify definitely a value for 
the resistivity of any type of material on account of the large 
number of different makes, but it is required that the value 
shall not differ from the value declared by the makers by 
more than 5 per cent. A step towards the simplification of 
switch-gear is marked by the issue of a specification for air- 
brake knife switches and laminated brush switches and of 
another for air-brake circuit breakers, in both cases for 
pressures not exceeding 660 volts. During the preparation 
of these two reports it was realized that before many of the 
conditions could be laid down with any certainty a large 
amount of research work must be done, particularly in re- 
gard to rupturing capacity for large sizes and safety of in- 
sulation. A comprehensive research is therefore being un- 
dertaken by the Electrical Research Association, and it may 
be possible to extend the specifications when the results be- 
come available. 

Finally, there is a specification defining the physical 
and chemical properties required in creosote that is to be 
used for>he preservative treatment of railway sleepers and 
telegraph and telephone poles. 



ENGINEERS REQUIRE BUSINESS TRAINING 

COMMISSIONER of Works, R. C. Harris of Toronto, has 
found after 36 years' experience with engineers, that 
their university training has been lacking in some impor- 
tant essentials. Mr. Harris stated this year very plainly re- 
cently in an address before the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science. 

'An engineer should be essentially a business man. but 
frequently he is not," said Mr. Harris. "He seems to have 
been given training exclusively along engineering lines, and 
often has little ability lor studying himself or others." 

.Mr. Harris said he had found engineers did not have 
a proper sense of the economic value of their own creations. 
They delighted in doing things, but could not determine 
as to the practicability of many of their efforts. 

Another point in which he had noticed a lack in the 
equipment given to the engineer at the university was the 
faculty lor mixing with his fellow men and getting the view- 
points of others. He lies too much in a world to himself, 
the speaker thought. 

A strong criticism was made of the frequent financial 
hardships worked to business men and public corporations 
because of erroneous estimates of engineers. Sometimes, 
the speaker pointed out, works cost three and four times 
the engineer's estimate, and he considered this a discredit 
to the profession. A suggestion was made that instructors 
should be enabled to travel widely and come in first-hand 
contact with the latest doings in other plai 

Brig. -Gen. Mitchell, dean of the faculty of applied 
science of the University of Toronto, said he agreed with all 
the criticisms made by Mr. Harris, lie held that the faculty 
should expand its course of training, but be thought under 
any circumstances it would be found difficult to give a young 
man all the fundamentals of applied science in four years. 



UNEXPECTED TEST OF AN ARCH 

A REINFORCED concrete arch of 86-ft. span, forming part 
of a highway bridge constructed last year at H.i 
kimer. New York, was subjected to an unexpected and severe 
test when the work of concreting had been completed only 
12 hours. Owing to heavy rains during the deposition of 
the concrete the water in the river spanned by the bridge 
rose about 5 ft., washing out or undermining the supports 
of the centring, and carrying away part ot the latter to Bucb 

;iii extent as to leave the arch entirely without support. 
save that afforded by the moulds in which the concrete hail 
been deposited. Notwithstanding the sudden strain so im- 
posed on the concrete no injury of any Kind was caused m 
any part of the arch 

The bridge comprises three arches in the river portion. 
each with a span of 86 ft., a rise ol 20 ,t.. 6 in., and Includ- 
ing two ribs ."> ft. deep at the BpringingS and 1 ft. '■> in. at the 

crown. The ribs are ri Ith 7 s-in. longitudinal 

bars at Hie intrados and extrados. with transverse and radial 

onnecting the main reinforcement. The concreti 
mixed In the proportions ol 1:2:4, I te consisting 

of broken limestone. Although the concrete In the firs! rib 
moulded was ,; " hours old when the centring dropped, the 

nice of the arch as a whole is none the less remark- 
able. 



January 3, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



115 



ACTION' OF OILS I'POX CONCRETE 



A CIRCULAR addressed to members by the German Con- 
crete Assocation recapitulates the various results of 
tests and experience- relative to the storage of oils in con- 
crete tanks. While concrete is unaffected by most mineral 
oils, those of vegetable and animal origin are apt to be in- 
jurious owing to the presence of acids. It is however, con- 
sidered desirable to line the interior of all oil storage tanks 
with some impervious material, capable of preventing the 
oil even if of harmless character, from penetrating the con- 
crete. 

The following essentials are stated in the circular 
mentioned: (1) The lining should be effective in resisting 
penetration by the oil and the attack of fatty acids; (2) the 
lining should be able to protect the structure if the latter 
were afterwards used for water; (3) it should be possible 
to heat the oil up to the boiling point without injuring the 
lining; and (4 1 the satisfactory condition of the tank 
should be assured not only by means of the lining but also 
by proper design and construction. Asphalt or kindred 
linings are not recommended, as they are soluble in oil, a 
more reliable method being to impregnate the skin of the 
concrete with a solution of mineral salt, such as silicate of 
sodium, capable of combining with the alkaline constitu- 
ents of the cement so as to form insoluble products consti- 
tuting an impenetrable screen. According to tests conduc- 
ted at Lichterfelde. a lining proposed by Professor Marcas- 
sin has been found perfectly unaffected by an animal, vege- 
table, and mineral oils. The lining in question consists es- 
sentially of margalite, an artificial resin resulting from the 
condensation of formaldehyde with phenol. It can be em- 
ployed in the form of an oil paint, which dries so quickly 
that it may be put in service at the end of a day, and can 
be applied either to interior rendering or to the surface of 
the concrete as it is left on removal of the shuttering. 



LETTER TO THE EDITOR 



CONTROL PROVIDED FOR LAKE OF WOODS 



REGULATIONS providing for the control of the waters of 
the Lake of the Woods and their maintenance at cer- 
tain levels, have been approved by the Governor-in-Council. 
They provide that all dams, structures and other works, 
which have been, or may be constructed on any outlet of the 
Lake of the Woods, or on the Winnipeg River at or above its 
junction with the English River, shall be constructed, main- 
tained, operated and repaired in such a manner as to secure 
at all times the most dependable flow and the most advan- 
tageous use of the waters of the Winnipeg River. They 
must also regulate and control the outflow of the waters of 
the lake so as to maintain its level between elevations re- 
commended by the report of the International Joint Com- 
mission of June 12, 1917, or between such elevations as may 
be agreed upon by the United States and Canada, and so that 
obligations of the Dominion or any of the Province toward 
the United States in this regard may be carried out. 

The Lake of the Woods Control Board must determine 
the levels and flows necessary to be maintained from day to 
day or for any period of time in conformity with the regu- 
lations. The Board is empowered to "issue to those per- 
. sons or authorities directing, controlling or maintaining 
any of the aforementioned dams structures or other works, 
orders with respect to the levels and flow determined by 
the Board as well as the manner and method by which they 
may be maintained.-' 



PKi:< KDEXT FOR HOXORIXG ENGINEERS 



RECENTLY, the city council of Minneapolis, Minn., per- 
formed an unusual and gracious act in its decision to 
name the great Franklin Avenue reinforced concrete bridge, 
which contains a 400-ft. arch span, the longest in the world, 
the Cappelen Memorial Bridge in honor of the late F. W. 
Cappelen, who for over twenty years was the city engineer of 
Minneapolis. It is only foo common experience to find 
small calibre politicians accorded recognition and honor for 
imaginary services, while the hard working, conscientious 
and able engineer is wholly ignored. Minneapolis has not 
Only done a signal honor to the engineering profession in 
according this recognition of the great services of its able 
city engineer, but has done itself honor in establishing a 
precedent which It Is hoped may be followed by other muni- 
cipalities under like conditions. 



WOOTEX.HOWDF.X SCHEME VERSUS HYDRO PROPOS. 
ALS FOB ST. LAWRENCE DEVELOPMENT 



Sir — As you have just completed the publication of the 
Wooten-Bowden report on the proposed improvement of 
the St. Lawrence, as well as synopsis of those of the Hydro 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario, and ol Htl 
Cooper, of New York, anil as you have expressed the opin- 
ion editorially on October 6th and November 24th, tli.it the 
position of the Hydro Electric Power Commission in On- 
tario lends special importance to their representations, I 
presume you will give me a little space, so that I may help 
to clear up some things that appear to be misrepresented. 

The Hydro report, as submitted to the International 
Joint Commission, does not give quantities, unit prices, or 
sections of structures, such as are given in the Wooten- 
Bowden report for the scheme they recommend, so that a 
close comparison cannot be made of the Hydro schemes with 
that of Col. Wooten and Mr. Bowden. 

An examination of things that can be compared shows 
the Hydro estimates of cost for locks, excavation, and lands 
to be grossly inaccurate and misleading. The amount of 
power that can be obtained, under their favored scheme 
"B," is greatly overstated, or stated in such a manner, that 
the reader would think that the power output from the 
carrying out of such a scheme would greatly exceed what can 
be secured by the Wooten-Bowden project. This scheme 
"B" is practically the same as that presented by the New 
York and Ontario Power Co. of YVaddington. NY., and 
varies only slightly for the works at the Long Sault Rapids, 
from that put forward by the Aluminum Co. in 1907. 

Your editorial of November 24 states that this pro- 
posal is, in some respects, superior to the W ioten-Bowden 
project, but I am sure you have arrived at your conclusion 
from a very incomplete examination of the merits of each, 
and before you had read the rebuttals of Col. Wooten and 
Mr. Bowden. This scheme contemplates no special ar- 
rangements or improvements to eliminate the annual ice 
jams at Cornwall and the Long Sault Rapids, which occur 
at the present time. It proposes to maintain open water in 
winter in all the reaches from Cornwall to Galop Rapids 
and calls for the completion of a power development at 
Waddington. N.Y., before the development at the foot of 
Barnhart Island, near the Long Sault Rapids, is made. 

Before going on to explain the situation, as the writer 
has found it. some of the fallacies of this scheme must be 
pointed out. As Col. Wooten and Mr. Bowden have stated 
the power obtainable by their project on a very conserva- 
tive basis, and as the Hydro has stated the power obtain- 
able in their scheme "B" on a very liberal basis, it may be 
better, in this letter, to state the advantages of each in 
feet of head, rather than in power. 

The head to be obtained in the Wooten-Bowden project, 
for mean discharge, will be (231.8-156.8) or 76 ft. For low 
river discharges, it will be ( 230.5-155.3 I or 75.2 ft.. At 
peak load hours, during which lime 230,000 c.f.s may be 
used at Barnhart Island, the head under the Wooten-Bowden 
project would be reduced, by a temporary lowering of the 
upper level, of 0.8 ft., and the raising of the lower tail- 
water level by 0.6 ft., which reduces the net head to J 
The output at peak loads at this head would he 1,75 
h.p., including the 56.000 h.p. developed at the head of the 
Massena Canal. In winter the head will be reduced bj the 
effect of an ice cover on Lake St. Francis but as the open 
water from the I ing Sault to Cardinal will be done away 
with the backwater from the present winter jams, which of- 
ten reach -•"> ft., will practically disappear. By a com- 
parison with similar siuaions elsewhere, a rise of font- 
feet is predicted in the tailwater level in severe winter at 
the Barnhart Island plants, do.' to this (ce .over, and this 
reduction in head in the Wooten-Bowden project will hive 
an ordinary operating head of 7 1 t. in winter, and 69.6 ft. 
while carrying the above described peak loads. 

Under summer c mditrons, the Hydro's 
must be compared with the above, usln water 

levels at the foot of I'.arnhart Island, as lie works pi 
below are the same. In their plans, they show a water sur- 
face elevation of 241.8 above their Ogden Island dam and 
a surface slope of 4.65 ft. between the plant at 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



Ogden Island and Barn hart Island. This gives a gross head 
development if (241.8-156.8) — 4.65 = 80.35 ft. This 
cross head lias to lie reduced when carrying peak loads, by a 
loss of 3.8 ft. in the headrace at Ogden Island, where there 
will he a velocity of nearly 7.0 ft. per second, as well as an 
injurious surge. It will have to be reduced by 2.0 ft. on 
account of a surge at Rarnhart Island, and 1.5 .t. on ac- 
count of lower efficiency and loss of kinetic energy due to 
the double development, so that the net effective head, even 
in summer, is only 73.00 ft., or slightly less than that in the 
Woodten-Bowden project. 

In winter, however, the situation is quite different, and 
the Wooten-Bowden project is found to give enormously 
more power than the Hydro scheme "B." An average addi- 
tional loss due to the ice jams at Cornwall and above, of at 
least 15 ft., must be expected, and it will at times be as 
much as 25 ft. The proposals of the Hydro are to main- 
tain open water from the power plants at Barnhart Island 
to the plant at Waddington, and from the plant at Wadding- 
ton u above Galop Rapids by means of ice breaking tugs, 
if necessary. They thus propose to leave the conditions 
which have caused the ice jams above Cornwall, still oper- 
ative, and as these jams have caused an average rise of 18 
ft. in seven out of ten of the winters of which we 
have record, and a maximum rise of 25 ft. in February, 
1918, the loss of head is truly appalling, and the net head 
of 73.0 ft. will be reduced to not more than 5S ft., and may 
be reduced to 4S ft. 

This reduction would not be serious at the plant at 
Waddington. X.Y.. but would be very serious at the plant 
at Barnhart Island, as all the reduction would fall on it. 
Fifteen feet head, with the maximum flow permissable, viz. 
230.000 c.f.s.. amounts to 345.000 h.p.. and this fairly 
represents the output by which the Wooten-Bowden project 
exceeds that of the Hydro in scheme "B." Further, on ac- 
count of the large headrace channels leading to the power 
houses at the foot of Barnhart Island, and the great pon- 
dage area provided above Dickinsons Landing, the Wooten- 
Bowden project, if built, could utilize 230,000 c.f.s. at the 
Barnhart Island plants, for a period of six hours, and d3- 
liver 1,760,000 h.p.. while the other power ulants as shown 
in the Hydro scheTne "B" have so little pondage to draw 
from, and such small headrace channels, that the gain 
from the extra quantity of water uLlized will be mullified 
by reductions in head at the plants, and the actual output 
at no time would equal the above 1,750,000 h.p. of the 
Wooten-Bowden project. 

The writer is only a special pleader for a single devel- 
opment scheme, as against a double development scheme, 
when it is assumed either that it is right and proper 
that a part of Canada's share of the St. Lawrence power be 
exported to the United States, or that a market for all of 
it will be developed in Canada before the end of half a cen- 
tury. If. however, it be decided that neither of the 
above can be accepted, then a double development B< 
becomes a close competitor of the Wooten-Bowden project, 
but not one having any similarity to the Hydro proposals 
"B" or "C." 

The double development scheme, which I have in mind, 
would place a 62-ft. plant at the foot of Barnhart Island, 
and equip It Immediately, and It would leave a 12 to 19-ft. 
plant undeveloped at Waddington until needed. Such a 
project would not Injure Morrlsburg, Aultsvllle or Farrans 
Point, but it would have the effect of placing the develop- 
ment at Waddington In a very unfavorable position. The 
present value of the Waddington site under such a program 
would be almost nil. on account o delayed development, and 

on account of the fact that when put into commission, diffi- 
culty would be found in operating the units of such a plant 

Itanl s| (in account of the variation in head 

that would occur at this plant, it is held by some engineers 

thai us power could not be need except for special pur] 
[j did did not devote theli 
tndy of this project. Instead "t those they pre 

In the report of Col. Wooten and Mr Bowden, all reas- 
onable alternative the . « 1 1 Canadian section of 
the st. i. a ■■• I estimates were given 

of the COal "f all these, but in the Inteinatioiu 

tentative* were la i out for sympathetic reasons Three 

■ ■ been submitted, from which it would 

been dlfflcull for ■< non technical commission to choose. 
• is not difficult to choose between that of the 
Hydro I'ower Commission and the project sub- 

mitted by Col Wooten and Mr. Bowden. 

The Hydro. In their report, adhere to the view that 
Canada should permit the exportation of part of her share 



of the power on the St. Lawrence. By this action, they 
support the project chosen by Col. Wooten and Mr. Bowden, 
on the only ground on which it is open to attack. T 
also make a prophesy regarding the growth of a market. 
which, when applied, greatly favours the single stage 
method of development. 
167 Carling Ave.. Ottawa, Ont. D. W. McLACHLAX. 

[Our editorial comment of Nov. 24 could scarcely be 
interpreted as advocacy of any particular scheme of devel- 
opment for the St. Lawrence Waterway. On the basis of 
newspaper reports of the Hydro-Electric proposals, which 
were the only reports available at the time of writing the 
editorial, it was stated that "it appears that scheme B 
prepared by the Hydro-Electric Power Commission is in 
some respects superior (to the Wooten-Bowden onei". Xo 
editorial comment on this matter was made in our issue of 
Oct. 6 — EDITOR.] 



QUEEXSTOX HYDRO PLANT OFFICIALLY opened 



I^^ARLY five years of skilled engineering effort, night and 
■*•' day labor, and overwhelming financial anxiety were 
crowned with success on Dec. 2S when power was officially 
turned on at the new Queenston power plant. Sir Adam 
Beck, on whose shoulders the tremendous weight o: re- 
sponsibility has rested during the entire period, presided at 
the ceremonies, and received ovations from over 2,000 muni- 
cipal representatives such as few Canadian public men have 
been accorded. 

When Premier Drury and Miss Marion Beck released 
the flood of water into the first installed turbine it set in 
motion the 55.000-horsepower generator. As the machine 
increased its speed, the first of Chippawa's power gradually 
brought into brilliant illumination a large sign on the wall 
of the po"wer house: "Queeneton-Chippawa Development, 
the largest Hydro-electric plant in the world. Ultimate 
capacity 650,000 horsepower." 

From a faint glow of light to a white glare the electric 
sign gradually mounted as the generator picked up to its 
normal speed of 187 r.p.m. The whole of the official cere- 
monies occupied less than fifteen minutes. 

Outstanding in Sir Adam's utterance at the after-lun- 
cheon address was Ins summarization of what the excess 
of estimated cost actually meant to Ontario power users. It 
meant just one-sixth of one per cent per kilowatt hour for 
users, who were now paying two c -n ts for Hydro, as 
against four and five times that price under private owner- 
ship. 

"I ask you," he interrogated, "is that going to make 
it impossible for you to meet your obligations to the Govern- 
ment? Can you expect to deiault in any respect, shape or 
form because of the increased Cost? Xo one regrets the 

>i'. 'i. i. n on ex pi nditure n excess of the Brsl estimates noire 

than I Xo human being could have foreseen that $30.- 
000. OOH. 

Sir Adam enumerated all the plant additions and im- 
provements which the $30,000,000 excess of estimated cost 
had brought to the Province. It had meant a tripling in 
power productiveness, and out of it a duplicate canal had 
been provided for. vast improvement In projected power 
house structure, and certain moneys mounting into the mil- 
lions appropriated for the commendable purpose o. restoring 
the Chlppawa fort. No one, he said, could compare the 
original scheme at the Initial estimate o cost with the pres- 
ent project, involving $30,000,000 additional expenditure. 



WANT ENGINEERING PROFESSION Pit: The I I l> 



THE London branch of the Engineering Institute of 
Canada la I il mi ■ steps to petition the Ontario i • 
ture to make -ion a closed one. and. 

■ ■r with other branch institutes, will present peti- 
tions to tiie Government at an earlj date praying that 
to thai end be spread on the On tar o 
a clt ed engineering profession means thai no one 

would lie allowed In ,li Work unleW he was a 

member of the Engineering institute of Canada, and mem- 
lp in that bodj |e made contingent upon the application 
for admission hoi-: om ■> qualified school of 

iclence 

The local branch of the institute, of which H A. Brazier 
miii chairman, will hold its annual meeting the third 
Wednesday in January, at which time officers for the com- 
ing year will be elected. The meeting will probably be ad- 
dressed by J. M R Falrbalrn. of Montreal, president of the 
Engineering Institute of Canada. 



January 3, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



The Canadian Engineer 

Established 1893 
A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Terms of Subscription, postpaid to any address: 

One Year Six Months Four Months Single Copies 

$3.00 81.50 $1.00 10r. 



Published every Thursday by 
The Monetary Times Printing Co. of Canada, Limited 

President and General Manager Assistant General Manager 

JAMES J. SALMOND ALBERT E. JENNINGS 

HEAD OFFICE: 62 CHURCH STREET, TORONTO, ONT. 

Telephone, Main 7404. Cable Address, "Engineer, Toronto." 

Western Canada Office : 1206 McArthur Bide.. Winnipeg. G. W. Goodall. Mgr. 



Vol. 42 



Owen Sound, Jan. 3rd, 1922 



No. 1 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS 



Effect of Cleaning Water Mains in Kansas City 101 

Central Heating Plant at North Battleford .... 103 

Development of Canadian Railway Construction 104 

Engineering Section A.A.A.S. Convention 109 

Advantages of Hydrated Lime in Paving Con- 
crete Ill 

American Metric Association Meet in Toronto 113 

Personals and New Publications 118 

Professional Engineering Education for the 

Industries 44 

Character in Design of Parks 45 



GUARDING AGAINST FATIGUE IN METALS 



FOR many years following the notable investigations of 
Wohler on the fatigue of metals, it was common prac- 
tice amongst bridge engineers to fix working stresses so as 
to guard against the possible breakdown of the metal by 
fatigue. Care was taken to base the adopted unit on the 
relation of maximum to minimum stress, however tedious 
the calculations might be. In recent years, however, little 
regard has been paid to this relationship, it being always 
provided that the stresses realized would not under any 
circumstances exceed the elastic limit. 

portance created during recent years. As a result of this 
and similar problems, the National Research Council of the 
United States organized an investigation of the fatigue of 
metals supported by the Engineering Foundation and the 
General Electric Co. The work was carried out at the En- 
gineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois 
by Prof. H. F. Moore and Prof. J. B. Kommers, and the re- 
sults were published in a recent bulletin of the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

As a result of the extensive experiments conducted, it 
has been established that there is a well defined endurance 
limit below which metals can withstand one hundred mil- 
lions or more reversals of stress without evidence of dam- 
age. With the increase of the stress above such limit, the 
number of reversals required to produce breakdown gradu- 
ally decreases. This observation is in accord with the 
earlier investigations already cited. In the field of ferrous 
metals there appears to be no simple relation between the 
endurance limit and the elastic limit, the ultimate tensile 
strength affording a better index of the endurance limit 
under reversed stress than does the elastic limit. The 
Brinell hardness test furnishes a still better index of the 
endurance limit, although the reason for this is not clear. 



A special incentive to the study of metals under re- 
peated stress was given in the design of aeroplane parts 
during the late war. Behavior of the material of welded 
ships under repeated stresses was another problem of i Hi- 
lt was hoped by the investigators that accelerated or short 
time tests of metals under repeated stress using high stress- 
es and consequent small numbers of repetition 
failure would give a reliable indication of the ability of 
metal to withstand millions of repetitions of low stress. 
Unfortunately, this hope was not followed by favorable re- 
sults. It did develop, however, that for ferrous meta 
endurance limit could be predicted with a fair degree of ac- 
curacy by the measurement of rise of temperature under 
reversed stress applied for a few minutes Ii is believed 
that this test can be developed into a reliable commercial 
test of ferrous metals under repeated stress and possibly to 
non-ferrous metals, although its applicability to such has 
not been investigated. In none of the ferrous metals tested 
did the endurance limit under completely reversed stress fall 
below 36 % of the ultimate tensile strength. For only one 
metal did it fall below 10%, while for several metals it was 
more than 50%. 

In the latter quantitative observations there is found 
support for the commonly accepted working stresses used in 
structural practice. More frequently than not. the working 
stress adopted is below 50% of the elastic limit for all prob- 
able combinations of loading and for structures where stress- 
es are permitted in excess of this fraction, the number of 
occasions on which the stress would be realized would be 
so small as not to cause any danger of failure through fa- 
tigue. The results of the investigation conducted by Pro- 
fessors Moore and Kommers will no doubt be received with 
a great deal of interest and careful consideration by all 
engineers having to do with structural materials. 



GETTING THE MOST OUT OF A RAILROAD 



REMARKABLE developments in the efficiency of operation 
of the Ford railroad, the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton. 
has directed the attention of railroad engineers to what has 
been done in that time. Brushing aside the sentimental and 
palpably absurd statement attributed to Henry Ford that 
in order to make the railroad pay he would reorganize them 
"in such a way as to get rid of the unproductive stock- 
holder." It is seen that there is apparently some soiinC 
reason for the astounding improvement in operating effi 
ciency on the Ford road. It is stated, for example, that wit! 
4ii .less force a tremendously greater tonnage is being 
hauled over the line than was previously the case. Bj 
speeding up the movement of freight on the preliminary 
part of its journev, it has been possible to expedite delivery 
by from 7 to 14 days. According to Mr. Ford, a consider- 
able physical handicap on railroad operation is created 
through engines and cars four and five times as heavy as 
they should be. On the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton old and 
light types of engines and cars being used, later to be dis- 
placed by improved types of lesser weight than commonly 
employed on the railroads of this continent. 

In a recent interview. Sir Henry Thornton, director of 
British army transport in Britain and France during the 
war. stated in Toronto that the railroads on this continent 
have gone to an extreme in making up heavy trains with 70 
to 100 large reighl cars requiring enormous loCOTOi 
and bridges of prodigeoos strength. The capital outlay 
thus imposed, said sir Henry, has been staggering. Sidinge 

,,f ureal length, very large stations, heavy rails and 

facilities all over the line nave become necessary. Accord- 

Uis view, the result of this condition has been that the 
whole railway system Is only suitable tor very Long : . 
and passenger traffic. Local passenger and short aaul 
freight traffic are therefore not attractive to our steam rail- 
ways and a commutation suburban service is frowned upon 
as unprofitable 

Such statements of opinion are calculate, 
bout a reconsideration of the proper bas 
railway operation. In these days when Canada has a stu- 
pendous railway problem upon its hands, nothing that 
promises relief and Improvement should be overlooked. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



PERSONALS 



T. L. S. LANDERS. Edmunston, X.B.. has been elected 
an associate member of the Americas Society of Civil 
Engineers. 

C. McNAUGHTON STEEVES of Edmunston. X. B. has 
been transferred from associate membership to membi 
in the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

PROF. J. A. MeLELLAX was chosen chairman and U. 
P, Dobson, of the Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission, sec- 
retary, of t he Committee named to arran.ee for the discus- 
sion of the Toronto section of the American Metric 
Association 

BRIGADIER-CJENERAL H. X. RUTTAX. formerly city 
engineer of Winnipeg, was a few days ago made a Com- 
panion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George at an 
investiture held at Government Hou u e. Winnipeg. 

(APT \V. .1. STITT, formerly of the marine staff of the 
Toronto Harbor Commission, and latterly with Roger .Miller 
& Sons. Ltd.. contractors. Toronto, has been appointed as 
Canadian representative of the Dake Engine Co.. Grand 
Haven. Mich., manufacturers of marine engines, contract irs' 
hoists and swinging engines, cranes, blowers, centrifugal 
pumps, sand dredging pumps, boilers, etc. Capt. Stitt has 
opened an office at 45 Adelaide St. E.. Toronto, where he 
will be available in connection with repairs and service work 
for Canadian installations. He has been representing the 
Dake Engine Co. for the past twenty years during the winter 
months in Toronto for the past seven years but each 
summer he has returned to marine work. Arrangements 
have now been made, however, whereby Capt. Stitt will de- 
vote his entire time to the interests of the Dake Engine Co. 

HORACE L. SEYMOUR. C.E. (Tor) A.M.E.I.C, town 
planning engineer, of the firm of Frank Barber and Associ- 
Ltd., Consulting Engineers. Toronto, has been retain- 
ed as city planning consultant to the City of Niagara Falls. 

The first work will be 
that of consulting with 
.the city engineer. Mr. 
J. C. Gardner, B.A. Se., 
A.M.E.I.C. in the pre- 
paration of study maps 
and data. This infor- 
mation will form the 
basis of zoning maps 
and proposed zoning 
ordinances, as we 
for other features ol .i 
city planning scheme. 
In Ontario cities but 
little has been accom 
pllshed in comprehen- 
sive city planning. 
Some Canadian cities 
have taken advantage 
in the pas) of the aa- 
nce furnished by 
tii" Commission of 

1 nation wit h Mr. 

Thorns Vds ms as town 
planning ad rlni 1 ie 
t Ime b i h city must plan tor it -,-i, and tin. 

>l Niagara Falls i- oi t tin- few in Ontario a 

taking their zoning and city planning problems jerio 
The advantages of city planning are evident and it la hoped 

111. Will follow I 

example furnished then bj tin- City or Niagara Kails. 




Kl i i vi rt r.i i> i ik.\^ 



steam CONDENSING PLANTS Is the tit I a Paper 

Baltln ■ bi Hon of the 

: i . . which 1 1 printed and Issued In bulb' tin 

form by the Canadian Ingersoll-Raud Co., Sherbrookc 
In this Interesting paper the author outline the principal 



fixed and operating charges in surface condenser plants and 
then proceeds to describe a new type of condenser devel- 
oped b3 tin- company. This condenser is characterized by 
a special shell and cooler design combined with an arrange- 
ment of tubes in stages which results In the practical elimi- 
nation of waste tubes and a condenser of greatly reduced 
surface. The bulletin contains a considerable amount of 
al information covering the operation of surface con- 
densers with special reference to corrosion, temperatures. 
cause and effect of foreign matter in tubes, etc. In the con- 
cluding pages, the merits of barometric and jet condensers 
are dealt with in a comprehensive manner. Copies of the 
bulletin may be obtained from the head office or from any 
of the branch offices of the company. 



MASONRY REPAIRS — Bulletin 134, issued Xovember, 
11121, by the Cement-Gun Co., Inc.. Allentown, Pa.; 6 by 9 
in.. 21 pages. 40 illustrations. The •Cement-Gun" has 
proven itself a machine oi very great usefulness in a wide 
field of engineering endeavor, lint in none has it met with 
more success or extended use than in the repair and rebuild- 
ing of masonry brick and concrete structures. Bulletin 134 
illustrates a number of cases which may serve as a guide for 
similar use of the "Cement-Gun" elsewhere. Illustrations 
and information are presented regarding repairs to stone 
masonry at Governor's Island New York, to an arch bridge 
near Lancaster, to brick buildings and bridge piers, railroad 
tunnels, brick sewers, concrete dams, bridge piers, sea-walls, 
reservoirs and other structures. 



THE CANADA YEAR BOOK 1920. published by the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. The Year Book 
contains as formerly a great deal of interesting information 
covering agriculture, trade and commerce, minerals, manu- 
factures, etc. of Canada. All sections contain the latest 
information available and the tables include, where possible, 
the figures of 1920. The leading article this year is on the 
subject of "Reconstruction," while other additional subjects 
dealt with are: an increase in agricultural statistic-;, more 
especially in the analysis of agricultural prices: the com- 
pilation of statistics of Canadian trade according to the im- 
proved classification of commodities over a period of font 
years: an analysis of the statistics of passenger and freight 

railwaj services and receipts; and a valuable summary of 

thl financial statistics of cities of In, nil II and over. Another 

interesting Feature noted is tie- reorganization and expan- 
sion of two sections namely, the climate and Meteorology 

section and the Labor and Prices section. Copies may be 
secured on application to the King's Printer. Ottawa, 



INTEREST SHOWN IN TOWN PLANNING 



DURING the past few years the necessity for a regular 
system of town planning has become the centre of 

much interest and study, particularly by public-spirited 

bodies anxious to pro: devolepmenl <>ne of 

3 in Toronto, tin- Down-town plans 

h, o tain, ome time in the ni ir future, a City Planning 

Commission tor Toronto. In view of this, the association 
has shown considerable Interest in the civics and town plan- 
ning course at tin- Unl from January :• 
lUary 21. and a prospectus of the course has been sent 

1 or its members. 

Connected with city or town improvement 
ime up in tin- course of the lectures and discussions. 

opinion will be available on actual problems brought 
Difficulties will b 
■ to dud tin- nest solution, and everything will be 

done t . make the course practical and useful to municipal 
Officials end other- who wish to study th( 

The four dl' inomica, 

dmlntstratlon and technical town planning Vnj 

taken « IthOUl the ol hers and 

leotun Ureadj two 

.1 have been received at the Univer- 
sity Extanaion office. 




vMidhm 







A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Construction Scarboro Twp. Waterworks System 

First Township in Ontario to Own and Operate Its Own Water 
Works System — Officially Opened on Dec. 1, 1921 — Des- 
cription of Plumbing and Filtration Plant, and Reservoir 

BY W. D. PROCTOR, BA. SC, 
Resident Engineer, James Proctor & Ketlfeni, Ltd., 
Consulting Engineers 

WHILE the official opening of Scarboro's new Water- 
works system by Reeve J. T. Stewart of Scarboro 
Township took place on Thursday, December 1, residents of 
Water Area No. 1 have been using the new supply since 
Thanksgiving Day, November 7. The entire sytem consis- 
ting of 19 miles of mains is now in full operation. A de- 
scription of the general layout of the plant and the process 
of filtration has already appeared in "The Canadian Engi- 
neer" under date of Hay 20, 1921. This plan was followed 
in construction throughout and only a few changes not af- 
fecting the general layout were found necessary. In this 
article the writer will endeavor to give a description of the 
methods of construction used. 

Work Included in First Contract 

The first contract let in April to the Central Foundation 
Co. included the construction of the intake, low lift pump 
house, pipe lines up the gulley and catch basin at the top 
of the gulley. 180 ft. above the lake. The low lift pump 
house was the first structure on which work was commenced. 
For this it was necessary to cut into the side of the bank. 
Excavation was done by hand and was carried 10 ft. below 
lake level for the suction well floor. The excavated ma- 
terial was dumped in front to form a sea wall and the con- 
crete anchor blocks for the intake were also cast in front to 
give additional protection against storms. The excavated 
material was blue clay and a remarkable fact was the man- 
ner in which the walls of clay 12 to 30 ft. high stood up 
without shoring of any kind. Outside forms for the con- 
crete were not used up to main floor level. No trouble was 





LOW LEVEL PUMP HOUSE 



FILTER PLANT AND HIQH LEVEL PUMP HOUSE. 

experienced from water although the south wall excava- 
tion was on the original shore line and nothing more than 
a small diaphragm pump was ever found necessary . 

The low lift station is built entirely of concrete heavily 
reinforced in the walls, floors and roof. The concrete was 
mixed on the plateau 1S5 ft. above the lake and was passed 
through wooden troughs to the forms below. The trough 
was divided into three sections by inserting two hoppers to 
check the speed of flow and to save the mix from being dis- 
integrated. The first section was 176 ft. long and sloped 
29 degrees from tire horizontal. The second was I 
long and sloped 27 degrees to the horizontal. The third 
section was short and the chutes were adjusted to suit the 
section poured, the longest one used being 52 ft. The 
trough was made of material 2 in. x In in. with open top. 
A mix of one cement to four of pit run gravel was used 
throughout. The system of "chuting" the concrete was 
found to work satisfactorily, the hoppers aerving to retard 
the flow and prevent the mix from being broken up. Allen 
Brothers of Birchcliffe supplied the gravel 

Steel Intake Pipe 

The intake consists of 2 1 In. steel pipe in 30-ft. 
lengths with I ats bolted together by 20 94 -in—di- 

ameter holts and nuts. Basewood Baskets were used 
throughout. At the shore and of the Intake, a 10-ft, length 
of pipe was c:ist into the sea wall. When the wall h 
sufficiently, excavation was begun outside the se.i wall by a 
dredge which had dug a channel for itself in from the lake. 
Pipes were laid from th d out In an excavated 

trench till water 20 feet in depth was reached at a dis- 
tance of 1S0O ft. from shore. From this point on, the pipe 



T H K CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 42 



was laid on the bottom of the lake to .1 point 2560 ft. from 
the >i ater at this point Is 27 ft deep a1 mean 

water level, a i' I in. x 36 in. increasing elbow is built 
into a protecting crib at the outer extremity. This crib has 

iter compartments filled with one man stones and an 
inner compartment which is covered over on tip and which 

ts the intake inlet. The crib is built of >'< in. x 6 in. 




POURING WALLS OF COAGULATION BASIX. FORMS 

FOR RESERVOIRS IX FOREGROUND. FILTER 

PLANT TX CENTER. 

and 8 in. x B in. timbers bolted together with a clear open- 
ing between timbers of 3 in., through which the water is 
drawn. From the point where the pipe laying commenced 
on the natural lake bottom the pipe is held in place by two 
concrete anchors 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft., one on each 
side of the pipe and held together by a %-in. diameter link 
chain. These anchors are placed 2U ft. apart out to the 
crib. Work on the intake commenced on June 14. 1921, 
and was completed on September 9, 1921. Inspection of 
the intake on November 22, 1921, after several heavy eas- 
terly storms showed that there was no sign of scour at any 
point and that the pipe laid in the trench had become buried 
ami throughout its entire length the pipe was resting solidly 
in place. 

The suction well is divided into two compartments by a 
screen of ',4 -in. copper wire mesh through which the raw 
water pa.-ses. Tins serves to collect any solid particles 
which may be carried into the well. A H -ton Morris 
travelling chain block is provided for lifting the screens 
from the well and moving them outside where they are 
washed by hose pressure. 

Low Lift Pumping Station 

The low lift station houses 2 vertical single acting tri- 

j»|.-x plunger pumps, of 300 g.p.m, capacity, each operated by 

a ::n h p Blip ring motor. The pumps are connected in 

lei and may be operated from the Alter plant above by 

ot a remote control apparatus. Hydro eloetric power 

i., the motor- at 550 volts. The pumps are of 

Smart-Turner design. 

Two cast iron pipe lines were laid up the ravine a dis- 

'i ft. from the lake to the catch basin. Water 

oped up through the 12-in. main to the tillers above 

and tie- l'i-in. mai o cart] oil" the urface drainage 

Which formerly ran down the gullcy. and also the wash 

from ih.' Alters. By carrying the 

down through tlii- drain and discharging It into the 
■ I. in the gullev will be I 
•d 

A I ft wal nit which leads from the 

gulley to the low lift pump house. 

tructed of posts to which are bolted - in. * I" i" 

rtringi ' 2 in. x i in .<ie nailed \ railing is 

I Mi.' walk. 

\\ mi ' orei ed b] Be i < ontnu I 

rded in Ma> and no hided 

,i and high level pumping station 
lined In "The Canadian Engineer" dated May 16, 1911 



Work on i ins contract was begun daring the Brat week of 
June and steadily progressed to final completion on Decem- 
ber 1 . 

The walls and floors of the suction well, mixing cham- 
ber and filters were of reinforced concrete in which super 
cement was used. The walls and floor of the east filter 
were poured in one continuous pour. The walls and floors 
of the mixing chamber and west filter were combined to 
make one continuous pour. All piping which passes 
through the walls of the filters was cast in place in the 
walls. 

The concrete walls of the filters are carried above the 
main floor level and as the specifications called for a con- 
tinuous pour in the filter walls, provision had to be made 
for placing the main floor of the building later. This was 
done by setting the floor beam reinforcing in place and 
leaving a slot 2 in. deep along the face of the wall to re- 
ceive the slab. Six inch concrete haunches were also formed 
into the wall under the beam ends to relieve any shearing 
tendency oi the beam at the wall due to the joint. 

The walls above the filters are built of brick. A dark 
red pressed brick was used outside and buff colored pressed 
brick inside. The roof over the filter beds is carried on 
S in. I-beams at 18.0 lbs., and is waterproofed with Barrett 
specification 4-ply tar and gravel roofing. The ceiling in 
the filter room is sheathed with T. £.- (1. pine. The roof over 
the pump house proper is carried by frame trusses spaced at 
15 in. centres. 8 in. asbestos shingles are used as a roofing 
material and a 3 course band of red tile around the centre 
gives it a very pleasing appearance. Metallic ceiling ma- 
terial was used in the pump house. 

The pumping equipment at the high level station con- 
sists of two centrifugal pumps, one driven by an electric 
motor and the other by a gasoline motor. The electrically 
driven centrifugal pump is built to deliver 600 g.p.m. 
against a total head of 225 ft. and was manufactured by- 
Canadian Allis-Chalmers Co. It is driven by a 60 lip. 
squirrel cage, C.G.K. motor. The gasoline driven pump 
will deliver 750 g.p.m. against a head of 225 ft. and was 
manu.actured by the Goldie & McCullooh Co. It is driven 
by a 4 cylinder Van Blerck motor of lnu h.p. capacity. 

Coagulation Basin 

In the construction of the coagulation basin, the special 
waterproof joint provided for in the specifications was used. 
This was made by leaving a recess in the floor 6 in. deep to 
take the walls. This recess was treated with a 3 -ply thick- 
ness of burlap, each ply being applied with hot asphalt. 
This type of joint has been found to give very satisfactory 
results. The walls were carried up in one continuous pour. 
Baffle walls running longitudinally in the basin wet' 
Miu. ted of 2 in concrete walls at 4 ft. centres. These walls 




OPERATOR'S HOUSE COAGULATION BASIN 
FILTER ami PUMP HOUSE 

u. natructed as follows L in \ i in. .mules were u 

studding and were fastened i.> dowels to the floor and roof 

Metallic lath was secureh wired to this studding. 

iitaining a small percentage of lime and 

hair was plastered on to this. To obtain the 2 in thickness 

tor, it mi to apply •' oat- to each side 

of the wall, one rough heavy coating, one scratch coating 



January 10, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



and one finishing coat. These walls were braced laterally 
by 2 in. x 6 in. horizontal braces. This was found to make 
a very rigid job and satisfactory in every way. The baffle 
walls in the mixing chamber were constructed in a similar 
manner. In the mixing chamber 1 in. baffle boards are also 
provided to further mix the water. 




SINGLE ACTING TRIPLEX POWER PUMPS 

No special features in construction were used in the 
filtered water reservoir that have not already been men- 
tioned. The special joint between the floor and walls was 
use dhere also with success, and the walls were poured in 
one continuous pour. Since the contract for the filtration 
plant was let in Hay, a further contract was let in Sep- 
tember for the erection of a 6 roomed house for the plant 
operator. This was built just west of the filtration plant 
and is already occupied. It is built of red pressed brick 
similar to the filter house. 

Cost and Summary of Work Done 

During the past summer watermain extension work has 
also been carried on and at present the Township have ap- 
proximately 19 miles of mains under pressure. Service 
connections have been installed into 500 homes to the end 
of December and 425 services are in actual use. All ser- 
vices are being metered, Trident frost-proof meters being 
used. Lead pipe is used fo rail service connections to the 
street line. The standard service is % in. pipe. 

The cost of work has been as follows: 

Watermains $311,404.00 

Filtration plant 16S.464.63 

Stand pipe, 90,000 gal. capacity 15,657.32 

Total $495,525.95 

The following were the contractors: Intake, low lift 
station, mains up gulley and catch basin, Central Founda- 
tion Co.; Filtration plant, coagulation basin and filtered 
water reservoir, Central Foundation Co.; Dwelling house 
and steps down ravine. Central Foundation Co.; Filter 
equipment and installation, American Water Softener Co.; 
Cast iron pipe, National Iron Corporation; Cast iron specials, 
Dominion Wheel & Foundries, Ltd.; Valves, Kerr Engine 
Co. and Drummond & McCall, Ltd.; Hydrants, Drummond 
& McCall, Ltd., and Dominion Steel Products; Standpipe, 
Canadian Des Moines Steel Co.; Intake pipe, Horton Steel 
Works Ltd.; Triplex pumps, Goldie and McCulloch Co.; Elec- 
tric driven centrifugal pump, Canadian Allis-Chalmers Ltd.; 
Gasoline driven centrifugal pump, Goldie & McCulloch Co.; 
Chlorinator, General Supply Co.; Venturi meter, Allen Gen- 
eral Supply Co.; Alum dlssolver, Bannon Co., Ltd. 



The followii of the work done: 

Watermains laid, 15,624 feet 12 in.; s.734 feet of 10 
in.; 14.1 ; in.; 60,358 feet of 6 in. 

Hydrants set 218. 

Valves set 152. 

Intake pipe laid, 2580 ft. 

Constructed low lift pump house. 

Constructed piping up gulley and around plant. 

Constructed filter and pump house building. 

Constructed one 6-room house. 

No. of pumps, 4. 

Chlorinators, 2. 

Alum machines, 1. 

Built walk to lake front. 

Built 90,000 gal. steel tank. 

Installed 500 ser 

Purchased Hunt Club main. 

Installed Venturi meter. 

The entire works were designed and constructed under 
the supervision of James, Proctor & Redfern, Ltd., consult- 
ing engineers, Toronto. 



UTILIZATION OF WHITE COAL FOR HEATING PUR- 
POSES 



By A. Langlois 

SO far, according to results obtained from experiments 
conducted in certain countries of Europe, particularly 
in France, Italy and Switzerland, it is shown that a sub- 
stantial gain may be obtained in using electricity derived 
from hydraulic power for the production of steam, as well 
as its transformation into motive power. The coefficient 
of utilization of the potential energy of the coal is about 
60' , whereas the energy obtained by the use of electricity 
is about 66-;. adding to this that the loss in the produc- 
tion of steam by electric heating is less than by coal. 

France is just about to decide on the expenditure of 
several hundred millions of dollars to completely develop 
the powers oi the Rhone River from the Swiss frontier to 
the sea, one of the main objects of the scheme being to con- 
serve the coal fur industries which cannot operate other- 
wise. It is said that 1,800,000 It. p. will be available from 
the Rhone water powers, and which when developed will 
mean an economy to the country of from 50 to 60 million 
tons of coal every year, economy in the material as well as 
on the cost of the production, about $15,000,000 annually, 
and to this it is expected to add a saving of over $20,000,- 
000 more in the use of electricity instead of gas, oil, etc. 

In that connection, our country has an immense 
wealth in store providing, however, that a sound policy of 
exploitation is designed, in order to make use first, of such 
water powers which may lie developed most advantageous- 
ly. Canada possesses enough reserve of water power to 
meet all demands for a great number of years to come, if 
we compare the amount of power available, some 18,000,- 
000 h.p. at the minimum flow, of which hardly 10 \ are 
yet utilized. If the cost of a hydro-electric installation is 
expensive, the source is inexhaustible through use and with 
proper development and conservation the yield will never 
fail. 



The present iralue of the Ottawa Electric Railway lines 
and equipment within the Province of Ontario and neces- 
sary for the operation of the system is $4.110.1122. accord- 
ing to the value set by the Hydro-Electric Power Commis- 
sion of Ontario. 



Building figures fm- Windsor, tint., for 1921 show an 
increase of $123,270 in value and 100 permits, according 
to the annual report of Building Inspector Parker. In 
1920, 1,109 permits were applied for, the value of which 
were estima i" l.-ist year values jumped 

to $6,078,280. This included approximately $2,000,000, 
the estimated cost of the new Prince Edward hotel, now 
nearing completion, and the new police building, and Vic- 
toria Avenue Public School. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



„V.»K..G.;N-M.N CONCENTRATION ,n water potott. 
CATION 

Snbjects ■., Coagnl, .-nil ™.».i ;il , «'»»;^' J- M "'" 

Thorough]) Studied in Ughl ->' »»« Modern 
Chemical Theories 

I5y Harrison P. Bddj 

Metcali & Eddy. Boston. Mass. 

THE term Hydrogen-ion concentration, for short written 
also "H-ion" and "PH." may With sufficient accuracy 
tor popular purposes be paraphrased concentration of acidity 
or alkalinity, as the case may be. Pure water is neutral. 
that is neither a.id nor alkaline, and its hydrogen-ion con- 
centration is taken at 7. Acidity is designated bj numbers 
below, and alkalinity by those above J. 

The acidity or alkalinity of a liquid has thus far gen- 
erally been reported in terms of total quantity of acid or 
alkali present. It has commonly been determined in water 
by adding acid, or alkali of known strength in sufficient 
quantity to neutralize the original acidity or alkalinity, the 
neutral' point being indicated by a change in color due to a 
small quantity of organic dye previously added. But the 
action of the acid is not due solely to its total quantity but 
rather to its effective quantity or intensity. The essential 
difference between this old determination and the new 
hydrogenlion method is that the latter shows the intensity, 
... acidity, rather than the total quantity of acid. 

action Of alum used in the process of water 
purification is to produce a coagulum, or Hoc, of relatively 
targe size callable of absorbing or enclosing the finely divid- 
ed foreign substances which cannot be removed by practic- 
able periods of sedimentation or by filtration at high rates. 
When absorbed by the alum floe, however, they may be re- 
moved readilv by sedimentation or by filtration, or by both 
processes jointly. It is obviously important that the alum 
introduced into the water be converted into floe as com- 
pletely as possible. 

Why Aluminum in Two Forms i- Present in Treated Water 
It has generally been supposed that the precipitation of 
the sulphate of alumina is dependent primarily upon the 
,;,.,- of sufficient alkali and that any ex- 
.1 alkali Likely to be present in waters generally used 
as sources Of water supply is not disadvantageous. How- 
ever certain experiments indicate that there is an optimum 
point at which apparently all of the aluminum is thrown 
,,„t ,,r solution, bul thai above that point on the side of 
alkalinity or below on the side of acidity, precipitation is 
not complete. This offers a plausible explanation of the 
presence In the water being treated with aluminum both in 
insoluble- and soluble form at the same time and of frequent 
d aluminum in filtered waters. It 
important, if prac- 
ticable to carry onl the coagulation process a1 the opt 

Blinity the ISOeletriC point, Without this de- 
termination, or its equivalent, it is impossible to know 
whether the water has the proper I'll It may be too low 
or too high for complete precipitation and it will probably 
-ally be just at the optimum point. 

The presence "f aluminum in two forms is explained by 

t ieon that the alum 8 

loidai condition, by which is meant a condition intermediate 

,lnlion On the one hand and suspension on the 
• di8S0lT6d ni water, as 

ended li 

.,,„ of the Intermediate conditions that 
is the ' ' ! ' ' 1 '"" 1 

1„. in. cm- be chan 

i igi one of ,on 

ditlon rather than "f i 

Another then ' the alum ma] exist as different 

chemical compound! some of which are soluble and others 

insole 

Whichever of these theories may be accepted, the im- 
portant point Is that the alum can be converted completely 



into insoluble aluminum hydrate only within a narrow range 
of hydrogen-ion concentration, which is not indicated by 
the meth ids commonly used tor determinating alkalinity. 
and that either above or below this zone the aluminum or a 
portion of it. may be present in solution. 

A New Step in Water Treatment 

It follows, therefore, that it is as important to reduce 
an alkalinity which is too high as to increase an alkalinity 
that is too low. This introduces a step in the process of 
the treatment of water, which is not common and which may 
prove of material value. 

Ii is hardly necessary to point out the fact that the 
hydrogen-ion concentration appertains to the condition of 
the water for satisfactory coagulation and is not a method 
for determining the quantity o, coagulant required. This 
must be done as an entirely independent step in the pro- 
cess. 

For ascertaining the isoelectric point the determination 
of the hydrogen-ions affords a convenient and practical 
means. This may be accomplished in a manner similar to 
that long used for the determination of the total quantity of 
acid or alkali present. Thus by the use of several indi- 
cators constituting virtually a scale of indicators and by 
the addition of the proper quantity of alkali, or other com- 
pound it is possible to bring the water to the exact hydro- 
gen-ion concentration required for complete precipitation of 
the aluminum from the alum added to the water. Theor- 
etically this may be so minutely controlled in practice as to 
prevent the occurrence of dissolved aluminum in the pres- 
ence of the insoluble aluminum floe. 

As the conductivity of water varies according to its 
hydrogen-ion concentration this value may be determined 
by means of electrical apparatus which indicates the relative 
Conductivity of the water under examination. 

Steps for Control of Chemical Treatment to Take Advantage 
of "PH." 

In order to take advantage of the hydrogen-ion con- 
centration in the operation of a water purification plant 
it will be necessary to control the chemical treament ac- 
cording to several steps, such as 

1. Determine the quantity of alum required for suc- 
cessful treatment under conditions prevalent at the time 

^ Determine the I'.H. of the water to be treated. 

3. Determine the quantities and kinds of chemicals to 
l.e introduced, in order to bring the water to the isoelectric 
point for coagulation of the aluminum. 

The procedure, then, would consist of adding the proper 
kinds and quantities of chemicals to produce the isoelectric 

point and the r tired quantity of alum for the successful 

treatment of the • 

The quality of most raw wat from time to 

time — often materially within very short periods of time. 
This variation may lie in bacterial content, organic matter, 
numbers of micro-organisms, turbidity, temperature, or in 
all of these It is obvious, therefore, that the quantity Of 
alum must be varied to meet the conditions at tile time It 
is highly probable, also that the I'll van.- greatly and that 
the kinds and quantities of chemicals used to produce the 
, Hi. point must be varied accordingly. Kven if the 
III mi ih. raw water remained constant, the necessary 
B8 in the quantity of alum introduced would make it 
necesaan to varj the chemicals required for producing the 

BCtriC point, as this condition must be flXed with refer- 

alum used, or in other words 

16 complete the water must be at the Iso- 

er Hi' sulphate of alumina has been added 

ted that the I'll of the water be de- 
termined and tlie application of the conditioning chemicals 
regulated automatically by electrical apparatus. Such 

equipment would greatly simplify the control of the pro- 

Poealble Advantages from !"■« Control of Purification Plants 

Among the advantages which may possibly result from 
Pit control of water purification plants, may be mentioned 
the following: 



Jauuary 10, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



1. Prevention of passage of alum through filters and 
after-precipitation in mains: The passage of alum either in 
solution, or as a colloid, through water filters 'has long been 
recognized as one of the defects of the alum treatment. 
Such water is not satisfactory for domestic consumption and 
is objectionable for certain industrial uses, such as dyeing. 
It may be possible by chemical treatment to so adjust the 
PH as to secure complete precipitation oi the alum and 
prevent its passage through the filters. 

2. Prevention of corrosive action: It is possible that 
the treatment of the water to secure the isoelectric point, 
will reduce the danger of corrosive action by the filtered 
water, due either to the presence of dissolved aluminum 
sulphate or to excessive carbon dioxide. The treatment re- 
quired to produce the isoelectric point in some cases (where 
acid is required) might not reduce — in fact, it might 
actually increase — the amount of free carbonic acid pres- 
ent in the water. It does not follow, therefore, that in all 
cases advantage can therefore, that in all cases advantage 
can be taken of reduction of both of these corrosive sub- 
stances, although it may be possible to so adjust this treat- 
ment as to accomplish this. It is conceivable and has been 
suggested, that in practice water treated in this manner 
might become more highly corrosive than that treated in 
the ordinary way. 

3. Control of small plant and animal life: It has long 
been known that the growth of microscopic organisms and 
bacteria is favored by the concentration of acidity, within 
certain limits outside of which there is an inhibiting effect. 
It has been suggested that by securing the optimum PH for 
precipitation of alum, the environment of such organisms 
may be so changed as to prove detrimental to them and 
inhibit their growth. There is scarcely any definite inform- 
ation on this point and it is included herein merely as a 
suggestion of possible means of controlling growths in filter 
plants, which in some cases have been quite troublesome. 

4. Possible reduction in size of filter plant: It is a 
matter of common knowledge among chemists that precipi- 
tates formed under certain conditions settle and filter much 
more readily than those formed under other conditions. 
There seems to be ground for the belief that alum precipi- 
tated at the optimum PH point may form a floe which will 
settle more readily and permit of more rapid filtration than 
similar floe formed at a less favorable PH. Should it prove 
that coagulation at the isoelectric point will produce a floe 
which will coagulate and settle more readily and permit of 
a higher rate of filtration, a corresponding reduction in 
size of coagulation basins and filters might prove a substan- 
tial advantage. While it is conceivable that the change in 
the character of floe, due to PH control, might warrant a 
change in the depth of filtering material or in some other 
detail of construction, this does not appear at all probable. 

5. Possible increase in efficiency of operation: If co- 
agulation at the isoelectric point will result in the formation 
of a better floe and in avoiding the passage of dissolved 
aluminum through the filters, it may be that the bacterial 
efficiency of filtration will be improved to some extent. It 
seems reasonable to expect such a result from observation 
of the process of coagulation. 

While these and perhaps a number of other advantages 
of the PH control may be possible from a theoretical point 
of view or may be obtained in the laboratory, it is impor- 
tant to prove to what extent, if any, they can be secured in 
the practical operation of water purification plants. 

There is little doubt that the determination of the 
hydrogen-ion concentration will permit of a more intelligent 
study of the water and the reactions taking place during its 
treatment. This fact alone is sufficient to warrant making 
a thorough investigation of the subject and determining 
the PH value in many cases. 

It is impossible that the methods of control now in use. 
based in part upon the older conceptions of the chemistry, 
involved and in part upon practical operating expenses, per- 
mit of as close operation of purification plants as it is pos- 
sible to obtain, even with the assistance of the more delicate 
and refined hydrogen-ion determinations made in accord- 
ance with the latest theories of chemistry. 



It often happens that empirical methods lead to prac- 
tical results which are , >ry and effeel 
based upon more accurate knowledge. This fact, however, 
does not justify disregard of progress in science and of new 
theories. It cannot be gainsaid that the older practitioners 
in any profession, or in the arts, are inclined to adhere to 
the older methods and processes as a result of their famili- 
arity and experience with them and a natural reluctance to 
adopt new ideas. The older members of the profession 
should constantly guard against this tendency, in order 
that valuable improvements may nut be ignored, simply be- 
cause they involve new discoveries and new theories. 

While it is wis.- to give proper weight to the reasonable 
doubt of success in order not to be misled by theoretical 
consideration, it is certain that the subjects of coagulation 
and filtration should be very thoroughly studied in the 
light of the more modern chemical theories. Such investi- 
gations will lead to a better understanding of the chemistry 
of coagulation than that which has governed this important 
subject in the past. With improved conception of the pro- 
cess advanages of more or less importance are likely to fol- 
low. The true value of the hydrogen-ion determination 
can only be learned through investigations covering a great 
variety of conditions encountered at a large number of 
plants. 

Such investigations may well lead to a restudy of the 
whole subject of chemical treatment of water and improve- 
ments may result in lines entirely apart from the hydri 
ion determination, which furnished the initial incentive for 
such further study. Paper read at the New England Water 
Works Association Convention. Sept. 15, 1921. 



FRENCH TIDAL POWKli SCHEME 



THE construction of a tidal power-station on the estu- 
ary of the Diouris, a small stream which enters the 
sea at Aber Vrac'h, in Finistere, about 15 miles north of 
Brest, is proposed by the Societe Financiere pour I'lndustrie. 

The plans involve the construction of three reinforced 
concrete caissons in the middle of the estuary, together To 
metres wide. The largest, in the centre, will contain the 
turbines; its bottom will be 13.20 metres below standard 
water-level, and its top 12.80 metres above, or 4.30 metres 
ihigher than the level of spring tides. Flanking this caisson 
on each side will be two smaller ones, to contain sluices. 
The caissons will be connected to each shore by masonry 
walls, giving the barrage a total width of about 150 metres. 
A lock will permit the passage of ships. 

The turbines installed in the central caisson will be of 
the Escher Wyss type, designed to generate while running 
in either direction, to block the passage completely or act 
as sluices, and to operate as pumps. On a rising tide the 
water will flow from the sea into the inner basin through 
the turbines, and when the level of the water is the seme OB 
both sides of the barrage, the turbines will be stopped, un- 
til with the ebbing tide the level of the sea falls sufficiently 
to enable them to be operated again with the water from 
the basin. In addition there will lie a second reservoir, 
constructed on the Diouris just above the limit of the tidal 
range, to feed a second generating station. It is estimated 
that the tidal turbines will supply about 7,900,000 kw. 
hours, of which the industrial load will absorb 5,500,000 
kw. hours. The surplus will be employed in pumping water 
into the upper reservoir, the station in connection with 
which will furnish 3,900,000 kw. hours. 



Co-operation between the police officials and th' 
committee of the city of Hamilton and the Chamber of 
Commerce is needed to overcome conditions here. 
It was pointed out by interested council members recently 
when announcement was made that Magistrate .lelfs 
had practically disregarded the safety zones, stating in effect 
that people waiting tor cars should stand on the sidewalks. 
The city intends to either have the zones respected by the 
court and motorists or do away with them entirely. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 42 



ENGINEERING STA\[>.\Ill>IZATIOX 



Progress of Standardisation In Europe and America outlined 

In Address Before Engineering Section <>f American 

Association for the Advancement of 

Science, at Toronto 



By K. .1. Dm le\ 

Secretary. Canadian Engineering Standards Association 



ACCORDING to Webster, a "standard" is "that which is 
lished as a rule or model by authority of public 
opinion or by respectable opinion or by custom or general 
consent.'' Standards in engineering work, in conformity 
with this definition, are thus the result of agreement as re- 
gards dimensions, methods of construction, or qualities of 
material, such agreement being entered into by producers 
and purchasers for their mutual advantage. 

The aim of engineering standardization as we under- 
stand it. is to secure this agreement between producers and 
purchasers in order to effect economy and improve engi- 
neering material by eliminating unnecessary sizes and types 
of parts, or grades of material, or methods of testing for 
acceptance, by securing interchangeability of parts, lessen- 
ing the expense of production, and protecting the purchaser 
by ensuring standard quality. 

Basis of Expressed \ 1 

It is important to note that the inception of such 
standardization work should result from a strongly felt need 
on the part either of the manufacturers or the purchasers, 
and it has been found advisable by practically all of the 
existing standardization bodies to arrange that work on a 
given subject shall only be undertaken on request from some 
responsible party. The essential features of the work are, 
therefore, expression of the need, full discussion between 
all parties interested, thorough investigation of the prob- 
lem, the formulation of definite proposals, their criticism 
by t he industries concerned, their amendment and final 
adoption by an authoritative central body. 

The active support of the industries concerned is in- 
dispensable and any idea of the compulsory introduction of 
certain standards is quite foreign to the scheme. Peri- 
odical revision is necessary to keep abreast of progress and 
care must be taken to avoid any decisions tending to limit 
freedom and individuality in design. From time to time 
when questions of engineering standardization are being 
considered it la objected that the proposed action may have 
the effect of stereotyping the product, thus hindering, rather 
than facilitating, progress and economy. There would be 
force to this objection if. for instance, standardization 

work were carried to get all firms to 

build to the same design in the case of a complete machine. 

or if I no provision tor periodical revision of 

standard.-, as a rule it is the details that are standardized. 

where the general features 

standardized with 

to the case of the 

of standard which bavi 

. for the various railways in" India. 

v . ope ,,t Standardisation 

In Canada. as in some other countries, popular uncer- 
list as to the meaning of the term "Stan- 
dardisation, tarring to the work con- 
I in this paper, namely, the preparation of such de- 

■ on- in industrial manufactur- 
■ I construction work as will be generally accented and 
I to by all uid others taking it to mean 

■ isurlng, calibrating, or conn 

Be instruments, measures of length, etc The 

use. Die very Important work 

ii bodies as the International Rut. 

■s and Measures or the Bureau of Standards, but 

of this kind does not come within the scope of the 

engineering standardization bodies dealt with In this paper. 

nor do these bodies as a rule deal with the formulation of 

standards which require endorsement by legislative action 



The economic and industrial significance of -ndustrial 
standardization has been well pointed out by D ■. Agnew. 
who. in a recent address on the subject, makes the follow- 
ing clear statement: 

"If standardization is carried out on a sound engineer- 
ing basis: 

1. It enables buyer and seller to speak the same 
language, and makes it possible to compel competitive sel- 
lers to do likewise. 

2. In thus putting tenders on an easily comparable 
basis, it promotes fairness in competition, both in domestic 
and in foreign trade. 

3. It lowers unit costs to the public, by making mass 
production possible, as has been so strikingly shown in the 
unification of incandescent lamps and automobiles. 

4. By simplifying the carrying of stocks it makes de- 
liveries quicker and prices lower. 

5. It decreases litigation and other factors tending to 
disorganize industry, the burden of which ultimately falls 
upon the public. 

6. It eliminates indecision, both in production and 
utilization — a prolific cause of inefficiency and waste. 

7. By focusing on essentials, it decreases selling ex- 
pense, one of the serious problems of our economic system. 

S. By concentrating on fewer lines, it enables more 
thought and energy to be put into designs, so that they will 
be more efficient and economical. 

9. It stimulates research, to which it is closely allied. 

10. It is one of the principal means of getting the re- 
sults of research and development into actual use in the 
industries. 

11. It helps to eliminate practices that are merely the 
result of accident or tradition, which impede development. 

12. By concentrating on essentials, and the consequent 
suppression of confusing elements intended merely for 
sales effect, it helps to base competition squarely upon 
efficiency in production and distribution, and upon intrinsic 
merit of product." 

The intimate connection of engineering standardization 
work with research should be emphasized, for in almost 
every ease it 'will be found that during the process of devel- 
oping or formulating all engineering standard, technical 
or scientific questions will arise which can only be settled 
by investigation and research, the information gained in 
which is frequently of the greatest possible benefit to the 
industry concerned. 

Standardisation in Great Britain 
The British Engineering Standards Association was the 
first central body to be established for Die work Of 
neering standardization. It was founded in 1901, one of its 
earliest tasks being to obtain agreement and reduce the 
number of unnecessary sizes as regards standard sections of 
structural steel and rails as produced in Great Britain. 
The B.E.S.A. has now published nearly 160 reports and 
specification- covering practically the whole field of engi- 
neering work, and its standards receive wide acceptance in 
Great Britain. The subjects dealt with, .or instance. In- 
clude sirth varied items as cement, rolling stock material. 
forglnge, electric meters, locomotives for Indian Railways. 

Incandescent lamps, electric cooking ranges, ball bearings, 

and a host of others. Since 1917, its activities have devel- 
oped rapidly and the seal.' of its operation- D that 
it has over S00 working committees with nearly 1,000 mem- 
bers During the war the R.K.S.A was able to render im- 
portant technical service especially in connection with naval 
and aircraft work It was. for instance, called upon by the 
Air Ministry to organize committees and frame a BM 
specifications for aircraft material, which work was si 
fully carried out. In doing this, a large amount of re- 
search was initiated, especially in connection with novel 

method! of construction, the action of glue in glued Joints 

in ply wood, and Innumerable questions connected with 
fabric for aeroplane wings and the action and kind of dope 
The affairs of the I! K S A are directed by its Main 
Committee, couponed of members nominated by the great 
technical societies which support the association, as well 
as certain other co-optad and •x-nfflrio members. The Main 



January 10, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



126 



Committee appoints Sectional Committees, dealing with 
various divisions of engineering work, and the sub-com- 
mittees on which producers and purchasers are directly rep- 
resented and which carry out the actual technical work of 
formulating the various standards. These are, of course, 
approved by the Main Committee before publication. 

An interesting feature in the work of the B.E.S.A. is 
the series of local advisory committees, established in Brazil, 
Chile, Argentina, India. South Africa, China and elsewhere, 
keeping the parent association informed as to the industrial 
needs which develop in the various countries and advising 
as to the suitability or otherwise of British standards for 
local use. The C.E.S.A., though a completely independent 
body, has undertaken this duty as regards Canada. 

Progress in the United States 

In the United States, the movement began about the 
same time as in Great Britain, but was carried out directly 
by important technical societies like the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers and the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers, the former of which began its standardi- 
zation work in 1S9S. In 191S, more than 100 American 
technical societies were engaged independently on engi- 
neering standardization work, but there were no systematic 
methods of co-operation and in that year the American 
Engineering Standards Committee was organized to unify 
the methods adopted, to secure united action, and to avoid 
over-lapping, serving also as a central source of informa- 
tion and dealing with questions of international standardi- 
zation. The A.E.S.C. is composed of representatives ap- 
pointed by the member bodies; it does not itself prepare 
standards, but receives and adopts those formulated by vari- 
ous sponsor societies. Its activity has led to rapid develop- 
ment in many directions, especially in connection with 
safety code work. 

The American Engineering Standards Committee itself, 
usually referred to as the Main Committee, is composed at 
present of 47 members, representing 17 member-bodies. 
The Committee does not duplicate the work of other organi- 
zations. On the contrary, in acting as a clearing-house for 
standardization, it eliminates duplication, as very sub- 
stantial results have already shown. 

The Main Committee is solely an administrative and 
policy-forming body, and does not pass upon the technical 
details of standards. The formulation of a standard is in 
the hands of a working committee, technically called a 
"sectional committee," made up of representatives desig- 
nated by the various bodies interested. The Main Com- 
mittee must approve the personnel of each sectional com- 
mittee, as being authoritative and adequately representative 
of the various interests concerned. Producers, consumers, 
and general interests are to be represented on every actional 
committee dealing with standards of a commercial character. 

European Standardization Developments 

On the continent of Europe, national standardization 
bodies have been organized in Belgium, France, Germany, 
Holland, Austria, Czecho-Slovakia, Italy, Norway, Sweden, 
and Switzerland. Action along the same lines is being 
taken in Australia, and Japan has just appointed a Stan- 
dards Committee as one of its government departments, in 
this respect following France. In all other countries than 
France and Japan, the standards committees are voluntary 
organizations, enjoying, however, a larger or smaller amount 
of government support. 

The Association Beige de Standardisation (A.B.S. ) was 
formed in 1919 under the auspices of the six large engineer- 
ing associations in Belgium. The delegates of the support- 
ing institutions form its general committee and the stan- 
dards drawn up by its technical committees are published 
in draft form for criticism before adoption. Up to date 
seven publications have been issued, the most important of 
which are specifications for steel structural work and 
bridges, and standard requirements for electrical machinery. 

In France, the national standardizing body is the 
Commission Permanente de Standardisation (C.P.S.) a body 
appointed by and working under the Ministry of Commerce 
and Industry. The Commission is assisted by the work of 



the necessary competent technical advisers with whose aid 
it prepares projects or proposals to Ich are 

submitted to public criticism, and which, after amendment 
and approval, are definitely adopted as French stain. 
These standards an' obligator} tor Q8S in connection with all 
government contracts, and the scope of the Commission's 
work includes not only mechanical those 

relating to materials and rules for construction. I'll to 
September, 1921, the French Standards Committee hi 
sued upwards of thirty standard specifications. 

Standardization in Germany 

The amount and quality of the work done in Germany 
calls for special notice a-; the standardization movement in 
that country appears to have the support and interest of 
industrial associations and manufacturers to an extent 
which has hardly been approached elsewhere, even in Great 
Britain or the United Sta 

Prior to the war, a good deal of electrical standardi- 
zation work was carried out in Germany by the Society of 
German Electrical Engineers, but it is understood that the 
stress of war conditions led to a great development of this 
work and its extension to other fields of industry, and 
ultimately, in December, 1917. to the foundation of the 
Standards Committee of German Industry i X.D.I.) which 
was organized to serve as a central body for the issue of 
engineering standards of all kinds. 

The German Standards Committee has carried on its 
work with great activity, having, since 1917. issued some 
150 sheets of approved standards, while over 500 sheets 
have reached the stage of being published for criticism. 
The German Standards Committee has, as its members, 
Government departments, technical and industrial societies, 
the great engineering schools, and also private firms, all- 
these subscribing to its funds. Its Main Committee is made 
up of representatives nominated by the member organiza- 
tions and is charged with the general direction of policy and 
the approval of published standards. The actual executive 
work is entrusted to an executive committee of twelve 
members. The German Standards Committee maintains 
a very complete office organization, having an adequate engi- 
neering and technical staff, as well as some thirtj 
employees in the business office. Great stress is laid on 
the importance of having a central technical office so that 
working committees may be relieved as far as possible from 
the detail work of drawing up the various proposals, collect- 
ing information, and putting it in shape for consideration. 
The central office also takes care oi secretarial work and 
deals with questions relating to finance, publication and the 
sale of published standards. 

An interesting feature of tin- German wort is the co- 
operation with the X.D.I, of the various important technical 
associations such as the Society of German Electrical Engi- 
neers, the Society or Merchant Shipbuilders, etc. these As- 
sociations, in many cases, maintaining their own standards 
committees for working purposes, but publishing their work 
through the agency of the X.D.I, and retaining close con- 
nection with that body in all cases. In this way. it seems 
that overlapping and duplication of work is practically a- 
voided, while the int. Test of Hie members of the industrial 
associations in standardization work is effectively stimu- 
lated. 

Very complete arrangements are made with regard to 
the publication of German standards, there being available 
for this purpose a periodical or magazine dealing with pro- 
duction engineering and Issued bj tin- Society of German 
Engineers, in which all proposed standards are published 
for criticism be ore being finally approved. No small por- 
tion of the work of the technical office consists in the re- 
ception and consideration of these criticisms and the in- 
corporation of the its in the various 

proposed standards. 

As an evidence of the wide-spread interest of industrial 
Germany in standardisation work, it may be noted that over 
seven hundred firm- at BM to the funds of the 

German Standards Committee, and their business officii 
deals with 1,5 00 pieces of mail per day. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 42 



While it has been found necessary to withdraw and 
amend a number of the standard sheets, it appears that the 
majority are adopted and worked to by the leading firms of 
the country. 

Activity in Holland 

In Holland the Main Committee for Standardization in 
the Netherlands was organized in 1916 by the Society for 
the Promotion of Industry and the Royal Institute of Engi- 
neers. Its general organization includes an executive com- 
mittee, the necessary working committees, and a central 
standardization office, whose staff comprises the necessary 
technical and business employees for the effective carrying 
on of the work of the committee. The committee is sup- 
ported partly by grants from the Dutch government, and 
partly by a fund to which many of the large industrial and 
engineering firms have liberally subscribed. 

The Dutch committee lays particular stress on the 
necessity for thorough criticism of proposed standards be- 
fore their adoption, and when tentatively approved by the 
Main Committee, proposed standards are published for this 
purpose in the Dutch technical periodicals, interested par- 
ties being requested to forward such criticism or sugges- 
tions as they think advisable. At the expiry of a specified 
time, the criticisms are considered by the working com- 
mittee which has prepared the standard, which is amended, 
if thought proper, and is again sent out to the Main Com- 
mittee for definite approval and publication. 

The work of the Dutch Standardization Committee, like 
that of the German committee, has so far consisted very 
largely in the formulation of dimensional standards for 
engineering work. At the present time seven working 
committees have been formed, dealing with rivets, bolts and 
nuts; technical drawings; sizes of paper; methods of letter- 
ing; tolerances on cylindrical fits, and screw threads, gear- 
ing, shafting, keys, bearings, etc.; cable fittings; sewer 
pipes; and ship details. Up to May, 1921, 43 standard 
sheets had been published. 

Swiss Standardization 

In Switzerland, standardization work was begun in 
1918 by the Association of Swiss Machinery Manufacturers 
(V.S.M.) its standards committee being them intended to 
deal primarily with mechanical and electrical work. This 
committee established a practical working organization, 
but soon saw that the standardization field should not be 
limited to mechanical and electrical work and, as a result, 
the Swiss Standards Association (S.N.B.) was organized in 
January, 1921. This association is a union of some twenty- 
seven technical and industrial associations and federal in- 
stitutions, including the Association of Swiss Machinery 
Manufacturers, the Swiss State Railways, the Swiss Associ- 
ation of Electricians, the Swiss Boiler Owners' Association, 
the Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects, the Swiss 
Iron Foundries Association, and other similar bodies. The 
work so far accomplished in Switzerland has naturally been 
mainly the result of the activities of the Asssociation of 
Swiss Machinery Manufacturers although the more extended 
standardization work of the Standards Committee may 
soon be expected to develop. 

The conditions in Switzerland are of special interest to 
us In Canada, as. owing to thell geographical location and 
economic situation. Swiss manufacturers I 
consider carefully, and adopt in many cases, the standards 
of neighboring countries. The Industrial relationship, for 
example, between Switzerland and German; is very similar 
to that which exists between Canada and tin I'nit.il States. 
Questions of International agreement are. therefore, of 
particular importance In Switzerland, and the representa- 

f the Swiss stand ledally 

tlOD affairs and are keeping in eonstant touch with the 
other national standards committees or associate 

In Italy. Norway. Sweden, and Csecho-Slovakla, while 
a commencement of the work has been made, development 
has not proceeded (uffleiently tar to enable a detailed dfl 
scriptlon of the organization to be given. In each case, 
however, considerable activity Is being displayed. 



Work of the C. E. S. A. 

As regards Canada, the formation of the Canadian 
Engineering Standards Association in 1918 took place as a 
result of suggestions put forward from the British Engi- 
neering Standards Association, and its constitution follows 
generally that of the B.E.S.A. The general policy of the 
association is directed by a Main Committee of 43 members 
prominent in industrial and scientific work; sectional com- 
mittees are appointed, each dealing with one of the main 
divisions of engineering work and the actual technical work 
of the association is accomplished by sub-committees each 
dealing with some one specific task. There are at present 
ten sectional committees and over twenty sub-committees 
and panels are engaged in the discussion of the standards 
which are in preparation. The association is supported by 
subscriptions from technical societies and firms interested, 
together with a grant from the Dominion government. 

The following publications have been issued by the 
association: 

No. 1 -1920 Standard Specification for Steel Railway 
Bridges. 

la-1920 Do. (Separate reprint of Material Specifica- 
tions.) 

2 -1920 Standard Requirements for Distribution Type 

Transformers. 

3 -1920 Standard Specifications for Galvanized Tele- 

graph and Telephone Wire. 

The following are in preparation and will shortly be 
issued : 
Standard Specification for Steel Highway Bridges. 

" " " Railway Bridges (new edi- 

tion.) 
" " Wire Rope for Mining and 

Dredging Purposes. 
" Portland Cement. 

In order to indicate more clearly the method by which 
an engineering standard is actually developed, it may per- 
haps be of interest to take the case of galvanized telegraph 
and telephone wire, which has recently been dealt with 
by a sub-committee of the C.E.S.A. 

A request from one of the largest manufacturers of 
this material was placed before the Main Committee in 1919 
and indicated that line-wire was being purchased in Can- 
ada to a large number of specifications differing very 
slightly amongst themselves hut varying to such an extent 
that it was impossible for wire rods to be rolled or for wire 
to be drawn for stock with the certainty of being acceptable 
to more than one of the large telephone or telegraph com- 
panies. It was pointed out that if two or three grades of 
this material could be agreed upon as fulfilling Canadian 
requirements, considerable economy would result and ma- 
terial could be promptly obtained from stock. A sub-com- 
mittee was accordingly appointed to deal with the question, 
of which representatives of all the manufacturers and all 
the telegraph and telephone authorities wore members. 
After a preliminary comparison of the existing Bpeclfloa 
tions and the preparation of a draft for criticism, two 
meetings of the committee were held at which it was agreed 
that the C.E.S.A. specification for galvanised line wire 
should cover two qualities of wire and live sizes in each 
quality. The resulting specification was approved for pub- 
lication in February, 1921, and Is - BneraJ adap- 
tion. The saving resulting from the complete adoption of 
this Specification by all concerned is estimated at from 760 

to II. 00 a ion on an average consumption of eight to feu 

thousand tons per j ear 

In the spring of 1921, an important conference of secre- 
Of the various national standardising bodies was held 

in London, at which Information was interchangi 
gardlng the methods of work ami activities in the vi 
countries rep ad a number id' points were inform- 

ally di possible tines along which Interna- 

I ndization D I' was Celt, how- 

ever, that Internet! sent, however desirable, must 

iproached bj slo* degrees, although there I 

son to hope that before long, effective action will be found 
possible in connection with certain important subjects. 



January 10, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



121 



SEWAGE GAS AS MOTIVE POWER 



By John 1>. Watson, M. Inst. C.E., 

Engineer to the Birmingham, Tame and Rea District 

Drainage Board 
riiHE ever-increasing need for power on sewage purifica- 
X tion works, the present cost of fuel, the persistent de- 
mands for economy, and the salvage of waste products are 
all influences which compel exhaustive inquiries into every 
possible source of power. 

The object of this paper is to suggest a source hitherto 
overlooked or minimized, and to describe experiments and 
experiences which are calculated to stimulate further in- 
quiries into the possibilities of utilizing the marsh gas 
which is formed by organisms acting upon decaying vege- 
table and other organic substances. 

When the annual meeting of this Institution was held 
in Birmingham two years ago, the author read a paper on 
the utilization of sewage sludge, describing in some detail 
.the intensive fermentation process adopted on the Birming- 
ham works in order to render the vast quantities of sludge 
inoffensive without destroying its fertilizing properties or 
lessening the calorific value. In that paper comparatively 
little was said about the gas evolved by the fermentation 
process beyond making reference to the marked differences 
between crude sewage sludge before it enters upon the septic 
or putrefactive stage and the sludge after it has reached 
that stage. Illustrations were given to show that sludge 
during the digestion process is lighter than water, but what 
at first sight appeared to be a reversal of the law of gravi- 
tation is a delusion — it is merely an instance of solid 
matter being held up by gas formed in the course of the 
putrefactive change which takes place when organic matter 
is acted upon by bacteria and their enzymes. It was shown 
how sludge in this condition was more easily pumped than 
fresh sludge; friction in the process of forcing it through 
a cast-iron main 5 miles in length was lessened. When 
the main referred to was first laid difficulties were antici- 
pated which were not realized in practice. It was assumed, 
therefore, that the comparatively frictionless propulsion of 
solids through the main was probably due to the reduced 
density of sludge and to an innumerable number of gas 
bubbles acting like so many ball bearings between particles 
of solids, thus tending to reduce the viscosity of the sludge. 

It is now proposed to refer to the nature and power of 
this gas, and to give illustrations of what it can be made 
to do when under control, for it is possible to harness this 
veritable will-o'-th'-wisp if the conditions are understood 
and taken advantage of in a scientific manner. 

More than a quarter of a century ago gas generated in 
Cameron's covered septic tank was drawn off and employed 
in the Exeter sewage works. 

In the beginning of 1920 the author visited the Ma- 
tunga leper asylum at Bombay, where a small engine had 
been driven by sewage gas by Mr. James as far back as 1907. 

In both these cases the gas was generated in closed sep- 
tic tanks which favored the cultivation of the anaerobic 
organisms, and in the latter case the climate was specially 
favorable. But the work done more recently by Mr. Wal- 
shaw at Paramatta in Australia, under what he terms 
aerobic conditions, is much more remarkable — indeed, it 
was knowledge of this case coming immediately after his 
Indian experiences which induced the author to try whether 
it was possible to obtain equally successful results in this 
changeable, unreliable climate of ours. 

Cole Hall, Birmingham, Plant 

The opportunity of making a test at Cole Hall presented 
itself, and the drainage board, who had some years pre- 
viously approved plans for driving the pump there by a 
suction-gas engine, consented to the scheme being carried 
to admit of a sewage-gas plant being substituted for the 
suction-gas plant. 

It will be observed from the diagrammatic section how 
very little alteration was required to meet the changed 
conditions, and how little expense was incurred in defraying 
the cost of the experiment. 



The plant is designed to give a 25-b.h.p. for a working 
period of six hours per day. It comprises a 34 (max.) h.p. 
horizontal Mas engine of the ordinary suction type, made 
by the National Gas Engine Company, Limited, a 5-in. 
centrifugal sludge pump made by the Unchokable Pump 
Company, a small sludge pump well, and a sludge digestion 
tank in two sections constructed of cement concrete. There 
yet remains to be erected a small gasholder, without which 
it is impossible to keep the engine running for more than 
an hour and a half or two hours consecutively. 

It will be seen from the diagram that the exhaust pipes 
for the engine are enlarged to 9 in. diameter, and made 
to pass through the digestion or generating tanks with the 
object of imparting heat to the sludge and so promoting 
fermentation, thus benefiting from the experience gained 
at Saltley, where for a dozen years it has been customary 
to inject live steam into the sludge during extremely cold 
weather. It will be observed, also, that provision is made 
for effecting an occasional disturbance of the mass by inject- 
ing compressed air, but this is not altogether satisfactory, 
as it interferes, to a certain extent, with the regulation of 
the mixture supplied to the engine, and arrangements will 
shortly be made to effect the desired disturbance by means 
of compressed gas drawn from the top of the sludge diges- 
tion tanks. This will also serve to mix the fresh charges of 
sludge. 

The principal constituents of sewage gas are methane 
(CH,), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and carbon dioxide 
(C0 2 ), and it is upon the marsh gas, or methane, we chiefly 
rely. 

Marsh Gas in Sewage: Analyses 

The following statement gives the percentage by vol- 
ume of marsh gas found in various septic sewages in Eng- 
land, America, Australia, and India; 

marsh gas 

Exeter (Donald Cameron) 20.13 

Exeter (Donald Cameron) 24.4 

Matunga (C. C. James) ' 21.25 

Matunga (C. C. James) 23.9 

Lawrence (Mass. State Board of Health) 

Septic Tank A 79.0 

Septic Tank B 37.5 

Septic Tank F 75.9 

Parramatta (Septic Gas Co. of Australia) 60.0 

Birmingham (J. D. Watson), Aug. 1921 60.1 

Birmingham (J. D. Watson), Sep. 1921 77.0 

Birmingham (J. D. Watson), Nov. 1921 67.5 

The analyses of gas made in September and November 
respectively are as follows: 

Per cent 

Carbon dioxide CO, 1S.1 

Hydro carbon HC 0.2 

Oxygen 2 0.4 

Carbon monoxide CO 1.1 

Methane CH 4 77.0 

Ethane C 2 H, trace 

Nitrogen N, 3.2 

100.0 



Per cent 

25.2 



2.8 
4.2 



B.T.U.'s per cubic foot 700 



650 



Results from such a wide selecton of places in different 
parts of the world seem to indicate that marsh gas is evolved 
from organic matter as readily in one climate as in another, 
but in fact it is not so, and the results of the analyses show 
the need for more definite information and caution in their 
application. The results obtained by .Mr. Khead, chief 
chemist to the Birmingham Gas Department, in his analyses 
of the Cole Hall gas emphasize this statement. 

The amount of gas from the total volume of available 
sludge which can be relied upon at Cole Hall is greater 
than the power demand there, but it is certain to vary 
with the seasons, and it is as sure to vary with the age, 
the volume, and the condition of the organic matter in 
the sludge. Steps are therefore being taken to investigate 
the facts with a view to preparing graphs which will show 



128 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



le volume of ;as to be obtained from a given volume 
of average sludge i 10 per rent dry solid matter) in a given 
time, (2) one which will show at what time the sludge 
gives off the maximum quantity of gas, and what time 
is needed to chance that maximum into a minimum. 

Probably the majority of the results given in the ana- 
lytical table were obtained from septic sewage, but the 




VSlucfgefrom 

rgsa- nza 'y/Ztfrme/iA/ffon 7&/iks 

W' FCWr—A- 





DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENTAL PLANT 

A — 34 nil. I', ('.as EngSne. B Centrifugal Sludge Pump. 
C — Sludge Pump Well. D ing [antes. E — 

K — Con. - tank. J — Com- 

ogine. H — Cooling tank. 
J — .}:■ i Ge main. 

L — Supply pipes. 

author is of opinion that it is from sludge and not from 
liquid sewage that gas can be obtained in sufficient volume 
to render its use economical. This statement is contrary 
to that put forward by Australian observers who claim that 
the best results can be o Om aerobic treatment of 

sewage. 

1'p till now the sludge available at Cole Hall has been 
very water] cent dry solid matter). 

This was owing to the fact that the supply was temporarily 
dependent upon the ability of a land Irrigation pipe laid 
on a very flat gradient to convey it from the outfall works 
to the engine house i ludge main which will 

soon be completed a denser sludge (at bast in per cent 
dry solid matter) will be conveyed to the tanks, thus re- 
ducing the volume of water which has hitherto entered 
tin- tanks, penlstently lowering the temperature of the 
mass, and taking up space which should be occupied by or- 
ganic matter which Is ca as With a more 
concentrated sludge, It is evident that inning 
material temporarily confined in the linn DOUld 
produce a greatly Increased volumi iter of 
prime Importance until a gasholdi p i rt of 
the Installation i . for it I to Impound surplu 

to be drawn upon when the demand by the engine exc is 

the volume available In the dl I ink, 

Notwithstanding • ■ ea in the ezp 

tal plant, the fact remain-, that the engine has worke ! 

cessfully and has given out the power required to drive 
the pump. 

At Cole Hall, where the gas engine has been Installed, 
the method of disposing of sludge has hitherto been quite 



different from that obtaining in the main works in the 
Tame Valley. At the latter works the sludge is subjected 
to the fermentation process for the reasons enumerated two 
years ago. but at Cole Hall farmers buy it for agricultural 
purposes, and it is obvious that so long as it can be got 
rid of in this — the most satisfactory — way, there is no 
need to employ intensive fermentation. At Cole Hall, there- 
lore, only sludge required to give off gas for power will be 
subjected to fermentation, and, judging from the limited ex- 
perience available, it is estimated that about 2 tons of wet 
sludge (10 per cent dry, solid matter) per day will be 
required to provide an explosive gas capable of generating 
25-b.h.p. for a working period of six hours per day. The 
amount of available sludge at Cole Hall is approximately 
SO tons per day (10 per cent dry, solid matter). 

The sludge, after it has been discarded, will probably 
be freer of fat and grease than it was before fermentation, 
and to that extent it will be more valuable to farmers than 
it was in its initial stage; moreover, it will still retain about 
2 per cent of nitrogen after it has given off its methane, 
so that its fertilizing properties are not thereby exhausted, 
if indeed they are materially lessened. 

Costs 

Before emphasizing the fact that we have in marsh gas 
a useful power for driving an internal conbustion engine, 
and that we have great volume of this gas in sewage sludge, 
there is the all-important question. Is is economical to 
use it? 

It is obviously the business of the engineer to deter- 
mine this, and he will require to take into account compara- 
tive costs of fuels, probable fluctuations in prices, the loca- 
tion of the works, transport facilities, effect of strikes on 
the supply of fuel. &c, 

It was originally intended to put in a suction-gas plant, 
and although it is hardly time to make a comparison which 
can be relied upon, the following statement will be inter- 
esting, and may be helpful: 

Annual Cost of Installing a Sewage-Gas I'laut Compared 
With (he Installation of a Standard Sue tion-<;as Plant 

Duty — 25 b.h.p. tor daily period of six hours. 
The cost of gas engine, engine house, pump and pump 
well being common to both plants is ignored in the com- 
parison. The cost of labor, lubrication, and repairs is also 
approximately equal, and does not appear in the com- 
parison. 

Suction-gas Plant 
Capital cost of suction-gas plant o. similar 
capacity, £300. 

£ s. d. 

Annual charge on £300 at lo per cent 30 

30% tons of anthracite at £3 per ton 91 10 

i Allowing 1 >., lb. per h.h.p. hour) 121 It) 

Sewage-gas Plant 
Cosl of constructing generating tanks, with com- 
plete equipment of fittings, and allpipework 

£600 at 7 per lent (repayable In 26 years).... 42 
Provision for gasholder, £f>oo at lo per cent 

(repayable in 11 years) 50 o o 

:< J 
Net annual Saving in favor ol plant L'!l 10 

Resent lals to Bn< i ess 

The following notes should be pondered by those who 

think of developing the Cole experiment 

Success in designing an installation is dependent 01 
curate information regarding la) the percentage of sludge 
(dry. i Which is callable of gasification, tin the 

1 evolution of the BaS at various temperatures, and 

(c) the proportion of methane in the composition of tie 

la i Sludge, like ot diverse composition. 

much o fits value as a gas producing Bubstance depend! 
upon the efficiency of the grit chambers and the amount of 
organic matter left in the sludge. There can be no doubt 



January lo. 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



that the gas comes from the decomposition of organic 
matter, and an inordinate proportion of inorganic matter 
would be a distinct hindrance, so would large doses of tarry 
and oily substances mixed up with the sludge lessen, if they 
did not entirely inhibit, the gas producing power of the 
putrefactive organisms. 

Again, a modern sewerage system is designed to convey 
to a place of disposal almost every form of trade as well as 
domestic wastes, and water is the vehicle by which it is 
conveyed. That the fouled water contains organic matter 
is true, but obviously it is the sludge which is brought down 
with the water that contains the material from which gas is 
produced, so that the less liquid there is in sludge which is 
set aside for gasification the better. This, however, leads 
to a position where one may go wrong Very readily. It is 
most difficult to obtain fresh sludge which contains more 
than 10 per cent of dry, solid matter, but the author has 
found to his cost that you may Ikeep such sludge in a tank 
for a whole year without its undergoing the putrefactive 
change so essential to the production of gas. It is not 
enough, therefore, to set aside great volumes of organic 
matter; that matter must be introduced into a tank which 
has already been inoculated by the right organism, and it 
should not be introduced so rapidly that' the organisms are 
smothered. 

On the Saltley works where sludge is treated in order 
to deprive it of smell and its emulsive character, it is found 
to be advisable to mix the fresh material with about 2 per 
cent of "ripe" sludge when it is first transferred into a diges- 
tion tank; it is desirable also to maintain its temperature 
as high as possible with the view of providing those condi- 
tions which favor putrefactive change^ Probably Dr. 
Travis's hydrolytic tank was the direct result of the desira- 
bility of doing this work recently. Dr. Imhoff, the German 
engineer, improved on Travis's tank and boomed it in Am- 
erica, where it has proved to be a very efficient instrument 
for separating fresh sewage from sludge which is kept de- 
signedly for months in order to convert it into an inodorous 
mass. The Birmingham method it better adapted to local 
circumstances, but the results are similar except that the 
Birmingham method is so arranged that it is possible to 
isolate sudden rushes of anti-septic liquor, a matter of 
considerable importance at times. 

Another line of investigation essential to ascertaining 
the volume of gas which may be evolved from a given quan- 
tity of sludge is the influence of agitation. We know as a 
fact that disturbance of the mass is beneficial, but we are 
ignorant of the extent to which it should be carried. When 
a silt tank at Saltley fails to ferment, it is passed through 
the pump and distributed among what are termed ripe or 
healthy tanks. Breaking up the sludge as it passes through 
the direct-acting pumps effects a considerable change, but 
this Side of the question requires further investigation, and 
what has already been done in Australia in this regard 
should not be overlooked. 

(b) Temperature plays a very important part in the rate 
of evolution of gas and the volume extracted from a given 
quantity of sludge. In a sewerage district of 115 sq. miles, it 
takes so long for some sewage to travel to the outfall that 
it is mildly septic before it arrives there, but when the 
district is small the liquid portion of the sewage is for the 
time being almost free of putrefactive tendencies and will 
probably remain so throughout its treatment. The sludge, 
too, may take longer to septicize, but if treated under 
anaerobic conditions should be converted into gas in the 
quickest and most favorable way. We do not know the 
temperature at which the organisms will cease to act alto- 
gether, nor the temperature at which they will act most 
efficiently; investigation is required therefore if we would 
ascertain this one of the essential factors of the problem. 

Th° composition of the kU'.^-p :i! .i aid be considered 
when endeavoring to find out the rate of evolution of gas. 
Domestic sewage per se is probably better than any other 
for gas production, and some sewages, so far from contain- 
ing putrefactive organisms possess qualities which steri- 
lize those that emanate from domestic sources. Rushes of 
acid water, :"or example, affect whatever they come in con- 



tact with. One of the Birmingham outfalls la so bad in 
this respect that in five months a new cast-iron centrifugal 
pump impeller is pitted all over and the extremities worn 
to fine points. 

(c) The analytical constituents of the gas emanating 
from the available sewage sludge should be determined with 
accuracy. The figures in our possession are limited; so 
far they lead us to say that the gas contains from 60 to 7 7 
per cent of methane, but with frequent determinations taken 
over a longer period it will be possible to give a more re- 
liable figure. 

Conclusion 

Members of the institution having seen the installation 
at Cole Hall will appreciate the following abstracts of facts: 
Ordinary suction gas engine 34 (Max.) b.h.p. 
Duty of Engine 25 b.h.p. for 6 hours per day- 
Quantity of gas consumed 

per h.p 20 cubic ft. 

Estimated quantity of gas 

required per day 3,000 cubic ft. 

.Maximum duty of unchok- 

able pump 450 gallons per minute a- 

gainst a head of 36 ft. at 
about 1,200 revolutions 
per minute. 

Rising main . 12-in. dia. Stanton Hume 

pipe. 
Sludge capacity of generat- 
ing tank 80 cubic yards. 

Proposed capacity of gas 

holder 2,000 cubic ft. 

Average proportion of me- 
thane in gas 60 per cent, to 77 per cent 

The following observations on the working of the plant 
between September 6 and. November 3 of this year, al- 
though varying in some respects with our original estimate, 
are of considerable importance: 
Total amount of dry, solid matter passed 

through tanks 4 tons. 

Average period of retention 6.4 weeks. 

Average percentage of dry, solid matter in 

wet sludge 3 per cent. 

(The plant now contains sludge having a 
proportion of 10 per cent dry, solid 
matter. ) 
Esimated amount of gas consumed by en- 
gine 25,000 cubic ft. 

The total gas yield is, of course, in excess of this amount, 
but it will only be possible to measure it when a gasholder 
is available. Under present circumstances a considerable 
quantity of gas is lost each time a recharge of sludge is 
made. A certain amount of gas has also been lost in mak- 
ing tests and minor alterations. A gas production of 86,- 
000 cubic ft. from 4 tons dry, solid matter is equivalent to 1 
cubic ft. of gas from .36 lb. dry, solid matter, or a gasifica- 
tion of 18 per cent of the total dry, solid matter. This is 
only 60 per cent of the amount of sludge gasified in open 
tanks in the Thame Valley. 

In conclusion, it is worthy of remark that the fact 
which has influeced the author more than any other in fol- 
lowing up this experiment consists in this: That 4 00,000 
tons of wet sludge containing 27,000,000 tons of dry. solid 
matter is dealt with on the main works at Birmingham 
every year, and that as much as 9,000 tons of dry, solid 
matter is gasified. This is equivalent to 320,000,000 cubic 
ft. of gas. Paper read at a meeting of Municipal and 
County Engineers. 



Building activity in Kitchener, Ont., during 1921 
reached a total of $932,050, a decrease of nearly $200,000 
from 1920. In this respect, it must be considered, how- 
ever, it must be considered, however, that in 1920 the Y.M.- 
C.A. building and several large industrial buildings swelled 
the total considrably whereas this year $494,800 or half 
the total was made up of residence permits to the number 
of 117. The total number of permits issued was 496. 



THE C A N A D I A X ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



TRANSPORTATION \M> DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN 

nriis 



Bj Paul Seurot 

Chief Engineer, Montreal Tramway.- Commission 



THE solution of the transportation problem is especially 
difficult in the cities still at the period of evolution, 
il transformation and in which the popu- 
lation has not reached the saturation mark. 

id and Paris, so essentially modern, are. however. 
very old cities which long ago reached their maximum 
growth and can only expand now by the annexation of ex- 
centric districts or of suburbs. The transportation problem 
consists, for those cities, in creating new extension lines to 
il part of the city to these outlying sub- 
urbs in the shortest time. The changes to be made in the 
arban transportation of these cities will have in view main- 
ly the improvements to lie made in the rolling stock, the 
means to be adopted to accelerate the service, the curtail- 
ment of operating expenses practicable with a good service 
and the possible reduction of fares. 

In such cities, the transformations are slow and have 
but little influence on traffic movements. Custom has as- 
signed certain districts, certain streets to special classes of 
business and the migration of certain stores or shops to- 
wards new quarters is progressive and affects only a small 
number of customers whose movements in one direction or 
another is hardly appreciable, in so far as transportation is 
concerned. 

In North America, in Canada particularly, the condi- 
tions are different The large cities, there, are still in the 
period of evolution and of transformation. Some of these 
cities, until quite recently, were mere villages or only an 
agglomeration of wooden shacks hastily put together 
alongside a railway track, near a mine or a lumber mill. 

Montreal itself which, with its surrounding insular 
territory, had but 330.000 inhabitants in 1900, reached 
10 last year; and taking into consideration the large 
territories still unoccupied on the island of Montreal it is 
possible to foresee what will be the Canadian metropolis 
in twenty or thirty years. 

Special Conditions in American Cities 

The rapid growth of American cities has taken place 
under special conditions and might be compared to the 
forced growth, in conservatories, of plants, which, normal- 
ly, would have reached their full development after a much 
longer time. The construction of railways has been the 
principal cause of this rapid evolution. In the over-popu- 
lated countries of Europe, the railways had to follow well 
determined paths to connect cities permanently settled, 
and which they could only enter at specified points and 
under ona and restrictions; this explains the 

elaborate approaches, bridges, viaducts or tunnels which had 
to lie built in order that the railway construction should 
n to the state and municipal 

In America, the conditions were entirely different; a 
few industrial centres, usually at the confluence of navig- 
able i t the con tin ited by large 
and usually unoccupied territories, centres winch it was 
connect With one anothi why. at the 

ming, railways were laid along the path of leas) 
■v i 1 1 1 cbeapni and rapidity of execution Id view. 

rather tlian durability and permanency. Along these rail- 
to become the great arteries of the Ameri- 
ontlnent, •■■. erected the warehouse, 

I tew residences, the factory. 

the church and In a short while towns came to life and ex- 
pidlty at whlcb Europe marveled. 

o many American towns, can be seen 
of-way in the Diddle « > r the el crossing*, 

• ■ main avenues or even 

mil which an- go many obstructions to 

local trafflC and to the development of some districts, with 

the accompaniment of noise, d oke, 

This brought about, within the last twenty-five years, 
the reconstruction of the prlnclpsl railways in the large 



cities of the United States: the elimination of freight tracks 
from the surface of the streets, the grouping of the main 
approach lines, the elimination of grade crossings by de- 
pressing or elevating the tracks, the not infrequent amal- 
gamation of the lines of different companies entering a city 
along the same right-of-way and having the same terminal, 
the "Union Station." the practical usefulness of which to 
the interested companies is self evident, and which puts at 
the disposal of the travelling public all the latest modern 
improvements, comforts and conveniences. 

Intel-urban Transportation 

In regard to interurban transportation, the old and 
permanently established towns have only to provide the 
lines that are necessary to serve the large centres of popu- 
lation and the principal streets. The levels are permanently 
established according to standard data, the pavements, the 
sewers and all municipal underground utilities have been 
installed and the tramways and the subways have only to 
conform to the regulations and to the conditions. The only 
things to determine are the number of lines to operate, the 
car service and headway for each hour of the day, the trans- 
fer points . the subdivision in zones, the economical haul, the 
time and the place when, and where, the subway or eleva- 
ted structure becomes more advantageous than the auto bus 
or the tramway. The loading and congestion points are 
known and means to adequately and rapidly handle the 
crowds at certain hours can be devised in advance: in 
these cities, the population of wTiich has already reached 
the point of saturation, the growth is constant and is not 
generally over 3%. The suburbs alone, which may still be 
in the period of evolution, are the unknown factors of the 
problem. These suburbs will have to be served by exten- 
sions or penetration lines which will effectively relieve the 
steam railways suburban traffic which is always an impedi- 
ment to main line operation. 

In cities still in the evolution or constructive period, 
the problem is more difficult to solve: the development of 
the means of transportation and the development of the 
city itself are not always simultaneous; in many cases, par- 
ticularly during the periods, more or less hysterical, of real 
estate booms and wholesale lot subdivisions, street car 
lines, and even elevated lines or subways, are built long 
before the newly opened territories may be sufficiently de- 
veloped to insure a precarious return upon the invested 
capital. In their estimates, the engineers and the finan- 
ciers, as well, should take in consideration the probable in- 
crease in population to have a fair idea of the future density 
of traffic. 

According to the theory of George P. Wat kins, one of 
the statisticians of the Public Service Commission of the 
State of New York, theory based on former studies by Wel- 
lington, in his book on Railway Location, and by Ms 
dorf in Berlin, it appears that, generally, traffic, which at 
first increases directly in proportion with the population, 
increases more rapidly, and as the square of the popul.it ion. 
as soon as transit Improves in regard to speed, comfort, 
number of cars, even in these Improvements require the 
opening of new lines or the construction of new means of 
transportation such as subways. 

Transportation and Growth ol ( Itlee 

it might he well here to see what bearing well planned 

new means of transportation may have on the development 

of communities, Taking the Borough of the Bronx, for in- 
stance, which became, politically, a borough of the city of 

N-w York in 1900, remained, until 1906, geographically 

separated (ton New York by the Harlem River and about 

11 miles distant from the down town district which could be 
reached only after travelling for nearly an hour and a half. 

In 1908, when the construction of the suhw 
-tatted .the population of the Hronx. spread over an area 
..I In square miles, was 980,000 and the real estate value 

recorded in the t.i\ Department was 1168,600,598, in 
1906, when the east branch of the subway was opened, 
giving rapid and continuous transportation from the Bronx 
ith Kerry, the end of the line at that time, the popu- 
lation was 275,000 and the value of the real estate 1274,- 



January 10, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



859,593. which shows that in 3 years, previous to the 
opening, but speculating on the benefits to he derived there- 
from, the population had increased 20 and the real estate 
value 78 ' . 

In 1911, six years after the opening of the subway, i.e. 
from 1905 to 1911, the population had increased 76% and 
the real estate value 120', ; the former being 183,224 and 
the latter S605.222.933. Compared to 1902 the population 
had increased 110% and the real estate value 29 l 

Situation in Montreal 

In 1912 the population on the island of Montreal was 
600,000; in 1921 it was 872,000. In 1912 there were, on 
the Montreal Tramways 175 rides per annum et capita; ac- 
cording to Watkins' theory there should have been 369 
revenue passengers per annum and per capita; there were 
only 218 during the last fiscal year. The same discrepancy 
appears if we take the transfers into account; the total num- 
ber of rides per annum et capita was 230 in 1912 and 297 
in 1920-1921, whilst it should have been 485 according to 
the formula established by Watkins, Wellington and Mat- 
tersd'orff. 

We know, however, that until certain improvements 
have been brought in any transportation system the traffic 
is directly proportional to the population; therefore the 
rides per year and capita which were 175 in 1912 should 
have been 254 in 1921; they were only 21S. The difference, 
however, is not so great if we consider that the last seven 
years were abnormal economically as well as in regards to 
immigration and population. 

It would not be right, either to conclude from the 
above data, that is traffic has not increased more rapidly 
than in proportion to the growth of population it is be- 
cause the service was not sufficiently improved to cultivate 
in the public what has been called the "riding habit." 

The cause of this traffic stagnation is not due alto- 
gether to the economic crisis which has weighed on the 
world for the past seven years nor solely to the lack of 
employment and to the rising cost of life, of materials and 
of labor; the main cause is inherent to local conditions 
which obtain in large modern cities in America, still in the 
constructive period of evolution and transformation and 
where the utter lack of well planned policy in regard to city 
development has created unbalanced systems of transpor- 
tation whehe we see over congested lines pay for the main- 
tenance of wholly unproductive ones. These conditions are 
due to the uneven development of the different sections of 
these cities, creating in some of them some sort of local 
hypertrophies generally following the energetic, if not al- 
ways wise, methods employed by some real estate companies 
too anxious to dispose of their subdivided wilderness. To 
this may be added the hasty construction of factories 
and shops in poorly chosen localities and which permanently 
close their doors after a short while or move to better 
quarters. To these difficulties, found in the way of satis- 
factory transportation, must be added the rapid construc- 
tion of large office buildings within a comparatively small 
area. 

In Montreal, for instance, were built, almost simultane- 
ously, the Transportation Building, the Dominion Express 
building, the Royal Trust Building, the Duluth Building, 
the Sauvegarde, the Versailles Building, the Shaughnessy 
Building and the Bank of Toronto Building; and now we 
see the office business section of the city expand and its 
centre of gravity move away from the intersection of St. 
James and St. Francois Xavier Streets; large office buildings 
are now being erected on Beaver Hall Hill and on Phillips 
Square; St. Catherine Street is changing from day to day; 
large banks are now opening there monumental branch of- 
fices; new stores are opened or the old ones enlarged; at 
the main transfer points are the Dandurand Building, and 
Almy, and the Drummond Building; to-morrow it will be 
the Mount Royal Hotel, not to mention the almost continu- 
ous line of theatres which at certain hours concentrate, 
along a distance of barely a mile, crowds that must be 
handled in a comparatively short time. 



Crowded Btree) Can 

The rapid transportation of the man] ■ >rk- 

Ing in these stores •••■ ' offices and who, from 8 to 9 a.m. 
and from 5 to 6 p.m. go in both directions like a flood and 
ebb tide, is a difficult problem to solve and one that taxes 
the operation oi' the transportation system to the utmost, 
owing to its very disproportion with the normal, or base day, 
service. In Montreal, for instance, at the peak load, during 
the 6 o'clock rush period, there are on the whole system 
two and a half times more cars in service than from 10 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. During this peak load service, the main streets, 
such as St: James, St. Catherine, Bleury and St. Denis are 
so crowded that it is practically impossible, particularly 
near the intersections, to add any more cars. On St. l 
between Place d'Armes and McGill Street, there is a con- 
tinuous line of cars, and on St. Denis, for instance, the 
average headway between cars is 40 seconds and 32 
cars, passing under that headway, have trailers in tow. 

The first and immediate remedy to these conditions, 
with a view to relieving the congestion and in order to ac- 
celerate the car movements, would be to cut down the num- 
ber of stops or, at least, to stagger them on each side of the 
streets. This, however, requires, first of all, the good will 
and the co-operation of the public. 

What will be the solution a few years hence? Perhaps 
the construction of subways under these main arteries mak- 
ing possible an underground express service run in conjunc- 
tion with, and relieving the local surface service or, pos- 
sibly, the construction of new surface lines on streets 
parallel to those on which tramways are now being operated 
and which could give a mixed service with stops staggered 
with the present ones. 

Subways Would Relieve Conditions 

It seems, however, that the better plan would be to 
follow boldly the American solution and build underground 
railways which, in so far as Montreal is concerned, should 
preferably be operated jointly with the existing street rail- 
way and under the same management. According to 
American experience, it seems that the Metropolitan District 
proper is included within a 30-minute zone; outside this 
zone, the service becomes suburban and, as such, may be 
subject to the regulations obtained in the operation of sub- 
urban service on main line steam railways, chiefly in regard 
to time table and headway. However, the contract entered 
into by the City of Montreal and the Montreal Tramways 
Co., and under the terms of which the present system is 
operated, has not accepted this delimitation between urban 
and suburban travel; the contract, sanctioned by an Act 
of the egislature, has included in the metropolitan distru : 
certain sections of the island separated by great distances 
so that, for instance, it is possible, to go from Cartierville 
to the limits of Montreal East, nearly twenty miles, for one 
single fare, on a trip lasting almost two hours. This fea- 
ture will perhaps foster the development of vast terri: 
still unoccupied, in the Metropolitan District, but the 
means of transportation will have to be organized on a new 
basis, because it will become impossible to feed from a 
central point, already too congested, far distant territories 
which will themselves be, at that time, active and thickly 
populated centres. 

In view of the changes taking place almost continu- 
ously, it is necessary to closely follow the increase of popu- 
lation with a view of placing adequate means of transporta- 
tion at its disposal. 

The census of the population bordering along the main 
arteries must be taken and details given for each office build- 
ing, department store, factory or theatre. In the question- 
naires sent to the managers of large stores or manufa< 
information is asked regarding the routes followed by the 
employees in going to or from their work; such data help 
in planning what service is to be given to the travelling 
public at certain hours of the day. The returns so obtained 
can be shown on the plan of the city by plotting, isometri- 
cally or in any other conventional manner, the density of 
population tor each street and even for each block. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



With due allowance [or the annual percentage of in- 
111 population and the possibility of seeing St. James 
Street and Notre Dame Street lined with ten-storey office- 
buildings between McGlll Street and the Champ-de-Mars, 
one may imagine what service would he required to handle 
the crowds is leaving this busy bee-hive between 

5 and 6 o'clock: and this increase, with attending conges- 
tion, will not only he local hut will spread to, and effect, 
the other large arteries of the metropolis. 

Divide < Sties Into Districts or Zones 

In some American cities, with a view to obviate this 
overcrowding, it has been recommended that stores and 
offices, on different blocks, should close at different times; 
this solution, however, is not practical. Even before the 

-tion has reached the point of saturation, it seems 
that the only possible solution will be the construction of 
subways or of oew surface lines looping the principal 
.on; at that time, the routing of the main 
lines should be so changed as to rapidly handle the crowds 
from the most heavily loaded district towards the limits of 
districts in which the density of population is constantly 
decreasing. This is equivalent to zoning; the division of 
Montreal in zones, with the present rolling stock, could be 
done only in so far as the rapidity of transportation is con- 
cerned, a greater number of cars reaching the limits of the 
first zone being able, by means of loops, to come back to 
the starting point. The division in zones, in so far as it 
might affect the ^ares, by making the tariff proportional to 
the haul, would necessitate an entirely new equipment or 
the remodelling of the present rolling stock. This zoning, 
■ it, is impossible according to the contract which 
specifically determines the limits of a uniform tariff terri- 
tory. 

As to new lines, called extensions in the contract, they 
should be considered, in regard to population, as are the 

■I districts of the city. A careful census giving the 
number and the class of houses, tenements and residences, 
with the number of people residing in the district under 
consideration, should be prepared, affected by a co-efficient 

ponding to the probable growth of the district. The 
construction of the new line or extension should begin 
when the development of the district had reached a well 
determined point. 

< o-operation in Planning Street Car Routes 

In this respect, there should be the greatest possible 
co-operation between the city and the Transit Company; 
this co-operation would then prevent the city from com- 
pelling the operating company to immediately build lines 
which will likely be unproductive and remain a burden on 
the rest of tie system lor many years; this co-operation 
would be such as to avoid, what is done repeatedly: ordering 
the construction of new extensions in the wilderness, along 
<h appear only on city maps and 
ii land which has not yet been expropriated. This 
furthermore, the fault of carrying with it un- 
tiie tracks have to lie reconstructed 
when ipened ami i he sewers, gas 

and other municipal Improvements installed. It has also 

the fault ot laying a new line on a right-of-way which 
cannot be reached as long as the cross streets have not been 

, up, "n a new line, recently built under such con- 
dition get on or from the cars can 
only do so by jumping over fence and ti' passing on 

private prop i it a well thought out plan 

should foresee the glmultaneou treets, 

of the subterranean municipal Improvements and of the 

or tracks. 

I ..f Montreal, tie 

of ne\ V inlcip || Itory 

alread] n the cont > dlffli under 

-.lii,,; to the pre 'in contract entered into by 

I by the Montreal Tram I a] I OH 

municipality lerved by the Company il Id be aide t o 

of the cost of opeartion ol the transpor- 
tation lines necessary to handle its quota of tralllc, without 
being a load on the city of Montreal or on the other muni- 



cipalities served by the same system. This clause of the 
contract is perfectly fair and reasonable. It prevents, as a 
consequence, the construction of new extensions into the 
several municipalities surrounding the Metropolis, on the 
island of Montreal, because such lines could only be oper- 
ated if the interested municipalities were able or willing to 
guarantee the fixed charges and operating expenses which 
could be met only by prohibitive fares. It seems that in 
such cases the construction of the proposed extension must 
he postponed until the time when the population will be 
large enough to ensure an adequate and sufficient revenue. 

In concluding, it is well to insist upon the necessity of 
co-ordination between the several municipal departments 
and the transportation system; more particularly in regard 
to street tramways this co-ordination must have in view 
the simultaneous changes of grades, renewal of pavement 
and renewal of tracks in the central sections of the city; 
in the outlying districts an d the suburbs, and after a care- 
ful study of the possible normal development of any dis- 
trict, it will be wise to build the new extensions or trans- 
portation lines only after all the preliminary planning will 
have been settled, after all the exproporiations will have 
been concluded and after all municipal improvements, 
streets, sewers, water and gas mains and electric conduits 
have been constructed and installed. 

With a view to improve its service and to help in giv- 
ing to the city in which its lines are laid, the poise, the 
symmetry, the quiet orderliness, the regularity and harmony 
that go toward making the distinction of well governed 
cities, the transportation Company should endeavor to do 
away with anomalies and conditions which may not be a- 
breast of the times; it should replace -all unsightly wooden 
poles by steel or reinforced concrete poles which, with the 
advantage of durability, easily lend themselves to some sort 
of decoration; it should try to unify the types of rails, of 
track construction and of the cars; it should provide shelters 
and loading platforms for the passengers at the main 
transfer points and generally should endeavor, with the 
hearty co-operation of its personnel, to foster among the 
public the riding habit which alone can ensure the success 
of any transportation enterprise. 

This result ought to be easily obtained in Montreal 
where the present contract has made partners of the city, 
that is the public, on the one hand, and of the Transporta- 
tion Company, on the other. Paper read before the Town 
Planning Convention. Montreal. Sept. 29, 1021. 



CORRKCTIoxs IN REPORT ok MEETING of ENGI- 
NEERING SECTION, A.A.A.S. 



Certain typographical errors, incident to the change of 
form and date of publication unfortunately crept into the 
report of the meeting of the Engineering Section of the 
American Association for the Advancement 04 Science ap- 
pearing in our issue of Jan. 3. The title of Dr. Heymans 1 
address should have read "Optical Determination of Stress 
Distribution in Engineering Problems"; the temperature a- 
bOVe which the metal part- of hydraulic installations should 
lie kept a fraction ot a degree "as stated bj Mr. Murphy 
as 32 deg. P.; ■'electrically" in the sixth line of the second 
paragraph of the report of sir Adam Beck's address should 
read "electricity"; in Prof, Brown's comments on the ad- 
bj Mr. Harris, the second sentence should read 'Engi- 

-i Ing courses in Canada should be primarily tech- 

I in Pre Went Howe's comments OH the same 

ii the bottom oi the first column of page L10, 
the Brst sentence should read. "President Mows sxpi 

the present trend toward the adoption of courses 

in business administration might i"- overdone," 



\ninii,iiii & Hoi s, general contractors, Toronto. 

have moved their head office from the Continental Life 
Building tO 709 1 OngS Bt., Toronto. 



c k Hogarth will present ■ paper before the Montreal 
Branca ol th« Bngln ing institute of Canada on "Prin- 
ciples of Water Softening," on January 26, 1922. 



January 10, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE CONVENTION 



THE following tentative program has been arranged tor 
the annual convention of the American Concrete In- 
stitute which will be held at the Hotel YVinlon, Cleveland. 
February 13-16 inclusive. 

MONDAY, FEB. 13 

Registration (11 a.m.) 

Meeting of Committee on Committees. (Chairman of 
all Committees to discuss future work of the Institute.) 

Concrete Roads (2 p.m.) 

Report of Committee S 6 on Concrete Roads. Presen- 
tation and discussion of revised standards, Clifford Older, 
Chairman. Discussion of Plant and Material Handling 
Problems. Moving Pictures. 

Concrete Houses (8 p.m.) 

Report of Committee S 5 on Reinforced Concrete 
Houses (New Building Regulations), E. G. Perrot, Chair- 
man.. 

Papers and addresses by two or three builders of Con- 
crete Houses — no theory — no guesswork — no untried 
conjectures — actual experience on how it is being done. 
One of these addresses will be by Miss Kate Gleason, Ro- 
chester, N.Y., whose concrete houses are close to the hun- 
dred mark — all sold — at a profit. 

TUESDAY. FEB. 14 

Research (!) a.m.) 

Report of Committee E 3 — Research. W. K. Hatt, 
Chairman. A survey, of important research which is being 
undertaken by various agencies and of research for which 
there is need. 

Presentation of the Wason Medal. Sanford E. Thomp- 
son, Chairman Committee G. 5. Response. 

Announcement of the work of Committee G 3 on Form 
of Standards, by the present. 

Business Session. Report of Board of Direction, by 
the secretary. Appointment of Tellers to canvass ballots 
for Officers. 

Concrete Products Manufacture (2 p.m.) 

Report of Committee P 1 on Standard Concrete Build- 
ing Units (New Standards for Block, Brick and Structural 
Tile. R. F. Havlik, chairman. 

Report of Committee P 5 on Fire Resistance of Con- 
crete Building Units. Lesley H. Allen, chairman. 

Report of Committee P 4 on Concrete Staves (special 
reference to strength and testing. ) Walter Brassert, chair- 
man. 

8 p.m. — Report of Committee J 2 on Concrete Pipe. B. 
S. Pease, chairman. Institute Representation. 

Report of Committee P 7 on Concrete Pipe, Drain Tile, 
and Conduit. C. F. Buente, chairman. 

Report of Committee P 6 on Products Plant Operation. 
S. H. Wightman, chairman, leading a gneral discussion of 
Plant layout, equipment and operation problems. 

WEDNESDAY, FEB. 15 

F.ngincei-ing Design and Inspection (!) a.m.) 

Report of Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced 
Concrete — presented by reference to preprints previously 
distributed. S. C. Hollister. chairman Institute represen- 
tation. The report will be discussed by major subjects, led 
by Chairman of Local Committees of Contractors from New 
York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, and elsewhere, and by 
Chairmen of Institute Standing Committees whose work in- 
volves a special consideration of subjects covered in vari- 
ous section of the Joint Committee Report. The discussion 
will be centered chiefly upon the subjects in the following 
outline: 

1. Quality of Concrete — Proportioning. Mixing, and 
Placing (Chapters III, V, and VI). Chairmen Local Con- 
tractor Committees and N. M. Loney, chairman, Committee 
C 6. 

2. Details of Construction — Fireproofing and Con- 



struction Joints (Chapter Villi, r U. Cow. chairman. 
Committee E 4. 

3. Waterproofing — Protective Treatments. (Special 
reference to Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement I (Chapter 
IX.) 

Business Session (11:45 a.m.) 

Remarks by Retiring President. Announcement by 
tellers of new officers. Induction of new officers. 

2 p.m. — (Continuing discussion of Joint Committee 
Report.) 

4. Surface Finish (Chapter X.) J. C. Pearson, chair- 
man. Committee C 3; N. M. Lonev, chairman. Committee 
C 2. 

5. Design (Chapter XI i with particular reference to 
Proposed Design Requirements on Cost of Construction. A. 
R. Lord, chairman, Committee E 1 and Chairmen Local 
Contractor Committees. 

.8:30 p.m. — An informal, social, get-together, with 
cider and doughnuts. Here's your chance to button-hole 
somebody and "tell him" or "ask him." 

THURSDAY, FEB. 16 

Practical Field Problems (!• a.m.) 

A study of Proportioning Materials and Consistency. 
Slump Tests, Test Cylinders. 

A demonstration of sieve analyses of aggregates, water 
control, slump tests and casting test cylinders as a means 
of relating laboratory knowledge to Field Methods. 

Report of Committee CI — Contractors Plant. R. C. 
Wilson, chairman. 

Report of Committee C 2, Concrete Floor Finish — 
Presenting Simplified Standard Specifications, followed by 
two brief papers on Special Floor Finishing Methods. 

2 p.m. — Report of Committee C 3 on Concrete Surfaces. 
J. C. Pearson, chairman. 

Changes in Stucco Practice, Exterior of Industrial 
Buildings, Special Decorative Effects. Interiors of Build- 
ings, Bond of Applied Coatings. 

Report of Committee C 4 on Metal Forms. Edward A. 
Steele, chairman. 

Paper on Repair of Concrete Ships. 

Paper: Graphic Determination of Stresses. Prof. 

George E. Beggs. 



B.C. ENGINEERS WORK ON AFRICAN PROJECT 



THE first party of engineers which went from British 
Columbia to take charge of harbor and railway con- 
struction work on behalf of the Imperial Government on the 
Gold Coast, West Coast of Africa, has arrived at the scene 
of operations. The contract for the work was secured by 
the contracting firm of General J. W. Stewart. C.B., K.C.- 
M.G., of Vancouver, the well-known railway builder. The 
cost of the work will ultimately total over eleven million 
dollars. 

Major C. R. Chrysdale, A. G. Graham, Angus Stewart 
and Major John Retallack, all well known in Vancouver and 
Victoria, comprise the party. Major Retallack is not con- 
nected with the Stewart enterprise, but has gone out to 
take up an appointment under the Colonial office. Another 
large party of engineers will leave London shortly, among 
them being two or three British Columbia men and many 
other Canadians. 

The preliminary work on the big contract is under- 
stood to be proceeding well and actual construction will be 
under way shortly. Before the harbor works could be com- 
menced it was necessary to lay out a townsite and set up a 
modern village for the white workers. Construction of the 
railway cannot proceed very rapidly until the harbor work 
is well in hand. 



J. \Y. Shackelton. civil engineer of Chatham. Out., is 
constructing a new map of the city, together with all the 
latest additions, and will incorporate in It details of the 
survey of the city when it was first marked by the gov- 
ernment over 100 years ago. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



THE IMPORTANCE < >F IRRIGATION" WORK 



Benefits Achieved in Alberta Arc Encouragement to 
Further Expenditures 



A. s. Dawson, M.K.I.C. 

Chief Engineer. Department Natural Resources, Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company, Calgary 

ACCORDING to an article in "The Monetary Times An- 
nual" for 1 !< 2 2 . by Mr. A. S. Dawson, up to the end of 
L920 there had been expended on the construction or irriga- 
tion works in Southern Alberta about $20,000,000, to serve 
about 850.000 acres of irrigable land. 

This phase of development was practically all handled 
by large companies — pre-eminently the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Co., who held large blocks of vacant land, 
constructed the works to serve them with water, and then 
sold to new settlers, with a perpetual contract for a supply 
of water to the lands at a fixed annual charge. This form 
of enterprise has developed all the large projects constructed 
up to date. The conditions gradually changed, because the 
large areas that still awaited development were practically 
all settled, and plans were formulated to develop these areas 
by co-operative effort on the part of the land owners them- 
selves. 

Federal Government's Work 

In Canada, the Federal Government controls all the 
water, conducts the hydrometric work, and makes all pre- 
liminary surveys and investigations in connection with irri- 
gation development. No works can be undertaken without 
government sanction, based on thorough engineering investi- 
gations which- have proven the feasibility and economic 
soundness of all schemes of any magnitude. 

These surveys to date show that close to a million addi- 
tional acres in Southern Alberta can be served with water 
within reasonable cost limits; and some of this area will 
probably be served as a result of the recent settlement of 
certain long outstanding matters between Canada and the 
United States, and within the scope of the International 
Waterways Commission. Preliminary surveys also indicate 
that additional areas of about 3 million acres in Alberta, 
and 4 % million acres in the Province of Saskatchewan 
could also be profitably irrigated. 

Value Demonstrated 

During the past dry cycle of five years, all doubts as to 
the benefits of farming large portions of Southern Alberta 
under irrigation methods have entirely disappeared, and now 
everyone is an enthusiast of the idea of bringing every 
acre under the ditch system. 
But how were the construction charges to be met? The 
settlers were not financially able to, as a result of several 
short crops; and there was no incentive for corporate in- 
terests to provide the necessary capital. The Provincial 
iture therefore decided — or rather were forced — to 
provide the necessary machinery, whereby these systems 
can be built by means of the enactment of what is known 
rlgation Metric! Act." This act provides for 
the formation of irrigation districts, with power to raise 
the necessary fundi t" construct the works by bond issues, 
irlty for which is the land within the district. 
Amoi toree of this act are the 

appointment by the Lieutenant-Governor of an "irrigation 

Council," who may forbid any act or course of conduct pro- 
lone. or entered upon by the board of directors; 

ami without whose authority i tpendlture oan be made 

. . debenture issue, nor anj contracts tor 

led All debentures issued under the art must prOtlde 

for the payment of the whole principal money srttl 

ol the date of the issue thereof, and shall be repayable 
mnu.i1 Instalments extended over the whole of such 
than the 1 1 thereof Tn 

of debentures and rates of In ■' to the ap- 

ernment Mot. -over, the province has on- 
■ full guarantee at these bond issues, to- 
gether with the interest. As previously stated, the Dominion 
nation Service makes all preliminary lurveys and in- 



vestigations as to the feasibility of a project. When these 
are completed, and the boundaries of an irrigation area are 
fixed, the act provides that a petition signed by the owners 
of at least 51 per cent, of the area involved shall be sub- 
mitted to the Minister of Public Works of the province, ask- 
ing for the creation of the district. After approval of such, 
a board of three trustees is elected to conduct its affairs. 

Financing Irrigation 

The first district to be financed under this procedure 
is what is known as the "Lethbridge Northern." containing 
an irrigation area of about 105,000 acres, which is now well 
under construction, at an estimated cost of $51.00 per acre. 
The total bond issue authorized for this project was $5,400,- 
000, and of this, $4,400,000 worth of 30 year bonds were 
disposed of at a very favorable rate. Provision was made 
for making the bond issue large enough to carry interest, 
and operation and maintenance charges until the end of the 
year, after the completion of the works — so that the farm- 
ers will get the benefit of the water before they have any- 
thing to pay. In the case of the Lethbridge Northern pro- 
ject, no payments toward a sinking fund are required to be 
made until after the seventh year. 

Construction has also been commenced on another dis- 
trict known as the "United," containing 23.000 acres irri- 
gable, at an estimated cost of $645,000, or $28.00 per acre. 
Several other districts are in the course of formation; and 
the government of the province has announced as a definite 
policy that it will guarantee the bond issue for any project 
which has been shown to be feasible, and economically sound 
by means of thorough surveys and investigations on the 
part of the Dominion and provincial engineers. 

This policy will no doubt have a very marked effect on 
irrigation development in Southern Alberta. There are, 
however, many problems which will result therefrom, such 
as the reductions in size of the holdings, and the colonization 
of the additional farm units created. 

Survey Board Created 

Another matter which may be of interest to many is, 
that this government (and a Farmers Government at that) 
has recently created what is known as the Southern Alberta 
Survey Board, consisting of 4 outstanding men, and includ- 
ing as chairman, the chairman of the Canadian Section of 
the International Waterways Commission. This board held 
their opening session on November 29th last, and are now 
sitting, and their obligations are to "Enquire into, report on, 
and make recommendations, in regard to the undernoted 
matters affecting the welfare of those areas in the southern 
part of the province which are subject worn time to time to 
drought. 

"(A) — A policy in regard to the development of farm 
lands, which surveys of the Dominion Reclamation Service 
show the possibility of irrigating. 

"(B) — Methods that may be adopted in furtherance of 
the colonization of irrigable lands. 

"(C) — A policy In regard to the furtherance of the 
greater economic advantage of farmers on land which can- 
not be irrigated. 

"(D) -The expediting of the Investigations by soil and 
topographical surveys already initiated. 

"(E)— The general financial conditions prevailing in 
the areas referred to. having regard to the prime necessity 
for the maintenance Of credit Ol individuals, institutions and 
municipal and school districts." 

it is needless to point out the problems to be dealt with 
by the board arc very great, and upon their solution the 
future welfare of B very large portion of the people of the 
province depends. 

Educational Work 

In addition to two experimental and demonstration 
farms maintained b] the Federal Government in Alberta, the 
Provincial I'tiiversity is doing splendid work, and now has 
a three year course in agriculture leading up to the d 

of l'.S.A . in addition to a combined six-year course in arts 
and agriculture. 



January 10, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



The Provincial Government Department of Agriculture 
also operates 5 agricultural schools, and 5 demonstration 
farms, on two of which instruction is given on all matters 
pertaining to irrigation. 

What is needed is co-operation and team play between 
the men on the land and those who are endeavoring to work 
out the broader questions affecting irrigation development 
on a large scale; and in such work, organziations such as 
the Western Canada Irrigation Association, and the recently 
created Survey Board of Southern Alberta, have a large 
part to play, and should prove a powerful factor in the 
general welfare of the province. 

Agriculture and live stock business are the basic indus- 
tries of this portion of the country, and must go hand in 
hand. Irrigation stabilizes both, and therefore stabilizes 
business conditions in general. 



AMERICAN GOOD ROADS CONVENTION 



IN order to bring about closer co-operation and a more 
thorough exchange of views and experiences in build- 
ing highways, especially along the border between the two 
countries, Canadian road and street officials, engineers and 
contractors to the number of several thousand, are being in- 
vited to participate as delegates in the 12th American Good 
Roads Congress and 13th National Good Roads Show, to be 
held in the Coliseum, Chicago, January 17 to 20. The big 
convention, which this year will assume more of an inter- 
national character, will be held under the auspices of the 
American Road Builders' Association. 

Among the new officers recently elected by this or- 
ganization is W. A. McLean, deputy minister of highways, 
province of Ontario, who was chosen a director. Promin- 
ent in the work of the organization also are: J. A. Duschatel, 
city manager of Outremont; Lucius E. Allen, Belleville, 
Ont.; Malcolm Calder, Calgary, Alta. ; H. J. Walker, Corn- 
wall, Ont.; F. M. Clark, Halifax, N.S. ; H. A. Brazier, Lon- 
don, Ont.; C. C. Lapierre, Paul Emile Mercer, John Randall 
Roberts and H. C. Van Scoyoc, Montreal, Que.; C. R. 
Wheelock, Orangeville, Ont.; John C. Dufresne, Penticton, 
B.C.; Henry Gabriel, chief engineer, department of high- 
ways, province of Ontario: B. Michaud, deputy minister, 
department of roads, Quebec; P. C. Biggs, minister of public 
work, province of Ontario; R. C. Harris, commissioner of 
works, Toronto; K. D. McDonald and George William Ray- 
ner, all of Toronto; S. L. Squire, president Canadian Good 
Roads Association; Walter Scott, Victoria, B.C., and many 
other Canadians active in highway work. 

That Canada will be well represented at the congress 
is evidenced by the fact that governors of Canadian provin- 
ces, mayors of Canadian cities, and Canadian good roads, 
engineering and contracting organizations are expected to 
send from three to five official delegates each to participate 
in the discussions and report as to the latest developments 
in road and street construction demonstrated and explained 
during the meeting. 

Canada's Programme 

The great programme of higihway construction upon 
which Canada is embarking will be fully discussed along 
with prospects for 1922, highway finance, administration, 
maintenance and transportation, highway accidents and 
their cause, fall contract letting, bridge construction, drain- 
age, salvaging old roads, highway specifications, material 
prices and labor, traffic regulation, training engineers and 
supervisors and other subjects too numerous to mention. 
The congress and show will surpass anything of the kind 
ever held, either in Europe or America, both in point of at- 
tendance and instructive value and in the number and 
variety of the exhibits of road-building machinery, ma- 
terials, methods and appliances and highway transporta- 
tion equipment. Fully 20,000 delegates are expected to 
attend, not only from the United States and Canada, but 
from Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, Alaska, Mexico and several 
South American countries. All of the 40,000 square feet 
of exhibiting space in the Coliseum and annex was taken 
at the first drawing of space in October, making it necessary 



for the exposition officials to lease adjoining buildings in 
order to house the overflow. The United States Bureau of 
Public Roads will have an enormous exhibit, covering 2,000 
square feet, and demonstrating impact, material and sub- 
grade tests and the methods of construction approved by 
the government. 

Will Discuss Materials 

One session of the congress will be devoted to Portland 
cement concrete roads, another to the asphalt and bitumin- 
ous types, a third to brick and other types of pavement, and 
fourth to earth, gravel and macadam roads. Another ses- 
sion is to be given over to a thorough discussion of the prob- 
lems involved in highway transport. The Portland Cement 
Association, The Asphalt Association, The National Associa- 
tion of Paving Brick Manufacturers, and other organiza- 
tions are co-operating with the American Road Builders' 
Association in organizing the congress. 



LARGE FEDERAL LOAN FOR HIGHWAYS 



WTH the exception of Alberta, all the provinces of the 
Dominion have taken advantage of the Federal aid 
to highways plan, and highways department officials feel 
that the appropriation of $20,000,000, which the Federal 
Government set aside in 1919 to be apportioned on a forty 
per cent, basis, will be used up before the end of the five- 
year period covered by the appropriation. 

The estimated cost of highway improvement projects 
undertaken to January 1, 1922, under agreement with the 
Federal Department, was $29,247,667, with a total mileaue 
of approximately 4,370 miles. The Dominion Government's 
share of the projects under agreement is $11,699,066, and 
the act has yet almost three years to run. 

It is expected that before the expiration of the appro- 
priation there will be requests from the various organiza- 
tions interested in highway building and improvement for 
increases in the Federal grant for the purpose. 

Saskatchewan leads the provinces in respect to the 
mileage of projects under agreement, with 1,230 miles, at 
an estimated cost of $1,375,093, and an average cost per 
mile of $1,124. 

Ontario is well in the lead in cost of roads built, how- 
ever. The figures for this province are: Projects, 23; mile- 
age, approximately, 603; estimated cost, $13,863,155; av- 
erage cost per mile, $22,980. 

Figures for the other provinces are: 

Alberta, none. 

British Columbia, mileage, 337; estimated cost, $2,. 
612,693; average cost, per mile, $7,731. 

Manitoba, mileage, 764; estimated cost, $3,478,902; 
average cost, per mile, $4,546. 

New Brunswick, mileage, 1,200; estimated cost, $3,- 
05S,70S; average cost, per mile, $2,571. 

Nova Scotia, mileage, 16S; estimated cost, $1.7: 
average cost, per mile, $10,605. 

Prince Edward Island, mileage, 181; estimated cost, 
$329,565; average cost, per mile, $1,818. 

Quebec, mileage, 243; estimated cost, $2,712,226; 
average cost, per mile, $11,116. 

The total number of projects under agreement is 170, 
with an average, per province, of 21, and the average cost, 
per mile, of all the roads constructed under agreement is 
$6,182. Highway plans must be approved by Federal 
officials before payment of the 40 per cent, cost is allowed 



The Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., of Cleveland, Ohio, 
has been awarded a contract for thirty-four cargo handling 
cranes for the Department of Docks for the city of New 
York. This order constitutes the largest installation of 
dock cranes ever placed on this side of the Atlantic. The 
cranes will all be of the semi-portal gantry type, with 
travelling, revolving, hoisting and boom-lifting motions. 
Twenty-six of them will have a capacity of from 2 Vi tons 
to 5 tons while eight will have a capacity of from 1 Vz ton 
to 2% tons. 



136 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



ENGINEERING 



INSTITUTE TO HOLD GENERAL 
MEETING 



THE Annual General Meeting of the Engineering Institute 
Canada with which will be associated a Professional 
Meeting, under the auspices of the Montreal Branch, will 
be held at Montreal. January 24-25. A number of impor- 
tant committee meetings will take place about this time. 
The following program has been arranged. 
Tuesday, .Ian. 2t 
9:00 a.m. — Registration. E.I.C. Headquarters, 17(1 Mans- 
field St. 
10:00 a.m. — Annual Meeting Called to Order. 
1:00 p.m. — Informal Luncheon. (Tickets. $1.00.) C.P.R. 
Windsor Street. Mezzanine Dining Room, 
p.m. — Resumption of Business Meeting and Presi- 
dent's Address. 
P.m. — Banquet, followed by Smoking Concert, 
i Tickets. $5.00.) Rose Room. Windsor 
Hotel. 

Wednesday . Jan, 2."> 
10:00 a.m. — Visit to Dominion Engineering Works, Rock- 
field. (Large 41,000 h.'p. turbine unit for 
Shawinigan may be seen under construction.) 
t:00 p.m. — Luncheon — Rose Room, Windsor Hotel. 
.Members and Ladies. (Tickets, $1.50 — 
Visiting Members, Complimentary J Fol- 
lowed by short address, 
p.m. — Professional Paper at Headquarters. 
• l "• p.m. — Professional Paper at Headquarters. 

The Montreal Branch extends a cordial invitation to 
all members of the Institute and desires it to be known that 
accommodation for visiting members will be reserved at 
the Windsor Hotel. Further information may be obtained 
from J. L. Busfield. secretary-treasurer, Montreal Branch 
E I.e.. 260 St. .James Street. Montreal. 



HYDRO CONGRATULATED BY DISTINGUISHED ENGL 

NEKIt 



AFTER witnessing the formal opening of the Queenston- 
Chippawa power development on December 28, Fran- 
cis Lee Stuart, consulting engineer. New York, wrote to 
Sir Adam Bi a letter of appreciation of what the 

Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario had accomp- 
Mr. Stuart, who formerly was chief engineer ni the 

Erie and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroads, is now, inci- 
dental!] . rice-chaii Technical Advisor] Boi 
the Port of New York Authoritle , and consulting engineer 
Hudson River Bridge Corporation, in charge of all 
foundation wort and terminal lacillties, a project involving 
an estimated expenditure of $550,000,000. , The letter 
reads as follows: 

"You lire today formally opening an undertaking which 

epoch-making Irapo far-reaching in potenti- 

for the material progress of Canada, as well as of the 
ra district of Ontario. 
The vision, will and ability of the Commission ami the 

I I'e of the Niagara district to develop their DatUl 

ob an efflcii i ill be appreciated move 

and mi ., by. 

The conception Is simple the water is taken by an 

open canal from a point at the head of the rapii 

Niagara Falls and delivered to a ]>■ 

the rapids below the Whirlpool ti „ ;,|l of the 

each cubic fooi of mi its 

itario, 

The ii I import. nice of the work- in . 

Mod is one ot He accomplished teats of our 
Hydro Electi le ,|. 
men) I i publicly owned under- 

taking of it pled It i« ,-i path-find. ■!■ in 

such a I 

Hi Ii : i By the 

Laced ami by the example 
of Its usefulness It will directly and indirectly give an Im- 



pulse to the upbuilding of the entire country, which will be 
second in importance only to the effects which the railroads 
have had on the country's growth. The difficulties of con- 
struction were many and at times seemingly insurmountable. 
Each foot of canal represented effort, each mile great diffi- 
culties overcome, and each section of the work an establish- 
ed precedent in construction. 

The personnel who carried out the work were faithful, 
hard-working, able engineers and superintendents of con- 
struction, meeting their problems daily with a resourceful- 
ness, courage, and earnest effort which deserves your admir- 
ation. Gaby. Acres, Angell, Goodwin, Brandon, Hogg, Hull, 
Hearn. Millar. Blanchard, Scriven, LeRoy, Anderson. Reid. 
Nablo and many others should be remembered as men who 
carry on. and carry on well. 

It should be a matter of congratulation and of grati- 
tude to the directing force of and of those on the work 
that this great project has been carried through in such a 
workman-like way with honest and able men. without dis- 
cord, disaster, or scandal and now, without fuss or feathers, 
stands out as an accomplished fact, a splendidly effective 
addition to your resources of which all Canada can be 
proud." 



PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 

AN' important step towards ensuring high and uniform 
quality cement was taken recently by the Portland 
Cement Association at the final .session of the annual meet- 
ing held in New York recently, when the Association's con- 
stitution and by-laws were amended so as to make member- 
ship in the Association "contingent upon members product 
meeting the standard specifications for Portland cement 
adopted by the United States Government and the American 
Society for Testing Materials." 

Engineers, architects and contractors are familiar with 
the high standard of specifications governing cement manu- 
facture and will herald this action as the greatest advance 
step ever taken by the industry. The Portland Cement 
Association is distinguished for its co-operative work with 
technical societies. This has been in the nature of con- 
tributing to the improvement of building materials, methods 
and standards in general, among these being building code-. 
but the Association has particularly been active in keeping 
standard requirements for Portland cement on a high plane 
and in insuring its proper use by the consuming public. 



HYDRO RADIAL BY-LAWS PASSED 

AN' interesting feature oi the recent municipal elections 
in Ontario was the passing of the Hydro Kadial by. 
laws. A by-law was passed favoring the purchase of the 
Niagara, St. Catherines and Toronto Railway. In this 
practically all the municipalities gave large majorities in 

favor of the purchase while the Toronto Suburban and the 

Toronto Eastern Railway by-laws were also passed by sub- 
stantial majorities. 

What is admitted by experts to lie an ideal Interurban 
traction pi.. " endorsed by the electorate on be- 

half of public ownership. Five lines radiating from To 

ronl 'in Quelpb and the Niagara frontier will 

balanced load factor which Is a condition precedent 

to the sin . . -tu! exploitation of any interurban rapid transit 

i When the vote is Implemented by legislation sir 

Adam Iteck will be able lo deal at once with the Toronto 
terminal si I u.it ; ui . the power and radial "clean-up" can be 

consummated, the various lines co-ordinated into oni 

i. in .ind. with betterments brought up to a proper standard 

or roadbed and equipment, 



In the United States there are T.::.'.S Brms manufac- 
turing trucks, tractors, automobiles and other vehlcl 

pendent upon good roads and having a total Invi 

.nun. mi amount exc ling one-third 

ipltal of the country's railroads and an annual out put 

valued at $1,410 ,000 

300, II d -it I 100, '. ' and 165,- 

000 tractors valuad at $225,000,000. 



January 10, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



13"! 



The Canadian Engineer 

Established 1893 
A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Terms of Subscription, postpaid to any address: 

One Year Six Months Four Months Single Copies 

$3.00 S1.50 $1.00 lOr. 



Published every Tuesday by 
The Monetary Times Printing Co. of Canada, Limited 

President and General Manager 
JAMES J. SALMOND 

HEAD OFFICE: 62 CHURCH STREET, TORONTO, ONT 
Telephone, Main 7404. Cable Address, "Engineer, Toronto.' 

Western Canada Office: 1206 McArthur Bldz.. 'Winnip-ir. G. W. Goodall. "~ 



Assistant General Manager 
ALBERT E. JENNINGS 



Vol. 4£ 



Owen Sound, January lO, 1933 



Xo. 3 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS 

Construction Scarboro Township Water Works 

System 119 

Hydrogen-ion Concentration in Water Purifi- 
cation 122 

Engineering Standardization 124 

Sewage Gas as Motive Power 127 

Transportation and Development of Modern 

Cities 130 

Program American Concrete Institute Con- 
vention 133 

Engineering Institute of Canada Meeting 136 

The Importance of Irrigation Work 134 

Personals and New Publications 13S 



TRAFFIC INCREASE AND GROWTH OF POPULATION 



IN any estimates of future traffic made for the purpose 
of planning transportation facilities or public utilities 
associated with transportation, the first ideas of the engi- 
neer are likely to gather about the rate of growth of papu- 
lation. It is perhaps natural to assume that if the popu- 
lation of a community doubles, the traffic by rail or by 
highway would at the same time be doubled. That the true 
law of increase of traffic differs widely from this may be 
shown conclusively by the consideration of some typical 
cases. 

Consider, for example, the growth of steam and elec- 
tric railway traffic in Canada and in the United States in 
recent years. Whereas in Canada the passenger traffic on 
steam railways increased from 1901 to 1919 by 138%, the 
freight traffic increased during the same period by 216%, 
and the passenger traffic on electric railways increased 
520%, the population increased only 65%. In the United 
States the increase in passenger-miles for the same period 
was 189 9! and in freight ton-miles it was 158%, while the 
population increased only 38%. 

If traffic within a large city or between two cities be 
considered, a similar law is seen to hold. From 1912 to 
1919 the increase in vehicular traffic across the East River 
bridges ;it New York increased 153%, whereas the popula- 
tion of Greater New York increased but 12',. Between 
Philadelphia and Camden, N.I., the passenger ferry traffic 
across the Delaware River between 1900 and 1920 increased 
176%, the vehicles carried by the ferries increased In num- 
ber by 153%, while the population increased only 11 
Between the years 1912 and 1920, the trans-bay pass 
traffic between San Francisco and the cities opposite, in- 
cluding Oakland, Berkeley and Alameda increased 35'. in 
spite of the dlscouragment offered through the S-mile ferry 
and electric railway trip between San Francisco and Oak. 



land. During these eight years the population of San 
Francisco increased but 17%. 

It thus appears thai traffic either by rail, by highway 

or by ferry within a large community, or between com- 
munities, increases far more rapidly than the population. 
The basis "f such a law is not difficult to ti ml. Within re- 
cent years, the means of transportation have enormously 

multiplied and improved. Although very considerable ex- 
tension of steam and electric railways has occurred in 
America during the past twenty years, a most astounding 
increase in motor transport facilities has occurred during 
the same period. In the United States the production of 
motor vehicles increased from 1910 to 1920 by 10 
while at he same time the population increased but 
In Canada the motor vehicle registrations increased from 
1910 to 192o by 44009) . corresponding with an increase in 
population of 27%. Registration of motor vehicles in Ont- 
ario for the same decade increased 3600',;, while at the 
same time the population increased 16'. . 

With the extension of the facilities offered for travel, 
particularly by the enormously increasing production of mo- 
tor vehicles, it is natural that highway traffic should have in- 
creased on the better class of roads at an enormous rate. 
An interesting statement made recently by a prominent engi- 
neer of the State of Michigan indicates that with the im- 
provement of the highway between Y'psilanti and Ann Har- 
bor, the vehicular traffic increased from 24 vehicles per 
day six or seven years ago to 3,100 vehicles a day during the 
last year. It is probable that this is merely typical of the 
experience of other improved highways. Figures of like 
order might be quoted to show the amazing increase in 
traffic on the Toronto-Hamilton highway following its im- 
provement during the war period. 

Estimates of traffic over a given route can, therefore, 
be made safely only after considering along with the prob- 
able increase in population, the probable effect of the added 
facilities for transportation. Their is such a thing 
habit or fashion in movement of traffic, as there is in less 
serious matters. Once the public gets accustomed to an 
improved highway, for example, and finds the service or 
facility offered to be an attactive one. traffic is bound to in- 
crease at an astounding rate, as has been the experience in 
recent years where new and popular facilities for transit 
have been provided. 



Till' ENGINEER AS A MANAGER 



FRANK discussion of the shortcomings of the engini 
an executive or administrator was brought out follow- 
ing the address of R. C. Harris, Commissioner of Works, 
Toronto, at the Toronto meeting of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. The engineer should 
make the highest type of administrator, said Mr. Harris, hut 
by reason of native modesty or unsuitable training, he 
frequently fails to appreciate the economic features of. the 
situation, and discloses inability to relate the creation of 
physical works to he value of the dollar. He has not gen- 
erally had sufficient human contacts to make him a good 
executive, and, continued Mr, Harris, regards himself rather 
more as a builder or constructor than as a manager of men. 

The qualifications of the engineer as a manager have 

I ii rigorousl] debated in the engineering press during the 

last few months, growing out of an address bj Philip Cabot, 
member of a prominent New York financial house, at a 
joint meeting Of the Founder Societies in New York last 
October. Mr Cabot's strictures we He charac- 

terized the engineer as scientific studious. se\ 
cool, cautious and unimaginative "He ifl a man." said Mr. 
who curbs his enthusiasms, who does not allow his 
ions to be colored or influenced in the slightest by 
an idealistic or Impulsive temper." According to Mr. 
Cabot, these characteristics render the nsitu- 

tionally unfit to lead or direct large industrial or public en- 
terprises. He pictured ;nl industrial leader as 
one having the capacity to inspire large bodies of men. and 
as the possessor of the promoter or salesman type of mind 
rather than that of the student or scientific investigator. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Volume 4 2 



He regarded the engineer as a band which executes rather 

than a mind which directs and controls, and believed him 

in unpromising candidate for promotion to managerial 

Those who have risen to the defence of the engineer in 
i -ions have pointed out that while the promo- 
tional type of mind is useful, it is an exceedingly dangerous 
one unless carefully watched and guided. The enthusiast 
who sees everything in a rosy light is likely to wreck an 
enterprise much more quickly than the cool and unemo- 
tional engineer. It very frequently happens that the latter 
is called in to straighten out some of the financial and 
operating muddles that have been brought about by a man- 
ager of the promotional type. 

The truth of the matter is that the management of in- 
dustrial or other enterprises that involve dealing with a 
large force requires several characteristics or qualities of 
mind. Enthusiasm must be matched by cool and careful 
judgment. Wherever a man can be found who combnes 
in himself the capacity to direct and inspire large bodies of 
men with sound technical and financial knowledge, his price 
is above rubies. Men of this type who have undertaken 
managerial work are not unknown. On this continent, two 
notable examples in recent years are General Goethals and 
Herbert Hoover, not to mention several of our fellow- 
Canadians who are successfully directing large undertakings 
at the present time. It will be interesting to survey the 
field in ten or twenty years and discover the effect of the 
increasing popularity of courses in administrative engi- 
neering. Once the idea of the suitability of the adminis- 
trative tield for graduate engineers has been thoroughly 
assimilated, and engineering students have been taught to 
appreciate the financial and managerial factors in an enter- 
prise, as well as the technical ones, the number of engi- 
neers in managerial positions should increase very rapidly. 

Already very considerable numbers of engineers are 
known to be occupying executive positions on this con- 
tinent. At least six railroad presidents and five vice- 
presidents are engineers. Of the 230 city managers in 
Canada and the United States, about 75% are civil engineers. 
Municipal councils appreciating the fact that the largest 
item of the civic budget is associated with the department 
of works, naturally look to the civil engineer as likely ma- 
terial for a city manager. As long as it is possible to dis- 
incn who have not only sound technical knowledge. 
but courage, executive and business capacity, a knowledge 
of municipal law and finance, and ability to explain clearly 
and precisely the civic policy to the citizens, city manager- 
ships should prove a likely field for the engineer. With the 
growing tendency for this form of civic government it is 
very probable that the engineer will be more and more 
frequently employed in public administrative posts. 



PERSONALS 



\\ ENGINEER'S TlillU'TK. To HVIUSO 



THERE la danger of political controversy obscuring in 
some measure the solid engineering achievement in- 
volved in bringing the Queenston-Chippa wa power develop- 
ment to the production stage. Those who are in a position 
to appreciate the difficulties engineering and economic 
in this work cannot fail tO rank it With some of 

in the history of engineering. In 

men who did lees than the directing heads of 

the "Hydro" engineering staff were accorded national, and 

Dternatlonal, honors, i ilng, In the midst 

of presenl calumnii to read elsewhere In this issue t he 

tribute of Francis Lee Stuart, an engineer peculiarly 

qualifl opinion on the wo 



OBIT! IR1 

\d\\i BEATTIE, construction engineer, wl 
■ ai Co., of 

died r ntiy in the Homeo 

pital, Montreal Mt Beattle was bora In Owen 
i Ont., 67 years ago. 



PROP. J. P. McMURRICH of the Department of Anat- 
omy University of Toronto has been elected President 

of the American 
Association for 

the Advancement 
of Science for the 
coming year and 
will preside at the 
next Convention 
of the Asso- 

ciation which 
meets at Boston. 
December 
2Cth, 1922. Prof. 
McMurrich gradu- 
ated from the Dni- 
\ ersity of Toronto 
in lsTfi and two 
years later obtain- 
ed his degree of 
Master of Arts. 
Four years later 
he secured his Ph. 
D. Irom the John 
Hopkins Univer- 
sity at Baltimore. 
The degree of L. 
L.D. was conferr- 
ed uppn him by 
Michigan University in 1!H2. From 1882 to lss4 he was 
Professor of Biology at the Ontario Agricultural College. 
He then went to the United States where he occupied sev- 
eral chairs In anatomy and biography at various colleges, 
returning to Toronto from Ann Harbor, Michigan. 

PROF. F. R. MOTJLTON, of the University of Toronto, 
has been elected secretary of the Chemistry section of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

A. ST. C. RYLEY, Formerly general sales manager of 
the Trussed Concrete Steel Co. of Canada. Ltd.. has been 
appointed manager of the Montreal Branch of that company 
with offices in the Drummond Building, 511 St. Catharines 
St. W., Montreal. 




REC1 vr PUBLICATIONS 



STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR WIRE ROPE. The 
Canadian Engineering Standards Association has issued a 
new bulletin No. I, 1921, containing the standard general 
specification of wire rope. The specification which embodies 
those requirements for standard grades of wire rope for 
mining, dredging and similar purposes, which are regarded 
■ ntial in or.], i the purchaser against an in- 

ferior or defective product, and to guide the manufacturer 
or importer as to standard practice in Canada. It will be 

ed thai the specifications are combined. This 

done because it - -il that the governing condi- 

tions for both Muds of work were so far In agreement that 

separate specifications were unnecessary Copies of this 

Bcatlon ma\ be obtained from R. .1. hurl. 
of the Canadian Standard Ottawa 



The personnel Of the Southern Alberta Railway Board 

consists of c \ McGrath, Chairman, Judge k, A Car- 
ol the Public Utilities Commission of alberta, Q R 
Marnocb and W. II Fairfield oi Lethbrldge The pa 
,,r the board are to recommend a definite irrigation policy 
based on the report ol the Dominion reclamation service. 
rveya and ■ of non-Irrigable areas, with 

recommendations as to poasble farming methods or other 
king of individual farm • - ■' Hew to 

Inquiring Into the financial conditions of farmers In the dry 
Lethbrldge will be the headquarters of the commla- 




A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



St. Lawrence Navigation and Power Investigation 

Details of Double Development Plan as Proposed by the New York & Ont- 
ario Power Co. — Suggestions Based on 14 Years' Study of Conditions in 
Vicinity of Waddington — Proposed Sites at Rapid du Plat and Long Sault 



THE suggestions offered herein are based upon the ex- 
perience and studies continuously carried on by the 
New York & Ontario Power Co. during the past fourteen 
years. During this period an engineering office has been 
maintained in this division and three different hydro-elec- 
tric power plants have been operated at various times. 
Particular attention has been given to the section between 
the Long Sault Rapids and Ogdensburg on account of the 
possible extension of the company's development at Wad- 
dington, N.Y. 

General Description of River 

Having regard to the various problems involved, and 
to the governing physical conditions existing, the following 
description of the river is given preliminary to a more par- 
ticular consideration of the method of development. 

The discharge of Lake Ontario is now controlled by the 



ance being made for the necessary slope between these 
points. 

From Morrisburg (Lock 2.°,) to the head of the ^ong 
Sault Rapids (Lock 21), the fall is 12 ft. in a distnace of 
16 miles, the shores being generally much lower than those 
above (or west of) Morrisburg. 

From the head of the Long Sault Rapids to the foot of 
Barnhart Island (5 miles), the fall is 4 1 ft. and the shores 
are correspondingly lower than those above Lock 21. By 
constructing a low dam in the vicinity of the foot of the 
Long Sault Rapids the greater part of the present fall be- 
tween Morrisburg (Lock 23) and the foot of Barnhart 
Island (53 ft.) is recovered for navigation and power pur- 
poses without serious flooding, raising the proposed pool 
dangerously, or causing very serious interference with any 
development near Morrisburg at the foot of the Rapid du 
Plat. 




I ;i:m;i:ai. LAYOUT OF WADDINIGTON- -MORRISBURG SITE. NEW STORK AM' I »XT \ RIO POW3 



channels through the Galop Rapids. The cross-section of 
th,e river between Kingston, Ont., and Ogdensburg. NY.. 

great that there is less than 1 ft. fall in the interven- 
ing Ho miles, consequently the Lake Ontario level is con- 
tinued practically to Ogdensburg. - 

Between Ogdensburg and the head of the Galop Rapids 
i "i miles) the fall is less than 2 ft., and from the head of 
the Galop Rapids (Lock 27) to Morrisburg, nut., (Lock 23), 
the fall is 13 ft. in 16 miles, the tot;il tall from Ogdensburg 
to Morrisburg being, therefore, 33 ft. 

I'Im' shores from Ogdensburg to Morrisburg are moder- 
ately high and except at Iroquois, no serious flooding would 
result from carrying the Ogdensburg level down to a dam 
at the foot of the Rapid du Plat (Morrisburg), due allow- 



From the easterly end of Barnhart Island to Cornwall 
i l.o. k 15) the fall is G ft. and the shores are lower. It is 
not considered practicable to dam the river between these 
points. 

The river bed is mostly boulders underlaid with hard 

clay mixed with stones, beneabb which is hard limestone 

i a more or less varying elevation. Drilling has been 

done at different points to determine the surface elevation 

of the solid rock, and the results are available. 

There is every indication that the St. Lawrence River 
has cut its present channel largely through the agency of 
ice. in fart the process is still going on and may be wit- 
nessed at some point or other between Montreal and Ogdens- 
burg during any severe winter. In bays and quiet spots 
the Ice occasionally attains a thickness of about 36 inches 



140 



THE C A N-A DIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 3 



by direct freezing, though it is frequently many feet In 
thickness on account of frazil and anchor ice being forced 
beneath the field ice and firmly adhering thereto. Where 
the water is in movement ice forms more slowly, though so 
many factors are involved in ice formation that it is difficult 
to predict what ice will do, except under known conditions 
of flow and after long continued observation. 

One point to be remembered is that the St. Lawrence 
Hows in a generally north-easterly direction and the canal 
records disclose that commencing at Lock 27. the farther 
down stream you go the earlier does ice formation occur 
in the winter and the later does it break up in the spring. 

It is the intention to discuss herein only those points 
in the engineers report which do not conform to this com- 
pany's plan of double development described hereafter, or 
which affect the costs when making comparison with the 
single development scheme given in the report. 
Regulation of Lake Ontario 

In any plan for the improvement of the River St. 
Lawrence the regulation of Lake Ontario is a most de- 
sirable feature, and, to the extent that it is practicable, 
should receive first consideration from both the standpoint 
of navigation and power. (See Appendix A). 

General Plan of Double Development 

Consideration of the foregoing description of the river, 
its ice condition, etc., makes evident that two sites are 
best adapted for navigation and power works. 

The first is at the foot of the Rapid du Plat, near Lock 
23, and the second is at the Long Sault Rapids. The Rapid 
du Plat dam would control the river between that point 
and Ogdensburg, thereby regulating the surface elevation of 
Lake Ontario and the discharge therefrom. 

In any case, the improvement of river channels for 
navigation above the Rapid du Plat Site, and the conse- 
quent flooding damages are assumed to be the same, as the 
same pool elevations would be used. The comparative 
merits of the alternative methods of development there- 
fore depend upon the various factors entering into the sub- 
ject east of Leishman's Point. 

. The project herein outlined has the following advan- 
tages: 

1. It controls the outflow of Lake Ontario. 

2. It avoids flooding practically any of the thriving and 
thickly settled rural communities east of Morrisburg. 

3. It provides a deep waterway channel at an early 
throughout the whole division. 

4. It develops more primary horsepower than any other 
method, and furnishes over 600,000 h.p. within a short 
period, to satisfy the present demand for power. 

5. It preserves the water front on both sides of the 
river between Lock 23 and the Long Sault for the location of 
Industries. 

6. Provides best and safest conditions for winter 
operation. 

7. Provides a site for both American and Canadian 
Locks. 

In a general way the project would include power 
houses at Barnhart Island, and the dams necessary to 

iter level to approximately elevation 210, and a second 
power house combined with structures suitable for the con- 
trol of Luke Ontario al Morrisburg. Navigation at the 
lower site will be provided with a canal having a lock at 
its lower end and guard lock at upper end. At the upper 
(or Morrisburg) lite provision to made for aai 
through a canal on the Canadian side with a lock. There 
is also a practicable lock BHe on the American side of the 
river. 

All structures would be designed for a definite eleva- 
tion of water surface, and whatever property la damaged in 
the flooded ;ir>',-i would be acquired al 

The wort would * In two stages. The 

..,,,,1,1 include .-'II ti actors al the Morrtoburg 
site. The second stage would include the work at Hie Long 
Sault. 

It might be Impossible, but in any event It would be 
difficult to construct dams and power houses at the Long 



Sault until the discharge of the river in winter is under 
effective control from regulating works at Morrisburg. 

(See Engineers Report on ice conditions with elevation 
of water surface of Long Sault Rapids in 1918). 

If it is found expedient to provide for 20 or 25 ft. 
navigation through the division before the second stage is 
completed, then additional excavation might be required in 
the prism ol the Cornwall Ship Canal, and jetties built in 
the river to raise the elevations of the water surface at the 
entrance to the canal to some elevation higher than at 
present. 

Structures at the Long Sault Rapids and Barnhart Island 

Accepting the general layout submitted in the Engi- 
neers Report as applying as far as possible to the double de- 
velopment, the following changes would be required: 

(1) The north end of the Barnhart Island power house 
would be tied into the Cornwall Ship Canal by a short and 
substantial concrete dam. This eliminates the long dykes 
and embankments necessary in the single development to 
tie the power house and canal structures into the high 
ground on Sheiks Island, and from there into the Canadian 
main land north of Moulinette. 

(2) The crest of the spillway is reduced from El. 1.231 
to El. 210, and designed to withstand the pressure from a 
stage of El. 217 in place of El. 246. All retaining walls and 
abutments having copings at El. 217 in place of El. 238. 

(3) Ice diversion works have curtain wall top reduced 
in El. from 245 to 217. Power house structures reduced 
from El. 245 to 217, and designed to withstand 29 ft. less 
ihead. 

(4) Elimination of all embankments and dykes be- 
tween El. 243 and 222. Practically all core walls are 
eliminated. 

(5) Hoople's Creek diversion is eliminated. 

(6) All embankments and dykes on the Canadian and 
American main shores are eliminated. 

(7) Massena Power House and other works in con- 
nection therewith are eliminated. The existing Massena 
plant of the Aluminum Co. of America would be practically 
undisturbed. 

(8) The length of the Power House would be approxi- 
mately the same as in the single development, but the con- 
struction would be much lighter due to the design being for 
29 ft. less head and the decreased weights in machinery. 

Similarly for the Cornwall Ship Canal the proposed 
general layout would be changed as follows: 

(1) Lock 7 would be in the same position. 

(2) Lock 8 at .Moulinette would be eliminated. 

(3) Cuard locks would be required, but would be 
moved down stream near site of proposed Lock 8 in the 
Engineers Report or farther east if necessary. 

i I i (anal hank on north side carried to EL 222 as 
far eastas the Guard Lock. Drainage led to Culvert under 
canal as in the W'ellund Ship Canal. 

(6) Water level in the Cornwall ship Canal to be El. 
210 in place of El. 200. and banks made to correspond. 

(6) The approach channel would be required to be 
■ \Niuled farther upstream. But this would probably be 
advisable in any event. 

(7) The portion ol the Cornwall Canal known 

gan Lake would be utilized as a supply channel to the power 
houses, thus relieving the Little River Channel (between 
Sheiks and Barnhart's Islands). 

structures ai Morrisburg ami Ogdeo tolaadl 
Since the double development project would require 
power houses at .Morrisburg combined with regulating 
works and navigation facilities, the layout as given in the 

Engineers Report would nave to be considerably chat 

The channels at and belou Ogden island provide a 

means ot building a large portion of the structures In aui«l 

work. The roefe is at a satisfactory elevation. 

The large area that may be conveniently unwatered 
or at least rendered quiet for construction purposes allows 
various layouts to be made. 

The protection that would be afforded by the islands, 
and the utllUation of the intervening channels during the 



January 17, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



winter season for the purposes of both construction and 
operation offer great advatages to a location in the vicinity 
of these islands. 

It is proposed to submit herein merely a tentative lay- 
out for the works, but the following items show that this 
location is best suited for economical power development in 
connection with facilities for regulation and navigation. 

(1) A large area is available for power houses, spill- 
ways and other structures. 

(2) Material can be brought by water to the site for a 
large percentage of the construction work. 

(3) Navigation during construction period is taken 
care of. 

(4) Protection from ice during construction is as- 
sured. 

(5) Sites are available on both sides of the river for 
locks. 

(6) Successful operation of power houses in winter 
season is assured by the protection afforded by islands, with 
more than one large channel leading to one forebay and 
the independent operation of Little River which may be 
utilized as a relief channel in case of ice congestion in the 
main channel. 

(7) The velocity in main channel a short distance from 
structures will aid in keeping them free from ice troubles. 

(8) Open water during the winter below the structures 
will tend to prevent ice jams. Winter backwater effects on 
the plant would be negligible. 

(9) The structures required for purely regulating pur- 
poses will be less extensive than in the single development. 
The power house itself affords a large measure of regula- 
tion, and the greatly increased head on the sluices gives 
them an increased carrying capacity. 

(10) The risks and uncertainties in prosecuting the 
work at the Morrisburg site are much less formidable than 
those in connection with a high head plant at the Long 
Sault, and contractors would not require to make such large 
allowances for contingencies. 

River Improvement Between Morrisburg and Long Sault 
It will be necessary to make some river improvements 
between Morrisburg and the Long Sault for navigation. 
This is mainly necessary in order to reduce the velocity, 
and is relatively not a serious matter. The regulation of 
Lake Ontario as outlined in appendix A will reduce the 
maximum velocity that can occur, and hence reduce the 
amount of excavation below that which would otherwise be 
required under the method of regulation, proposed in the 
Engineers' Report. The improvements made in the channel 
between Morrisburg and Barnharts Island will reduce the 
slope, and thereby increase the working head available for 
power plants. 

The navigation channel will have the advantage of well 
defined shore lines, retaining the present high banks in 
place of the lake-like expanse with wide areas of shallow 
water and low banks consequent upon the single high 
head development. It will not require to be buoyed to any 
great extent, and will give safer navigating conditions dur- 
ing foggy weather, at night and during periods of high 
winds. 

Cost of Machinery 

The head available at the Morrisburg plant will be 
approximately the same as that given in the Engineers 
Report for the Massena plant, which is put at 2 9 ft. For 
this head a type of turbine runner of much higher specific 
speed may be used than with the high head. This makes 
the cost per lip. for the machinery for the double develop- 
ment much closer to that of the high head single develop- 
ment than is indicated in the estimates of the Engineers 
Report. The weights and heights of the parts of the ma- 
chinery in the double development will be less than those 
in the single development, all of which greatly reduces the 
cost of cranes, runways, columns, etc., per lineal foot of 
power house. 

The foregoing also applies to the Barnhart Island power 
bouse of the double development to a certain extent. It 



would have an operating head of 53 to 54 ft., and the ma- 
chinery costs are relatively low per h.p. 

In any plan of development the transformers and other 
high tension transmitting apparatus costs are based upon 
the k.w. capacity of the plant, and it is immaterial whether 
his part of the machinery is located in one plant or two. 

Flooding Damages 

The Engineers Report states that the proposed high 
head development at the Long Sault be made in two stages: 

1st stage — The overflow weirs and regulating works to 
(be carried to El. 231. Power house to El. 250. 

2nd stage — The weirs and regulating works to be 
raised to El. 238. Dykes and embankments to El. 250. 

At the first stage of development the maximum power 
development is impossible, and the flooding is extensive. 
At the second stage the flooding and backwater effects there- 
from are still more serious. This phase of the question is 
dealt with in appendix D. 

Power Development 

The Engineers Report gives the total power at the first 
stage of development as 1,464,000 h.p. and states that a 
greater amount of power would be generated at the second 
stage. Owing to unknown winter conditions, however, the 
additional power obtainable is not dependable. (See pars. 
155 and 156 of the Engineers' Report). The double devel- 
opment shows that 1,655,000 primary h.p. can be obtained 
under similar conditions of flow, giving it an advantage of 
191,000 primary h.p. over the first stage of the proposed 
single development, and a substantial increase over the 
second stage. 

Estimates of Cost 

Using the estimates of cost submitted by the Engineers 
in their report, also their quantities and unit prices so far 
as they may be applicable to the double development, an 
analysis has been made of the relative costs of the single 
and double developments 'both as regards navigation and 
power. (See appendix C.) We do not entirely agree 
however, with the unit prices adopted by them and submit 
our own estimates (per appendix C I). Opinions may differ 
widely as to what is chargeable to navigation and what to 
power, but the method of apportioning the costs is con- 
sidered equitable. 

The Engineers Report makes no allowance for interest 
charges during construction. As the whole proposition is 
a commercial undertaking and interest constitutes a re- 
spectable percentage of the total amount, it is advisable to 
provide sufficient to carry on the work to completion. In- 
terest has been computed on the assumption that the single 
development would absorb 22% of its cost, and that in the 
double development the Morrisburg works would in like 
manner take 11% and the Long Sault works 16%. 

An allowance of 10% has been made for contingencies, 
but attention is drawn to the fact that the estimates herein 
for the double development are liberal, and the contingen- 
cies allowed should be a less percentage of the expenditure 
than in the single development scheme. There is by no 
means the same element of risk in the two methods of de- 
velopment and particularly that for the Morrisburg struc- 
tures. Contractors would undoubtedly make due allowance 
for these risks, and the high specific speeds now being de- 
veloped for the turbines (particularly lor the lower heads) 
will prafctically eliminate the necessity of allowing any con- 
tingencies for machinery under the double development 
plan. 

An adjustment (or different apportionment) of the 
channel improvement costs from Galops Rapids to Rapid 
du Plat should also be made as between the Morrisburg and 
Barnhart plant in the double development, as set forth in 
the note attached to appendix C. This reduces the costs 
of the Morrisburg plant and increases that of the Barnhart 
Island plant. 

The item of land and property damage east of Rapid 
du Plat in the Engineers Report should be increased as 
noted in appendix D on flooding, The amount allowed is 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. S 



insufficient. No such damages occur with the douhle de- 
velopment. 

Conclusion 

The advantages of the double development over the 
single development as proposed in the Engineers Report may 
be summarized as follows: 

1. An old and productive agricultural community 
(estimated at over 4,000 people) is protected from elimina- 
tion by flooding and a large drainage area preserved for 
agriculture. 

2. The smaller range in regulation of Lake Ontario 
together with the higher average stage of the lake is of- 
great value to the lake ports, and also improves river navi- 
gation between Lake Ontario and Cornwall. The power 
capacity of the stream is increased. 

3. The river below Morrisburg is improved for navi- 
gation and power purposes, but otherwise left in approxi- 
mately its natural condition as regards its shore line. 

4. Navigation for either 20 ft. or 25 ft. draft between 
Morrisburg and Cornwall can be provided with but little 
additional expenditure as soon as the Morrisburg site is 
developed. 

5. Moulinette Lock (No. 8) in Cornwall Ship Canal is 
eliminated. 

6. A large stock of power (609,000 h.p.) is made 
available at a much earlier date, as the Morrisburg devel- 
opment should be completed within four years. 

7. Excellent sites for industrial purposes are preserved 
along the water front extending from Morrisburg to Mou- 
linette. 

.8 A better distribution of power for operating and in- 
dustrial conditions, and greater reliability from two sites. 

9. Much better ice conditions would prevail during the 
winter months. This applies particularly to the section be. 
tween Morrisburg and Long Sault and the operation of the 
Waddington-Morrisburg power plants, under the layout 
proposed by the company. 

10. The town of Cornwall and the country round about 
are not menaced by the failure of high earthen dykes and 
embankments impounding the waters of a new lake some 
6o square miles in area. 

11. Elimination of many of the most difficult and ex- 
pensive features connected with the single development, and 
damages to property well defined from the outset. 

12. An enormous saving in the cost of the whole work, 
both to navigation and power, together with a greater 
development of primary power. 

13. Assuming the Long Sault. development backs the 
water 2 ft. on the Waddington site, then with a flow of 
200,000 c.f.s. the power lost at Waddington site is 40,000 
h.p Which capitalized at $100.00 amounts to $4,000,000. 
This is approximately the cost of the proportion of the 
river improvement between the Galops and Leishman"s 
Point chargeable to power, hence the first stage of develop- 
ment i that is Waddington-Morrisburg site) can vry well 
carry the proportion Of the cost of river improvement be- 

Galopa and Lelshman's which is chargeable to power. 
After the double development is complete then this cost 
may be adjusted between the two sites. 
\ri'i m>i\ \ 
Regulation of Lake Ontario 

Any reduction In the fluctuation of the levels oi Lake 

lO under regulated condition! will allow an increase 

i [oration, and ■ corresponding bul much 

ID Of Hie Water sill - 

iboTa Morrieburg dam 
The Engineer* Report states thai under natural con- 
gjtioi RIOBS for the lake varied from 34 Ml to 

I '" B20, c.f.s. The 

material!* redact this range 
the outflow) bj 

minimum to 210,000 C I I making a range "I 1 1". 

r conditions Of DO diVSrsiOll at Chil 

10,001 for the 

Chicago diversion It Is possible theoretically to keep the 



outflow between 200,000 and 280,000 c.f.s., a range of 80,- 
000 c.f.s. for 100% of time and the corresponding range in 
elevations of the lake will not exceed 2.1 ft. except for 1 
month. They also show that practically it is possible to 
keep the range of regulated flow between 200,000 and 280,- 
000 c.f.s. and the range of elevations at least between 244.6 
and 248.95 with only six months out of the period of 60 
years having an elevation below 245.3 and within a 2.1 ft. 
range for 82% of time. 

This is a decrease of 27% in range for flows and 30% 
decrease in range for elevations for lake over those given in 
the engineers report. 

The above quantities are based upon the conditions 
pertaining during the period 1S60-1920 inclusive, but al- 
lowing 10,000 c.f.s. for the Chicago diversion. 

The effect of increasing the range is shown by the 
following: 

With a two foot range the theoretically possible flow 
is 200,000 c.f.s. for 100% of the time; 211,000 c.f.s. for 
96% of the time, or omitting the low water years of 1895- 
96 (Aug. 94 to Feb. 97), it is obtainable for 100% of the 
time; 216,000 c.f.s. is obtainable for 90^ of the whole 
period; 280,000 c.f.s is the maximum flow. 

With a three foot range the theoretically possible flow 
is 204,000 c.f.s. for 100% of the time, an increase of 2%; 
215,000 c.f.s. for 96% of the time, or 100% of period omitt- 
ing years 1895-96; 218,000 c.f.s. for 90% of the time; 283,- 
000 c.f.s. for maximum flow. 

With a four foot range the theoretically possible flow 
is 206,000 c.f.s. for 100% ef the time, an increase of 3%; 
217,000 c.f.s. for 96% of the time, or 100% of period 
omitting years 1895-96; 219,000 c.f.s. for 90% of the time; 
269,000 c.f.s. for maximum flow. 

With a six foot range, the theoretically possible flow 
is 211,000 c.f.s. for 100% of the time, an increase of 5%%; 
221,000 c.f.s. for 90 % of the time; 261,000 c.f.s. for maxi- 
mum flow. 

The above shows that a very small percentage gain in 
flow is obtained by increasing the range above 2 ft., being 
only 2% for a three foot range, 3% for a four foot range and 
5%% for a six foot range. Any increase in power due to 
the greater range and its corresponding increase in flow is 
more than offset by the loss of power due to the lower lake 
level. The closer regulation Is, of course, a great benefit 
to navigation since it raises the minimum stage of the lake 
and river as far as the Waddington-Morrisburg site. 

Rule for Regulation 

It is theoretically possible to maintain the regulated 
flow between 200,000 and 280,000 c.f.s. and the regulated 
range within 2.1 ft. A system of regulation may be de- 
vised in which these flows will not be exceeded in their 
limits and still maintain the 2.1 ft. range in lake level for 
82% of the time. 

These studies have been based upon the elevation of the 
water surface of the lake and the supply to the lake. 
Hence, using only this data, it is possible to obtain a high 
degree of accuracy in the forecast for one month in ad- 
vance. No doubt any system of regulation will be revised 
from time to time as additional knowledge of the conditions 
on the watershed is obtained and as the power load builds 
up. 

Kffecl of Closer Regulation 

The above system of close regulation when applied to 
lo much greater advantage than is possible with the regu- 
the single and douhle development schemes shows the latter 

lation given in the Engineers Report. 

The effect of this in com parin g the single and double 
developments is as follows: 

( i i To Increase the available head for the Morrisburg 
plant 

(2 i This Increase in head for the Morrisburg plant 1s 
not available for Barnharl Island plant under the single 
development project as contained in the Engineers' Re- 
port. This is due not only to the fixed El. 231 at the Long 



January 17, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Sault, but also to the winter slope o£ the river between 
Barnhart and Morrisburg Pool. 

(3) That the higher head available for the Morrisburg 
site in the double* development gives higher speeds for the 
machinery and greater horsepower per lineal foot of power 
house and other structures, hence a less total cost and less 
cost per horsepower than is obtainable under the regula- 
tion contained in the report of the engineers. 

(4) It will be noted that this method of regulation re- 
quires less water to be discharged at maximum flow, and 
consequently less wastage of flood water. 

(5) The raising of the average elevation of the lake 
and the increase in the minimum elevation of approximately 
2 ft. is equivalent to dredging the harbors of Lake Ontario 
and the river down as far as Ogdensburg to that extent. 

APPENDIX B 

■Winter Conditions 

The Engineers Report states that it is advisable to 
operate the reaches between Barnhart and Morrisburg and 
between Morrisburg and the Galops with an ice cover, but 
does not state clearly how this ice cover is to be maintained. 

Our conclusions are that it would be impossible to 
maintain a stable ice cover under the proposed single de- 
velopment scheme and that it would be better to attempt 
maintaining an open channel particularly in the lower 
reaches. This would be much more easily maintained by 
the double development plan. 

Winters on the Upper St. Lawrence vary considerably. 
Some are so mild that even the channel between Ogdensburg 
and Lake Ontario l in which the open season fall is about 
1 foot) remains open. Other winters occur in which this 
reach retains an ice cover for a few days only. During the 
average winter this section is ice covered. 

The section between Ogdensburg and Chimney Island 
is one in which the velociy is greater than that above Og- 
densburg and compares favorably with some of the sections 
of the proposed channel below the Galops. The lower end 
Of this channel between Chimney Island and the State Hos- 
pital frequently chokes with ice coming from the reach 
above. This reach is only about 4 miles long and supplies 
all the ice to the above section. It is difficult to believe 
that much anchor ice occurs in this channel. The result is 
that the discharge of the river is materially reduced. 

The reach between Ogdensburg and Brockville has a 
lower average velocity than the above and during many 
winters its closed season is of short duration. 

The proposed new channel conditions between Morris- 
burg and the Galop; has several reaches in which it is pro- 
posed to excavate in order to reduce the velocity to an 
average of 4 feet per sec, and the maximum velocity at the 
surface will be considerably higher. It is difficult to con- 
ceive these reaches having a stable ice covering for any 
large percentage of the winter season. 

It must be remembered, that, when considering the ice 
conditions the average winter and the average ice conditions 
bear little weight. It is the extreme conditions, the worst 
that has ever occurred that must be considered. One 
ser<'ous uncontrolled ice jam might wreck the whole propo- 
sition. 

Mention is made that under the new conditions, the ice 
cover on the river above the Galops will so warm the water 
that the Galops will be free of anchor ice. It is difficult to 
see how the conditions above the Galops will be greatly 
changed from the present state. The Galops under present 
conditions do have a large quantity of anchor ice. 

Under the single development plan the higher velocities 
are in the sections a considerable distance west of the dam 
This is just the reverse of the condition required for the 
most successful operation of fighting ice. Invariably the 
clearing of ice fields must take place from the downstream 
side. 

With the single development scheme the sections next 
to the dam will freeze first and become the strongest due 
to the longer period for tt to grow in thickness and receive 



contributions of ice and snow from reaches farther up- 
stream. The nature of the mass adjacent to the dam is 
difficult to determine, but it is evident that it may cause a 
considerable reduction in the discharge of the river and also 
in the supply to the power house. 

Change in Stream I.im-. 

Under winter conditions the flow will have a tendency 
to concentrate in one part of the channel, thereby increas- 
ing the velocity and consequently greatly shortening the life 
of any ice cover. 

Action of Floating Ice 

The percentage of border ice that builds up in front 
of an ice cover may depend to a large extent upon the ve- 
locity of the stream at the point of growth. The amount 
of snow and frazil ice that goes into the accumulation in 
front of the ice bridge is certainly not so entrely dependent 
upon the velocity and we cannot agree with some of the re- 
marks of the engineers report on this question. 

The capacity of a section of the river for storing ice is 
not entirely in proportion to its cross-sectional area but de- 
pends to a large extent upon the rapidity with which the ice 
bridge builds up, and the rapidity of the building up of the 
ice bridge depends upon its facilities for passing the various 
kinds of ice masses beneath its ice cover. This may be seen 
at Cornwall or at the bridges which form below Farran's 
Point or in some of the secondary channels among the 
islands farther upstream. 

Critical Velocity for Border Ice 

Our studies of winter conditions along the river do not 
show that any rigid rule may be made to determine the 
limiting velocity in a section in order to obtain an ice cover 
due to growth from shore. There are too many elements 
involved to make a definite rule. The element of time is an 
important factor. During a winter with little zero weather 
or one with alternate cold and warm periods the encroach- 
ment of border ice on the midchannel is much less than in a 
long period of cold weather. The variation in duration of 
the season for open channel between Ogdensburg and Brock- 
ville is a good example of this. 

Under the prosed single development scheme an ice 
cover on the river between Barnhart and Morrisburg will be 
very uncertain. The following refers particularly to this 
channel. 

(1) The present channel would be changed from its 
present state of fairly uniform width with comparatively 
small bays of quiet water and open channel conditions dur- 
ing every winter (except during the periods of 187S, lss, 
and 190*5 when ice jams occurred) to one of great width 
with large areas of quiet water and low velocities through- 
out the reach. Similar in some respects to that at Brock- 
ville. 

If these bays do not have a permanent ice cover, then 
the amount of frazil ice manufactured in the reach will be 
greater than at present. Also the amount of border ice 
breaking from its anchorage and the frequency with which 
sections swing out into the main channel may be greater 
depending to a large extent upon fluctuation of the water 
stage under operating conditions and the greater effect of 
the wind upon the wide expanse of the river. On the 
hand, if the bays are of more or less permanent nature with 
an open channel in midstream, then they serve to accumu- 
late the snow which will be swept by favorable winds into 
the open channel. This snow-ice forms a very disagreeable 
and difficult mass to handle and even with low velocity 
currents readily runs under an ice cover. Example: Chan- 
nel head of Galops to State Hospital below Ogdensburg. 

Conditions in a Mild Winter 

(2) Consider a winter which is comparatively mild or 
one in which the periods of severe weather alternate with 
warm periods. The bays and quiet areas freeze over early 
in the season to various thicknesses, depending upon the 
severitv of the weather and length of time the water is in an 
undsturbed condition. The process of these ice areas 



144 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 3 



breaking from anchorage and floating downstream is often 
repeated several times. 

Change in Climatic Conditions 

Consider an average severe winter. Invariably there 
come periods in December and January when the weather 
after a lengthy spell of zero temperature, suddenly turns 
warmer and this may continue a few days or a week. Un- 
der these conditions a breakup may occur similar to that 
described under the previous item on Mild Winter, but with 
the difference that at the stage when the ice mass is in its 
most threatening position a sudden change to zero weather 
might consolidate the aggregation making a repetition of 
the above a very dangerous matter. 

The river between Morrisburg and the Galops has 
several reaches, namely, at Point Three Points, Point Rock- 
way. Sparrowhawk Point and the Galop channels in which 
the average velocity approaches closely to .our feet per sec. 
an dat all times would be either open or have a very un- 
stable ice cover. These sections are fairly evenly dis- 
tributed throughout the reach between Morrisburg and the 
Galop Rapids, so that any condition favoring a breakup of 
the ice cover would cause these sections to rapidly extend 
their open water areas until the whole reach opens up in 
midchannel. The upper end where the average velocities 
are the greater would open first. Hence the best method of 
operating the reach between Morrisburg and the Galops is 
to maintain an open water channel in midstream which 
will transport (to the reach below Morrisburg) the greater 
portion of the ice occuring in the reach and thus preventing 
a congestion similar to that which now occurs between 
Chimney Island and the State Hospital. 

Conditions at the Long Sault Dam 

Even if the floating ice is successfully guided over the 
ice chutes or spillway at the Long Sault dam. it will take 
considerable water to carry it to Lake St. Francis and pre- 
vent a huge mass building up either from the frozen surface 
of the lake land this ice surface will take earlier in the 
upper reach of the lake, due to channel improvements), or 
the building up immediately below the Long Sault dam. If 
the spillway is to be used to any considerable extent in 
winter, then it will add its quota to the accumulation in 
the lake. Also the shallow portion immediately below 
the dam will materially augment the contribution to the 
anchor ice. The roe% elevation at the east end of the site 
of the dam is given as 158 and at the west end 170 and the 
elevation of the lake surface 154, or only from 4 to 1G feet 
lower. 

Winter Conditions 

Winter conditions are such that successful operation 
of the 4th Division depends upon the ability of maintaining 
an open channel throughout. The width of the open chan- 
nel will depend upon the amount of ice to lie transported, 
a greater width of channel being required at the lower end. 

With the single development in an average winter, I' 98 
frazil and anchor ice but more border and snow-ice will 
probably occur than under present conditions. In a mild 
winter more border, snow and frazil ice will be formed than 
under present conditions. 

With tbf double development plan in any winter less 
frazil, anchor, border and snow-ice will I than 

under the single development plan and 1 and 

anchor, nearly the same snow-Ice but more border ice will 
obtain than under present conditions. 

( . in. j ii inn-, .ii Povrej Honae 

The method generally employed In dispersing an Ice 
congestion or Ice bridge is attacking tie im the 

downstream side and as portions of i are broken 

up they are carried downstream clear of the jam. It |g 
necessary to cut this channel of such I width that it will 
not again be portions breaking from the sl<|. 

swinging across before the lit i c-rsed. 

Hence a power plant with two or mora long channel! 
leading to Its Ice sluiees is in a much better position for 
fighting an ice congestion in the forebays than a plant de- 



pending upon only one. Ordinarily both channels would have 
a runway for ice but if one chokes up then the other would 
act as a relief channel, thus giving time for the breaking up 
of the jam. The advantage of this is evident in the channel 
at Croil's Island. The great, jams of 1878, 1887 and 1905 
were caused by 'both channels at Croil's Island choking. 
On other occasions one or other of the channels remained 
open. 

The rapidity with which an ice bridge builds up is of 
course dependent upon the length of channel contributing 
the ice. In some reaches between Sorel and Montreal this 
building up is at the rate of a mile per hour. The ice jam 
of 1905 below Morrisburg built up in the reaches of low- 
velocity quite rapidly. The bridges on the north side of 
Croil's at times also built up very fast. Another example 
is the annual occurence near lock 15 at Cornwall. 

The distance from the Waddington-Morrisburg site to 
the Galops is 16 miles, all of which would be subject to 
open water conditions, so that under favorable conditions 
an ice bridge starting at the dam would rapidly build up- 
stream. The layout proposed by the company for the Wad- 
dington-Morrisburg development furnishes two independent 
channels down which ice may be passed. An ice congestion 
starting at the power house and dam would require to build 
up a distance of two miles to the junction of the Little 
River with the North Channel before both channels would 
be threatened with complete closing. In case one channel 
did 'build up this two miles to the head of Ogden, the other 
channel remaining open would carry the ice contributed by 
the reaches above, thus giving time to clear the ice choked 
channel by attacking it at its downstream end. No shut- 
down of power house would be necessary in order to help 
clear. 

With only one channel leading to power house, this 
procedure would be impossible and the head of the jam 
would not be limited to two miles but might advance faster 
than it could be cleared at lower end. and shutting down 
the plant in whole or in part would probably be necessary. 

If the ucertainties of winter operation make it advis- 
able to carry out the development of power in the 4th Divi- 
sion in two stages, then the section west of Morrisburg 
should be developed first. In this manner the upper and 
shorter part of the division (4th) would be changed from 
its natural state. The lower section from Morrisburg east 
would be left in its natural condition, the performance of 
which is well defined. 

APPENDIX n 

Flooding Damages 

The Engineers' Report states that at the first stase of 
development. Bowage will be required up to Kl. L':.S. and 
that at the second stage an emergency elevation of 246 may 
be reached. This means that both shores of the river will 
be heavily flooded, and due to the flat slope of the country 
the dr; Brill be affected tor B considerable dial 

id, rendering many thousands of acres unfit for agri- 
culture below Morrisburg on both sides of the river. 

The villages of A-ultsvllle, Farran's Point and Dickin- 
sons Landing would be badly flooded at the first stage and 
entirely obliterated at the second si 

it is proposed to protect the village of Morrisburg bj 
means of a dyke composed of an earth embankment con- 
taining a core wall surrounding the village on three sides 
and pumping the sewerage into the river without making 
in for treatment 

The net result of the Hooding would be to muke the 
Villages uninhabitable by reason of the fact that the farming 
community which supports them would itself be destroyed. 
■ inently the frontier population from Morrisburg to 
Dickinson's Landing I Inclusive i would have to be removed. 
The same applies to the American side of the river from 
Wadding ton bo Masaens Population affected is estimated 
at over I unci The main highways on both sides of the 
river would require t" be re-located at the first stage of 
development and at the second stage a second re-location 



January 17, 1922 THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 1*5 

would be necessary in order to afford the remaining farming Consideration must also be given to the fact that the 

population necessary access to main thoroughfares and compulsory removal of the entire population would entail 

markets. At both the first and second stages the Grand consequential damages to an amount not easily determin- 

Trunk Railway would have to be raised, and probably por- able. In any event the damages direct and indirect would 

tions re-located. Many old and historic cemeteries would be very great, and the amount allowed in the Engineers' 

be submerged on both sides. Report does not appear adequate. 

APPENDIX C 
DEDUCTIONS MADE FROM REPORT OF BOARD OF ENGINEERS 

Applicable to 
Single Development Double Development 

Navigation Power Navigation Power 

Chimney Island to Morrisburg $17,945,630 131,554,470 

Morrisburg to Cornwall $21,556,880 58,731,229 

Chimney Island to Cornwall $47,002,485 $97,631,345 

Additional damages 3,000,000 3,000,000 

Engineering & Contingencies 5,000,230 10,063,134 3,950,251 9,028,569 



Total $55,002,721 $110,694,479 $43,452,761 $99,314,268 

Interest during construction 12,100,598 24,352,785 5.965,420 14,154,885 



Total $67,103,319 $135,047,264 $49,418,181 $113,469,153 

Recapitulation 

Chargeable to navigation $ 67,103.319 $ 49.41S.181 

Chargeable to power 135,047,264 113,469,153 



$202,150,583 $162,887,334 



Note: — In estimating the cost of power development a portion of the cost of channel improvement shown 
under item 1 should be charged against the Long Sault Power Development. 

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF DEVELOPMENTS. 

ESTIMATES OF NEW YORK & ONTARIO POWER CO. ! 

Applicable to 

Single Development Double Development 

Navigation Power Navigation Power 

Chimney Island to Morrisburg $15,209,491 $29,496,615 

Morrisburg to Cornwall 16.243,174 53,196,051 

Chimney Island to Cornwall $3S,387,143 83, 60S, 963 

Additional damages 3,000,000 3,000,000 

Engineering & Contingencies 4,137,814 8,660,896 3,145,266 8,269,266 



Total $45,515,957 $95,269,859 $34,597,931 $90,961,932 

Interest during construction 10,013,510 20,973,889 4,859,142 12,931.593 



Total $55,529,467 $116,243,748 $39,457,073 $103,893,525 

Recapitulation 

Chargeable to navigation $ 55,529,467 $ 39,457,073 

Chargeable to power 116,243.748 103,893,525 






Total $171,773,215 $143,350,598 

Note: — In estimating the cost of power development a portion of the cost of channel improvement shown 
under item 1 should be charged against the Long Sault Power Development. 

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF DEVELOPMENTS 

ESTIMATES OF NEW YORK & ONTARIO POWER CO. 

ESTIMATES APPENDIX C. 

Without interest $110,694,479 $34,709,917 $64,604,351 

Interest during construction 24.352,785 3.818,189 10,336,696 



Total $135,047,264 $38,528,106 $74,941,047 

H.P. (210,000 C.F.S.) 1,464,000 609,000 1,046,000 

Cost per H. P. (including interest) $92.40 $63.30 $71.70 

ESTIMATES CI 

Without interest $95.269.S59 $32,446,276 $58,515,656 

Interest during construction 20.973.SS9 3,569,089 9.362,504 



Total $116,243,748 $36,015,365 $67,878,160 

H.P. (210,000 C.F.S.) • 1,464,000 609,000 1,046,000 

Cost per H.P. (including interest) $79.40 $59.15 $64.90 

Note: — In estimating the cost of power development a portion of the cost of channel improvement shown 
under items 1 and 6 should be charged against the Long Sault Power Development. 

RELATIVE H. P. COSTS. 



146 



THF CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2, No. 3 



THK DISINFECTION OF PUBLIC WATh.R SUPPLIES AND 
ITS RELATION TO PIT5LTO HEALTH 



Explains How Typhoid Epidemics Begin — De cro rt o e in 
Death Rate Follows Use <>f Chlorine — More Gen- 
oral I'sc of Liquid Chlorine for Disin- 
fecting AVater Supplies 



By C. A. Jennings 

Chicago, Representative, Wallace & Tiernan, Inc. 

CHLORINE is a greenish yellow gas, it was discovered in 
1774 by Scheele, a Swedish chemist. One volume of 
liquid chlorine Is equivalent to 455 volumes of chlorine gas. 
Chlorine was formerly produced by chemical means, but, 
latterly it has been manufactured by the electrolytic de- 
composition of salt brine. Until recently, chlorine was 
known principally through its use in the form of chloride 
of lime (bleaching powder, hypochlorite of lime or hypo). 
This is produced by the action of chlorine gas upon slaked 
lime in lead lined chambers. Coincident with the develop- 
ment of the electrolytic method of producing chlorine, 
there came the development of the machinery for liquifying 
the gas. As a result, chlorine is now shipped in steel drums 
of various capacities, including tank cars containing 15 tons. 
As shipped, it is in liquid form, under a pressure of about 
80 pounds, the liquified gas is dry and is between 99.5% and 
100% pure chlorine; the variation in the degree of purity 
being slight. As long as the gas is dry it will corrode few 
metals. 

Hypo Tried as a Germicidal A^ni 

In 1908 one of the filter companies conceived the idea 
that drinking water could be made out of the foul, fer- 
menting liquid called water in Bubbly Creek, a branch of 
the Chicago River. After some ten months of experiment- 
ing, work was started on a 5,000,000 gallon per day me- 
chanical filtration plant. Upon its completion, it was neces- 
sary to carry on experiments for a long period of time dur- 
ing which all known processes of water treatment were tried 
with only partial results. As a last resort, in the summer 
of 190S, experiments were made with hypochlorite of lime 
or hypo, as a germicidal agent, at the suggestion of Col. 
George A. Johnson, consulting engineer. The writer was 
employed at the time as a sanitary engineer by one of the 
three companies interested in the experiments. The results 
were extremely gratifying and there followed the develop- 
ment of the process of disinfecting water by means of 
chlorine compounds, specifically hypochlorite of lime or 
hypo. Within a month, the water supply of Jersey City, 
N.J., was being sterilized; soon Little Falls, N.J., adopted 
this treatment and one after the other, cities all over the 
i Btates began using hypo. Before three years had 
passed more than 500 cities disinfecting their 

water supplies by means of hypo. 

Previous to this development, water supplies that 
needed in ■ treated by storage, plain sedimen- 

tation, sedimentation and filtration, coagulation and Ultra 
tlon, etc. If a well water supply or a clear mountain stream 
or clear lake supply became contaminated, there was only 
one thing to do. namely, Miter the supply even though it waa 
alreail. >ter, quite often this plat heavy 

financial burden upon municipalities and furthermore, va 
filter plant required months for construction. Disinfection 
by hypochlorite of lime found -wi4mi|iniil I^HlJII found 
widespread favor especially in such cases. Furthermore. 
the standards of sanitary science had Incn other 

lines and now It was possible to make more stringent regu- 
lations regarding the quality of water supplies. The sur- 
lomlng virtually open sewers 
as a result l ' ieed urban population, the sewering 

of most communities bordering upon the sources of water 
supplies and the Increasing amount ol 

. auspicious and opport 
adopted as an adjunct to filtration and other forms of water 



purification plants. At no time have the advocates of water 
disinfection argued that disinfection was a substitute for 
filtration. The principal function of filtration is clarifica- 
tion and incidentally a considerable bacterial reduction 
takes place but this is not selective as to the kind of bac- 
teria removed. The only function of water disinfection is 
to kill bacteria and it was soon proven that this treatment 
had a selective action on the disease producing organisms. 
This made it an invaluable adjunct to other purification 
systems. 

First Chlorine Control Apparatus Installed 

In 1912 the first control apparatus to use liquid chlor- 
ine or chlorine gas was installed. The use of a chlorinator 
handling a pure gas. permiting of accurate knowledge at all 
times of the quantity of chlorine being used; elimination 
of uncertainties as to the strength of the chemical being 
used: overcoming the odor of hypo and its corrosive action 
on metals; the fact that no chemicals bad to be mixed up in 
solution tanks: lower cost of treatment: the fact that there 
was no deterioration in the strength of the disinfecting 
chemical while using or while being stored — all the points 
Showed the great superiority of the use of chlorine over 
hypo. At the present time there are som :>'s us- 

ing liquid chlorine for water disinfection and very few still 
use hypo. In order to conceive the quantity of water is 
sterilized daily by liquid chlorine, it is estimated that this 
would be equivalent to the amount of water passing over 
Niagara Falls in one hour, in ether words, about four bil- 
lion gallons. 

Water borne typhoid fever epidemics are on record 
during many years. They take place even today but there 
is no excuse for them now. nor is there any excuse for them 
to assume any degree of severity. Liquid chlorine treat- 
ment safeguards against such occurr 

How Typhoid Epidemics start 

Shortly after Christmas, 18S5, a man living above the 
city of Plymouth. Ta., returned home and took to his bed 
with typhoid fever. His excreta, unsterilized, were de- 
posited upon the snow covered bank of a mountain brook 
which emptied into a lake reservoir from which the water 
supply of Plymouth was obtained. In March there occurred 
the annual spring thaw. The excr 1 the brook 

and then the reservoir. The resultant epidemic i 
1,000 cases of typhoid fever and 111 deaths in this town 
with a population of only 8,000. One person out of every 
eight had typhoid and one out of every 70 died with it. 
Continuous disinfection ol the water supply at that time 
would have prevented such a terrible catastrophe. 

Two interesting epidemics occurred from a more un- 
usual and more difficult cause to locate, one being at Blgln, 
III., and the other at Bloomington, III.: both within the 
last few years. At the Elgin Watch Co. the drinking water 
Supply from the city mains was pure. An Industrial supply 

was pumped iriitii Fox River for manufacturing pari 

lire protection, etc. This supply was contaminated with 

, it les. However, there was 

a CrOSS-COnneCtlon between the tWO Systems with a check 
valve in the line to prevent the river water which was under 
considerably higher pressure, from being forced back into 
the city mains. The purpose of til.' crO m was 

to insure the plant Are p *' all times even in the 

event of the failure of their own private system from Fox 
River. This is common practice with manufacturin 
■ uables then a lower tire InSU 

rate On one occ heck valve did not seal tightly 

and a very Beriou i among the empl< 

The ,i id by the company are said to b 

lOmlngton, III., the Chicago A Alton K. R. shop, 
bad a crOSS connection with the city water supph On one 
BR supply failed and they pumped for In- 
dustrial purposes trom ■> :!:; '» outlel sewer, the contents 

i mixture of B«WagS and creek water. The check 

valve between the two htly and the 

grossly contaminated water entered the drinking 
•ystsm. This caused some 400 cases of dysenterv 



January 17, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



cases of typhoid, and 21 deaths. It is estimated that the 
damages ultimately to be paid by the C. & A. R. R. Co. will 
exceed $175,000. In some states, notably Minnesota, cross 
connections of this sort are absolutely prohibited by law 
and t lie state boards of health make inspections to see that 
this law is complied with. 

Several large manufacturing plants with dual water 
systems such as the Universal Portland Cement Co. at Buf- 
fington. Ind., and the B .P. Goodrich Co. at Akron, Ohio, 
chlorinate the industrial water supply. Then, if workmen 
should use this water for drinking purposes, in spite of 
notices to the contrary, the water would be innocuous and 
no disease would result therefrom. Most manufacturing 
establishments find it pays to take this precaution. 

Leaks Well Casing at Lansing 

The water supply of Lansing, Mich., is obtained from 
wells in five different sections of the city, all wells being 
about 450 ft. deep. The mains are all interconnected. It 
seems that one of the wells had a leaky casing in the sum- 
mer of 1919 when the river was high. The high river 
backed up one of the sewers, sewage leaked out through 
the Joints in the sewer pipe, this sewage permeated the soil 
and found entrance into the suction pipe of the deep well. 
The entire city water distribution system became contamin- 
ated, causing some 3,000 cases of dysentery, 82 cases of 
typhoid and 11 deaths. Liquid chlorine treatment was 
installed immediately at Lansing and has been used continu- 
ously since that time as a form of health insurance against 
the possible return of similar conditions. 

At Tonawanda, N.Y., warnings had been given fre- 
quently for the State Department of Health from 1912 until 
1919 to the effect that their water supply from Niagara Rive»' 
should be purified. An accident to the intake precipitated 
the epidemic about which they had been warned and during 
the months of July, August and September 1919, there 
were 236 cases of typhoid. Liquid chlorine treatment was 
installed after the epidemic had been discovered and this 
brought it to a sudden termination. It should have been 
installed at the time the city received its first warning. 

Through carelessness, the chlorine apparatus at Al- 
pena, Mich., was not operated for eight days in December 
1919 because the supply of chlorine had become exhausted 
and no attempt was made to replenish it from any city 
nearby using the same treatment. Nine people paid for this 
error with their lives and there were 107 cases of typhoid. 
Civil action was brought against the city and the city man- 
ager was discharged. A duplicate automatic chlorinator 
was immediately ordered to make certain that there should 
be no cessation in the treatment due to the possible failure 
of one of the chlorinators. 

At Pittsburg, Cal., the chlorine apparatus was out 
of service for one day a few months ago. It was shut off 
while making some minor repairs and adjustments. Un- 
treated water was pumped into the mains and no notice was 
given to the consumers to boil the water. Out of a popu- 
lation of 5,000 there were 100 cases of typhoid even though 
the apparatus was out of service only one day. Since that 
time Pittsburg has been sued by 21 people who were sick 
and the damages claimed amount to $140,000. A second 
or reserve apparatus was installed after the epidemic. 

In May and June 1920 Greenville, Ky., had 51 cases 
of typhoid and 7 deaths, and Xenia, Ohio, in August and 
September tills had an epidemic of 44 cases of typhoid 
fever. In each case this was due to the use of hypochlor- 
ite of lime of unknown strength and not having any check 
on the amount being applied. The Ohio State Health au- 
thorities reported: "It is advisable that the company aban- 
don the hypochlorite method of disinfection and employ the 
more dependable and up to date method using liquid chlor- 
ine." Since these two epidemics each city has installed 
chlorine control apparatus to use liquid chlorine. 

Kpidemic at Salem 

The population of Salem, Ohio, is 10,000. During 
October and November 1920 there were 6,000 cases of 
dysentery, 900 cases of typhoid fever and 50 deaths. The 



water supply was from wells and had always been con- 
sidered above suspicion. Sewage found access to an aban- 
doned pipe leading to the common suction well and so con- 
taminated the entire system. The Bulletin of the State 
Board of Health of Ohio pointed out that giving due weight 
to the number of lives lost, number of people who were sick 
and recovered, the funeral expenses, doctor fees, loss of time 
of wage earners, expenditures for medical services, drugs, 
nurses, etc., the appropriations made by the State and by 
the Red Cross, the Salem epidemic showed a cost of $45.0,- 
000. Chlorine control apparatus installed after the epi- 
demic cost about $900 each. The daily cost of treating 
the entire city water supply of Salem will be less than $1. 
To think that with such a small investment for apparatus 
and an expenditure of $350 per year the Salem water supply 
would have been made safe and saved the $450,000 as well 
as the lives that were lost. Damage suits aggregating 
nearly $300,000 have been filed against the city of Salem 
as a result of this epidemic. 

Even a filter plant requires chlorine as a final or 
auxiliary treatment. In November 1920 the chemist of the 
filtration plant at Anderson, Indiana, shut down the chlorine 
apparatus and allowed it to be idle for 20 days. Following 
this there were 18 cases and 2 deaths from typhoid fever. 

The deep well water supply of Corning, N.Y., became 
contaminated as a result ol a flooded condition of the ad- 
jacent river. The inhabitants suffered an epidemic of ty- 
phoid fever even though this supply had never been con- 
taminated before and even though it was obtained from deep 
wells. Since the epidemic there has been installed chlor- 
ine control apparatus in duplicate. 

Decrease in Typhoid Death Hate in U. S. 

In the year 1907 the census registration area showed 
a population of 41,75 8,000 with a typhoid death rate of 
30.3. In 1919 the rate had decreased to 9.2 and the popu- 
lation canvassed was S5,14S,000. This represented a sav- 
ing of lives equal to 21.1 for each 100,000 population or on 
the basis of a population for the United States of 110,000,- 
000, the saving amounts to the enormous total of 23,200 
lives. In other words, if there had been the same typhoid 
death rate throughout the country in 1920 as that in the 
registration area for the year 1907, namely, 30.3, there 
would have been 23,200 more deaths lrom typhoid fever 
than actually occurred. This represents a saving to the 
country of the enormous total of $116,000,000. 

It is probable that no two water works pumping sta- 
tions are identical in layout of pumps, pipe lines, etc., nor 
in the operating conditions. For this reason a special study 
must be made of each proposed installation of chlorine 
equipment and the apparatus adapted to the local condi- 
tions is specified and the proper method and location of 
installation detailed. Some conditions necessitate the ap- 
plication of the chlorine as a gas, others as a solution. 
Often there is no way in which to apply chlorine by gravity 
and a positive head or pressure at the point of application 
must be overcome. In larger cities the amount of chlor- 
ine used daily may be considerable, comparatively speak- 
ing. However, in many of the smaller cities, the volume 
of the water treated is so small and the dosage of chlorine 
so slight, that it may entail difficulties in the control of such 
minute quantities of chlorine. For example, the smallest 
chlorinator has a minimum capacity of .01 lb. of chlorine 
per day or in other words, .007 ounce per hour. This is an 
extremely small amount of gas to regulate accurately. For 
the average water supply this would sterilize water at a 
rate of 5,000 gallons per day or about 4 gallons per minute. 
It is not considered a practicable proposition to try to chlor- 
inate smaller quantities of water. 

Some waters with low turbidity, color, organic matter 
and unoxidizable mineral matter require small amounts of 
chlorine for proper disinfection, possibly as little as one 
pound per million gallons or .12 p. p. in. (parts per million). 
There are highly colored and turbid waters and even some 
clear waters with large amounts of organic or oxidizable 
mineral matter that require several times this amount of 
chlorine for proper disinfection. Here again it is necessary 



THE. CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 3 



to make a study of the water to be treated and determined 
upon the proper rate of application. The average amount 
of chlorine used on water supplies is probably close to 2.5 
pounds per million gallons or 3 p. p.m. 

In the regular operation of the water treatment plants 
it is a very simple matter to determine if the correct quan- 
tity of chlorine is being applied without waiting for the 
results of a bacteriological examinaiton. This is accomp- 
lished by testing the treated water for free or excess chlor- 
ine by means of the orthotolidin or starch iodide methods. 
Quantitative results can be secured if desired. At the cur 
rent price for chlorine, the cost of disinfecting the average 
water supply will approximate 30 cents per million gallons. 
Ordinarily, the time period of reaction is very short vary- 
ing from a few seconds to 15 minutes, depending upon the 
character of the water being treated, quantity of chlorine 
used, temperature of the water, etc. Ordinarily the chlor- 
ine is applied to the water as it is 'being pumped into the 
distribution system, thereby not requiring reaction cham- 
bers. 

Chicago Uses Chlorine Control Apparatus 

The city of Chicago has made a very thorough and ex- 
haustive study of the applications of chlorine to its water 
supply. There are ten pumping stations taking their sup- 
plies from five cribs, the distances of same from shore vary- 
ing from two to four miles. The highest recorded death 
rate from typhoid fever in Chicago was in 1891 when the 
figure reached 172 per 100,000. Various remedial meas- 
ures were taken subsequent to this and beginning in 1900, 
these measures were very effective, such as the opening of 
the Drainage Canal and thereby diverting the city sewage 
from Lake Michigan into the Chicago River and eventually 
the Mississippi River. The first preliminary work of dis- 
infection of the water supply was done in 1912 at some of 
the cribs. By December 1916, chlorine control apparatus 
had been installed in all of the pumping stations and since 
that time all of the water pumped has been chlorinated. 

For the period of 1906-1911 before disinfection, the 
average annual death rate was 14.9 per 100,000. During 
the years 1912-1916 while experimenting and equipping the 
stations with chlorinators, the rate dropped 50% to 7.1. 
For the years 1917-1920 inclusive, while sterilizing the 
entire water supply continuously the rate has been 1.36, 
placing Chicago in a very enviable position. It would seem 
that water borne typhoid fever has been practically elmin- 
ated in Chicago. Sanitarians feel that there is a certain 
amount of typhoid fever called "residual." which may oc- 
cur in cities with absolutely pure water supplies. Chicago 
has approached or has possibly reached that stage. The fol- 
lowing statements are quoted from "A Report on Typhoid 
Fever and its Control in Chicago," by Dr. John Dill Rob- 
ertson, Commissioner of Health, Chicago, dated 1919: 

"In Chicago during the first nine months following 
complete chlorination of the water supply, which was con- 
sumated in the latter part of 1916, the death rate from 
typhoid fever was reduced by 71.44%. Undoubtedly the 
application of chlorine treatment has contributed materially 
to the very gratifying reduction which has placed the city 
of Chicago in the lead of all cities of its class in the United 
States during the present year. It can be demonstrated 
that many times the cost of chlorinating the water has been 
saved to the people of Chicago in the Baring of lives and in 
the prevention of sickness. The use of chlorine in liquid 
form baa n<>w become widely prevalent and is approved by 
sanitarians and health authorities generally. The marked 
"reduction of the typhoid fever mortality In Chicago shows 
emphatically the efficacy of the measures employed to con- 
trol i he disease such as the chlorination of the water sup- 
ply, control of lake dumping, pasteurization of milk, rain 
palgn against the My. etc" 

Water disinfection by means of liquid chlorine, al- 
though not solely responsible, neverthei. an in a 
large measure the cause of the remarkable lowering of the 
Chicago typhoid death rate, wtiat compllahed 
in Chicago has been duplicated In many other cities la this 
country where chlorine disinfection of the water supply has 



been practiced. A careful study of the typhoid statistics 
will prove this statement to be true. Liquid chlorine treat- 
ment has been one of the most potent agents in the reduc- 
tion in the typhoid as well as in the general death rate 
throughout the country during the past few years. This 
would be in line with the Mills-Reincke phenomenon, which 
indicates that by eliminating intestinal disorders there is 
accomplished a material reduction in various other seem- 
inly dissociated death rates. This theory has been pretty 
generally accepted by sanitarians and many proofs can be 
cited of it. 

Some cities have had specific problems to solve in con- 
nection with the disinfection of their water supplies. For 
example, there are times when the chlorinated water at 
Milwaukee irrespective of the amount of chlorine applied, 
tastes so strongly that it can hardly be used for drinking or 
cooking purposes. Intensive study of this problem has 
proven this to be due to the discharge of trade wastes into 
the lake or into one of the rivers emptying into the lake. 
The first waste which caused trouble was from a phenol or 
carbolic acid plant. After eliminating this, the taste re- 
turned and this time was traced to a gas house on one of 
the rivers. The plant was discharging coke quenchings 
into the river and when the wind was in a certain direction, 
this river which was practically stagnant, polluted the lake 
and the dissolved matter found its way to the waterworks 
intake and caused the city water to have a very noticeable 
taste after chlorination. Remedial measures are being con- 
sidered at the present time. 

Treating Industrial Wastes 

At Marquette. Mich., a creosote plant is located a few 
miles from the city and from the waterworks intake. When 
the wind is in a certain direction, the chlorinated water 
develops a very decided taste and odor due to the creosote 
wastes discharged into the lake. The owners of this plant 
are owners of one of the largest iron ore companies, and 
previously refused to treat their creosote wastes to render 
them less obnoxious on the ground that these wastes are 
not harmful to the health of the people and in fact they 
claim that they can prove that a small amount of creosote 
is beneficial. Moving the intake at Marquette further out 
into the lake and into deeper water has had no beneficial 
effect. Recently they co-operated with the Michigan State 
Board of Health to eliminate these wastes and the results 
are very promising. 

A special use for chlorine was developed at Champaign, 
111., in connection with the Champaign & Urbana Water Co. 
supply. The water is obtained from wells containing 2.0 
p. p.m. iron. Several years ago an iron removal plant was 
installed and for aibout two years this gave good results, 
removing about 90 % of their iron. Then there appeared 
in the mains and reservoir growths of crenothrix. Various 
expedients were tried and finally liquid chlorine was given 
a trial. The results were positive and strikingly successful 
from the start. Beneficial results were obtained immediate- 
ly on the growth of crenothrix. As a result of the- 
perimental data being so encouraging, a permanent liquid 
chlorine apparatus was installed and has been in successful 
operation for several years This has entirely eliminated 
the crenothrix growth which was so troublesome. In this 
case, chlorine was used not as a germicide but to kill 
crenothrix. Similar installations for crenothrix elimination 
have been installed at Frankfort. Ind . and Kau Claire. Wis. 

Chlorinating Swimming Tanks 

During the last few years there have been Very notable 
advances in the subject Of swimming POOl sanitation. Very 
radical changes have taken place In the design of pools as 
well as the treatment of water in the pool. Formerly little 
consideration was given by the average person as to the 
sanitary condition of the swimming pool. Now such or- 
ganizations as the International Committee of the Y.M.C.A. 
as well as many colleges, boards of education, etc.. will 
approve of no plans for swimming pools without the Incor- 
poration of a recirculating pump, filter and disinfection 
treatment by liquid chlorine. The modus operandi is to 



January 17, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



149 



withdraw water from the deep end of the pool by the re- 
circulating pump at a rate sufficient to empty the pool in 
about 16 hours, the rate depending upon the probable num- 
'ber of bathers, pass this water through a filter for clari- 
fication purposes and then treat it with a solution of chlor- 
ine on its way back to the shallow end of the pool. This 
keeps the water both clear and bacterially pure irrespective 
or the number of bathers using the pool. By this system of 
recirculation, filtration and disinfection, a large financial 
saving can be effected yearly in view of the fact that it is 
not necessary to empty the pool entirely except after a long 
period of time. "Without this system the pools are emptied 
weekly and in some cases more often. They are scrubbed 
down, fresh water placed in the pool and this water must 
be heated from the temperature of the city water up to 
about 74 degrees Fall. For the average sized pool this 
will cost about $20 for the coal alone for each refilling and 
this does not include the cost of the water nor the labor in- 
volved. Ordinarily the entire installation of a pump, filter 
and chlorinator can be saved in a comparatively few months. 
Furthermore, the quality of the water in the pool is much 
better continuously than without this method. 

Chlorine disinfection of swimming pools is very satis- 
factory and very efficient because of its low first cost and 
negligible operating cost of. about 5 cents per day; the fact 
that the results are positive; it is possible to determine <by 
the previously mentioned chemical tests whether or not 
the proper quantity of chlorine is being applied; the 
strength of the chemical is constant; the rate of applica- 
tion can be changed as desired; the efficiency of the treat- 
ment is not dependent upon the production of a clear and 
colorless water as is the case with some of the other meth- 
ods of pool disinfection and the fact that not only is the 
water being recirculated sterilized but also this water is 
charged with sufficient excess chlorine to act as a sterilizing 
agen upon the entire pool. 

Liquid chlorine has been successfully used in the New 
England states to kill anthrax, a deadly spore forming type 
of bacteria found frequently in the tanning industry. 

Chlorine has been used to a much more limited extent 
in the treatment of sewage than water. Sewage treatment 
(purification) is aimed essentially at the elimination of 
nuisance by reducing the supended organic matters in 
the raw sewage and is not designed to effect a bacterial re- 
duction except incidentally. Chlorine is a germicidal agent 
and as such is used as an adjunct to sewage treatment 
plants to protect water supplies, shell fish beds, etc. In 
some cases, chlorine has been used on crude sewage but 
'because of the large particles of suspended matter in raw 
or crude sewage, it is not recommended as standard prac- 
tice, although there may be some isolated cases where such 
treatment is called for. 

Thus it will be seen that of the various sanitary meas- 
ures that have been adopted in recent years, liquid chlorine 
disinfection of water supplies has been instrumental in 
the saving of thousands of lives throughout the country by 
the reduction of the typhoid fever death rate. 

The "American City" magazine stated recently: "The 
city that chlorinates its water supply is providing itself with 
good insurance against a criminally high death rate from 
typhoid fever." The Michigan State Board of Health Bul- 
letin recently stated: "City officials are learning that it is 
much cheaper and saler to chlorinate water supplies than 
to try to keep the course in a state of natural purity. Dur- 
ing 1920 typhoid fever cost citizens of the state more than 
$1,500,000. Liquid chlorine water disinfection is a muni- 
cipal life insurance policy costing a premium of 2 cents per 
capita per year — an insurance policy that should be pur- 
chased by the officials of every city having a water supply 
to which there is any chance to lay any suspicion as to its 
sanitary quality. The premium is small — the benefits are 
immeasurable. Paper read before Minnesota Section of 
American Water Works Association, Nov. 4, 1921. 



NEW GASOLINE REVOLVING SHOVKL 



Tiry Bucyrus Company of South Milwaukee, Wis., has 
just put on the market a gasoline revolving shovel 
that contains a number of features which are quite new in 
excavating machinery. This machine which is known as 
their 30-B gasoline shovel, marks a distinct advance in the 
design of excavating machinery and it is expected that it 
will find a splendid market in those districts where coal is 
expensive or feed water scarce or .of poor quality. 

This machine is particularly well adapted to suit oper- 
ations which are intermittent such as gravel pits, clay 
plants, etc., it not being necessary to keep the machine 
steamed up whether the shovel is working or not. For a 
good many years now the dragline excavators made by this 
company have been operated by gasoline engines but the 
application .of this power to a revolving shovel involved 
somewhat more difficult and intricate problems, chief of 
these being the efficient transmission of power to the thrust 




without excessive complexity in design, and the obtaining 
of digging power equal to that of a steam machine of similar 
size. This new machine possesses the same digging char- 
acteristics of the steam shovel with its quick reversals, its 
powerful thrust of the dipper and its dependability. 

Some features which make this shovel of peculiar in- 
terest to contractors are the following: 

First, it has fewer parts to maintain and keep in order. 
It possesses the flexibility of the steam shovel even to the 
shaking of the dipper to relieve it of sticky material. The 
engine is entirely enclosed and dust proof which is a 
point worth considering especially in connection with ex- 
cavating work. It may be equipped as a dragline exca- 
vator, a crane, or a clamshell machine with very simple 
changes which may be made in the field. 

Before the shovel was placed on the market it was 
subjected to a six months tests under practical service 
conditions working with sticky clay and clearly demon- 
strated its efficiency. 

A bulletin which gives full information together with 
illustrations of this machine is about ready to be issued. 
A copy of this will be gladly sent to all those interested. 



J. W. D. Farrell, assistant superintendent of water- 
works for Regina was the speaker at the regular meeting 
of the Saskatchewan branch of the Engineering Institute of 
Canada on Jan. 12. 



George A. Goodman, contractor, was elected president 
of the Builders and Contractors Association of Essex County 
at the annual meeting held at Windsor on Jan. 10.. in the 
association's quarters, Ferry street. Lome Lang was elected 
to the office of vice-president; Harry Turner, secretary, and 
William Laesser, treasurer. The incoming board of direc- 
tors consists of George A. Goodman, Lome Lang, repre- 
senting the sheet metal contractors; William Crawford, 
plasterers; J. Walker, general contractors; A. H. Bennett, 
cement workers; George Bertini, tile; Charles Paddon, 
plumbing; George Clarke, carpentering; T. W. Brook, 
painters; W. H. Thompson, bricklayers; F. D. Reaume, 
electricians; and T. J. Eansor, structural steel. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 12, So. 3 



Till: MAINTENANCE <»| CLEAN FILTERING MEDIUM 
IN SEWAGE FILTERS 



Describee I ae of Insects for Cleaning Sewage Niters. They 

Eliminate Clogging and Ponding. Forking 

Not Necessary. 

By Herbert I). Bell, A.I.C., F.C.S. 

IN view of the research which is being carried on at the 
present time on methods of sewage purification, with- 
out niters — I refer, of course, to the use of activated 
sludge, whether by the air-blowing method at Manchester, 
or by the processes of the paddle-wheel at Sheffield, or the 
screw at Bury — there still remains a wide field of investi- 
gation on the possibility of the maintenance of filters, with- 
out having to resort to mechanical washing of the material 
at the end of every ten to fifteen years. It is with regard 
to the latter subject that I have something to say, which I 
trust will help other managers to keep their filtering medi- 
um clean, in order that sewage filters may continue to carry 
out the function for which they were designed. My re- 
marks apply chiefly to the media in percolating filters, al- 
though contact filters may also derive benefit from the pro- 
cess of cleansing which I am about to describe. As a fore- 
word, this paper does not pretend that all kinds of filtering 
material will last forever, but presupposes that the material 
of which the filtering media is composed is able more or 
less to resist frost and the ordinary natural forces, and is 
composed of, say, furnace clinker, slag, saggers, and such 
like media. 

On many of the sewage works under your control there 
may be some filters which are showing signs of clogging 
up, the first notification of which is generally a ponding of 
the tank effluent on the surface of the filter. Some of you 
may have filters which apparently do not seem able to do 
anything else but pond, and no amount of rest appears to 
give them any relief. You may also have filters which 
pond only under stress of w t ork or only during the winter 
months. To all who have the control of percolating filters 
with automatic or mechanically driven distributors, or 
fixed sprays, I suggest a means of cleaning the surface and 
the lower strata of the media by means of an insect called 
Achorutes viaticus, or the water springtail. In a publica-, 
tion entitled "Insect Life on Sewage Filters" it was demon- 
strated that this insect would prevent the formation of 
gelatinous or greasy growths on the surface of circular 
percolating filters, which cause the formation of impervious 
layers, thus producing ponding. Further it was also proved 
that if a filter became so foul on the surface with these 
growths that it was quite impervious to tank effluent, the 
addition of these insects caused the breaking up of these 
growths, and gradually (on complete colonization) brought 
the filter media back to its pristine cleanliness. It is evi- 
dent therefore that the presence of these insects extend the 
life of the filter, and enable it to work for longer periods 
without rest, and also to produce a higher percentage puri- 
fication. 

Tin- I -i- of Invert Life 

The experiments referred to in "Insect Life on Sewage 
Filters" were carried out with wide glass tubes for filters, 
and well traded, sterile < inders, constituting the media, the 
top three ll (inders which passed thro 

>4-ln. mesh, but were rejected by Vfc-in.. the latter being 
much finer material than is generally found in practice. 
did the tilter. in COl i \> horutes 

ponding;, although worked at a high- 
er rate than the other filter, which contained exactly similar 
medium, and grading, but did not possess any of these in- 
sects. The latter niter mod commenced to show signs of 

ng, which did not disappear wit li renting, and • 
ally became quite impervious to tank effluent On the ad- 
dition of these insects to the dirty filter. I 
to clean up, and after a few weeks became quite clean down 



to the bottom of the filter. The surface of neither filter 
was disturbed in any way throughout the whole experiment. 

At Stratford-on-Avon the insects appeared on the filters 
naturally, or rather I should say on one of the filters, and 
their number increased to such an extent that 133 buckets- 
ful were obtained from the pathway surrounding this par- 
ticular filter. The other seven filters were treated to 19 
bucketsful each, and from February, 1910, to this day, no 
fork, rake or other implement has been used to lessen the 
surface of these filters, neither do they show any sign of 
ponding during the last three or four years before I left 
Stratford-on-Avon. 

These insects did not appear naturally at Barnsley 
sewage works, but I was able to procure one or two tins 
full from my friend Mr. D. Robertson, manager of the Dar- 
field sewage works. Some of these insects were put im- 
mediately on to very dirty patches on the surface of one or 
two filters, and the remainder were transferred to the fine 
surface of an experimental pipe filter, to which was added, 
by means of a small syphon, tank effluent six days per week 
for some months. This small filter acted as a colonizing 
or propagating filter, and from time to time a handful of 
media containing the eggs of the insect were transferred to 
dirty portions on the large filters, until at the present time 
there are three large filters well colonized, and the remain- 
ing filters are showing evidence of healthy propagation. 
Xone of the nine large circular percolating filters on the 
Barnsley sewage works have been forked since the summer 
of 1919, and ponding is gradually becoming less frequent, 
and is in fact absent on those filters which are well ad- 
vanced in colonization of Achorutes viaticus. 

Forking as a Cause of flogging 

It has been somewhat of a passion amongst sewage 
works managers, immediately a filter began to pond, that 
it was necessary to fork up the medium at that particular 
point, and in some instances I have known of forking tak- 
ing place whilst the filter medium was wet. For many 
years I have held that forking or disturbing the surface in 
any way was a fallacy, and further I believe that lorking in 
many cases has been mainly responsible for the clogging 
up eventually of many filters in this country, and I propose 
to give you reasons for this assertion. 

If a fork is plunged into the medium, and its contents 
lifted and turned over, as is done when Corking a garden, it 
tends to disintegrate a portion of the growths, so that on 
restarting work again on the filter after its rest, the finer 
portions of the medium which are still partially covered 
witli the growths; referred to before) are washed by the 
tank effluent lower down into the filter, becoming retained 
'by the dirty portion of the coarser material below, which is 
at a point beneath which the fork will not penetrate on the 
next occasion. These growths will than start once more to 
produce an impervious layer beneath thi At the 

same time, the medium on the surface wil become placed 
.1- with these growths, thus re-forming an impercious 
layer on the surface. 

With these two layers of growths increasing on two 
planes one immediately above the other no air can get 
through, and the result is t li.it no aerobic organisms can 
live or be pnopagated, and Anally clogging becomes per- 
manent on that portion of the tilter, unless some biological 
force comes into play. 

There are on many filters a large number of worms, 
and undoubtedly they do much useful work in k. 
numbers of sir-channels open, and also there must be other 
forma or life other than bacteria which help to produce a 
rhlcb lengthens the period before actual total dogging 
becomes general Daring resting periods a little disintegra- 
tion undoubtedly takes place, but the general result 
the growths causing the clogging being out or 
forkiimi are believed to In- absent Thorough disintegra- 
tion cannot take place withon: and no me- 
dians or the surface, in my opinion, will pre- 
vent the gradual clogging up of the media, which as time 
goes on renders the filter less useful as a purifying agent, 



January 17, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



and finally the whole of the material is taken out and 
washed or renewed before replacing in the filter. 

Some of you may say, "We do not fork a filter medium 
like we fork a garden." Perhaps you do not. You may 
insert your fork vertically downwards, and gently prise the 
handle backwards with a slight jigging movement, bringing 
the fork out so as only to sift the dirt in the tight medium. 
The effect is the same as in the other method, but perhaps 
tends to delay a little the actual clogging up of the media, 
as a larger proportion of the fine media remains on the 
surface; but the sifted particles being coated with some of 
the growths settle down on the coarser medium below and 
re-form at a level below which the fork will not reach on 
the next occasion. Further, the act of forking tends to 
destroy the original grading of the media, as a properly 
constructed filter should have from four to six inches thick 
of its finest grade of material on the top. Forking causes 
a distribution of the fine particles of the material, coated 
with these objectionable growths, to intermingle with the 
coarser material below the surface, which consequently im- 
pedes partially purified liquid from getting away from the 
top layer of the coarser material; and therefore these dirty 
particles tend to absorb from the partially purified liquid 
some of its oxidized nitrogen and oxygen, to the detriment 
of the final effluent leaving the filter. 

If for some reason you have been unable to obtain the 
necessary biological organisms to keep your filters clean, 
it would be far better to remove entirely the top layer, 
wash and then replace it after screening, rather than to 
fork the surface at all. The best way, I consider, is to 
try to colonize your filters with some form of life, which 
not only disintegrates and removes objectionable growths 
which have formed, but will also prevent the re-formation 
of such growths. Sewage filters, as most of you know, are 
not straining filters like waterworks filters, but purification 
is produced by active contact with purifying organisms 
which can only carry out their functions in the presence of 
air, and therefore the more porous the fine surface of your 
filters can be maintained, the more likely will purification 
be carried on with success, and the life of the filter extend- 
ed before the ultimate breaking up of the filtering media 
renders its renewal imperative. 

Colonization of "Anchorutes Viaticus" 

As stated above, the Achorutes Viaticus did not come 
naturally to the filters at Barnsley sewage works, and, 
furthermore, the media is such that it does not offer the 
same cavities for the protection of the eggs and the young 
insects as ordinary furnace clinkers; yet in spite of this 
handicap we have been able to get colonization complete on 
one filter, nearly complete on two others, and evidence of 
the presence of these insects on the remaining six filters 
within a period of two years. 

The total capacity of ali the circular filters at Barnsley 
is 15,7 90 cu. yds. These filters deal with a tank effluent 
whose average dry-weather flow is approximately 1% 
million gallons, and as much as 2,900,000 gallons have 
'been dealt with by these filters in twenty-four hours, so 
that it is possible for other managers with larger works 
than I control eventually to colonize their filters with this 
insect, certainly within a period of three or four years. 

During the period of colonization it will be noticeable, 
first, that ponding will become less frequent until it disap- 
pears altogether; secondly, that there will be a gradual 
increase in the volume of tank effluent which the filters 
will be able to cope with and purify; thirdly, there will 
be noticed an increase in the percentage purification (after 
settlement); and, finally, there will be noticed an increase 
in the amount of suspended matter passing away in the 
effluent from the filter. Generally speaking, there should 
be a larger amount of suspended matter in the effluent 
from a percolating filter than in the tank effluent distributed 
on to its surface, as, given that the surface is porous, par- 
ticles of suspended matter in the tank effluent should be 
able to pass through, and in addition there will be a break- 
ing up of the colloidal matter in the tank effluent, a portion 
of which will be changed into suspended matter. 



These are signs of partial colonization while the filter 
is at work, and when it is resting it will be noticed within 
three days (on circular percolating filters) that concentric 
rings appear on the surface of the media. These rings are 
of two varities, the one being clean and the other dirty or 
discolored. On examination of the material with a pen- 
knife immediately below the surface of the clean ring, 
either there will be found large numbers of the insect at 
work, or there will be found large numbers of its white 
cast or sheath, showing that the adult insect has moved to 
a portion of the media where there is more food — that 
is, where there is a greater deposit of the growth which 
has been the immediate cause of the dirty appearance. At 
the place where these white casts or sheaths are found, the 
eggs of the insect can be seen with the aid of a small mag- 
nifying glass, and appear to be in packets of small yellow 
globular cells. As resting continues and colonization has 
become more complete, the whole surface of the material 
will appear to be even cleaner than it was before placing 
in the filter, and also several inches below the surface will 
bear out the same result. If colonization is approaching 
its zenith, large numbers of these insects will pass out with 
the effluent from the filter, and as the insect is capable 
of standing on the surface of a liquid by means of the hairy 
ends of its legs, it is an easy matter to collect them in a 
ladle or bucket with the effluent for distribution on filters 
where their number is not so numerous. Abstracted from 
paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire District 
of the Assocation of Managers of Sewage Disposal Works. 



BUILDING RECORD IX DECEMBER 



CONSTRUCTION activity in Canada during the month of 
December, amounted to 119,118,500. This is the 
second largest December total on record, being exceeded 
only once, and that in December, 1912, when $31,125,52S 
was expended. The figures for the different provinces are 
as follows: No. Projects Value 

Ontario 732 $S, 959, 900 

British Columbia 147 5,197,000 

Quebec 1S7 2,995,900 

New Brunswick 13 1,147,500 

Manitoba 17 342,600 

Nova Scotia 36 198,600 

Alberta 13 139,500 

Saskatchewan 15 137,500 



Total for Dominion .... 1,160 $19, US, 500 
Work reported during December for the first time as 
contemplated totalled $13,997,800. The figures for the 
Dominion are as follows: 

No. Projects Value 

Ontario 251 $8,790,700 

Quebec 265 2,t;27,000 

Western Provinces 51 2,124,100 

Maritime Provinces 16 456,000 



Total for Dominion .... 5S3 $13.9'J7 
The value of construction contracts awarded through- 
out Canada during 1921 was $240,133,300, compared with 
$255,605,500 in 1920; $190,02S,300 in 1919, and $99,842.- 
100 in 191S. However, if price recessions in material and 
labor costs are taken into consideration, the volume of 
new construction undertaken during 1921 was many 
millions of dollars greater than the 1920 total. 

Canada has undoubtedly passed the worst stages of de- 
pression and is now on the up-grade. Activities in the 
construction industry are sign-posts of conditions through- 
out the country. During the last four months this industry 
has revealed extremely encouraging indications. Knowing 
that the costs of building at the present time have been con- 
siderably reduced, those who have for some months in- 
tended building are asking for new tenders on their pro- 
posed work. Building contractors and builders' supply 
people are making a special effort to reduce prices to a 
minimum, to restore this important key industry to its 
pre-war proportions. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 3 



TESTS o\ CARBONIZING IRISH PEAT 



TECHNICAL Paper, No. 4, issued by the Fuel Research 
Board, London, England, gives the results of two 
tests on the carbonization of Irish peat carried out at the 
Fuel Research Station in vertical gas retorts with steaming. 
It is stated that the peat, after suitable treatment, lends 
itself admirably to carbonization both in vertical retorts at 
temperatures between 750 and 850 deg. C, and in steel re- 
torts at. 550 deg. to 660 deg., and that the resulting char- 
coal is an ideal fuel for suction gas producers. 

The peat was macerated, spread on the bog, air-dried, 
and harvested at Turraum in 1920, and early in 1921 100 
tons of it were delivered at the Fuel Research station, in 
the form of hard blocks about 10 in. long with a cross- 
section about 2 in. square. Their density was rather under 
1, or about twice that of the ordinary hand-cut sods made 
on the same bog. They could be sawn and cut like hard 
wood, and had stood transport with very little breaking up 
into "smalls." On arrival they had a water content of a- 
bout 25 per cent., but by the date of the tests this had been 
reduced by storage under cover to 17 per cent. 
Conditions of Carbonization 

For the most part the peat was prepared for carboniza- 
tion by passing it through a coal crusher. Quantities of 
light dust were thus formed, and were not separated but 
were passed into the retorts. This dust gave trouble owing 
to is being carried forward by the rush of gas into the gas 
main, where it formed a thick mass with the tar, and on 
one occasion caused a serious blockage. The first test, 
Which was carried out at a temperature of 1,000 deg. C, 
lasted 18 hours, and 11.01 tons of peat were carbonized, all 
four retorts of the setting being used. A throughput of 
three tons per retort per day was aimed at, and the quan- 
tity of steam supplied to the base of the retorts was suffi- 
cient merely to quench the coke before it was extracted. 
For this purpose six per cent, of steam by weight of the coke 
carbonized was found to suffice. Under these conditions 
the volume of gas passing away from the top of the retorts 
was very great, so that a positive pressure in the retorts and 
mains was avoided only with difficulty. In the second 
test, which was made at 800 deg.-900 deg., and lasted 52 
hours, 12.39 tons of peat were carbonized, but only two 
retorts were used, so that the strain on the exhausting ar- 
rangements was lessened. 

The coke or charcoal came out in very much the 
same form as that in which the peat entered the retorts but 
greatly reduced in volume. Its weight was 27 per cent, of 
the peat as charged, and its ash content was nearly 10 per 
cent. The amount of dust in it was not excessive. As 
discharged it had a calorific value of 11.3S0 B Th. U. per lb. 
in the first test and 12,210 B. Th. U. in the second, the cor- 
responding figures dry being 12,560 and 12,650 B. Th. U. 

In the first test the yield of gas was 14,900 cu. ft. per 
ton of peat, with a gross calorific value of 325 B. Th. U. per 
■ the second. 13,760 cu. ft., with a calorific value of 
::in I! Th. V. Owing to its high content of carbon dioxide 
(about 9 per cent.) the gas was very dense, but it burnt 
i satisfactory flame, though with only Blight luminos- 
ity. It gave out a heavy sickly odor on combustion. An 
attempt to scrub out the condensable gases was rendered 
rather difficult by the high carbon dioxide couteut, but a 
quantity of light spirit was collected in tins way. equal to 
one gallon per 7,000 cu. ft. of gas, or nearly two gallon? per 
too of peat. 

Tar and Liquor 

The condeneln ">'i eparatlng arrangement! intended 

found unsuitable for the peat 

M the peal tar being lighter than the peat 

ii, lllnl had to be made tor oolli 

& the water cooled condenser 
order to prevent an unmanageable Quan« 

Olng forward with the gases It 
was necessary to reduce this temperature on leaving the 
condenser to about 20 deg. C. This was well below the 



settling point of the tar (40 deg.), so that the liquid issued 
from the condenser in the form of a yellow emulsion. This 
had again to be heated up to about 5 deg. in order to ob- 
tain separation into peat tar (a black oily liquid) and 
liquor. On cooling to atmospheric temperature the tar set 
into a black semi-solid mass showing crystals of paraffin 
wax. 

The volume of liquor collected per ton of peat carbon- 
ized was large, and therefore low in ammonia content as 
compared with normal gas liquor. In color it was a clear 
bright yellow, becoming dark reddish after standing for 
10 litres of the liquor, first in acid solution and finally over 
some time. By continued fractional distillation of about 
lime, a small quantity of spirituous liquid was obtained, 
ihaving a specific gravity of 0.812 and containing chiefly 
methyl alcohol and acetone. 

The peat tar was fractionated in the usual way from a 
half-gallon iron still, and the fractions 0-170 deg. C, 170- 
230 deg., 230-270 deg., 270-310 deg., and above 310 deg.. 
refined separately. The last two fractions, which were 
practically solid at 10 deg., contained almost all the wax, 
only a small percentage remaining in the pitch. A separate 
portion of the tar was subjected to steam distillation, and 
a yield of light spirits (unrefined) was obtained equivalent 
to 5.2 gallons of 0.866 specific gravity per 100 gallons of 
tar. This spirit, after refining and distilling to 170 deg., 
gave a purified spirit equal to 32.5 per cent, of the original 
distillate. This is equivalent to 1.7 gallon of purified 
spirit per 100 gallons of tar, or 0.36 gallon per ton of peat 
carbonized. The remainder of the steam distillate on re- 
fining gave a further 0.7 gallon per 100 gallons of tar and 
distilled up to 210 deg. 

Yields Per Ton of Peal 

The following table shows the various yields per ton of 

peat as charged: 

Test No. 

Coke 1 2 

Cwt 5.38 5.40 

Gas 

Cubic feet at 30 deg. F. and 30 in 14.900 13,760 

Therms 48.4 46.8 

Tar 

Gallons (dry) 12.6 21.3 

Refined spirit (gallons) — 0.36 

Oils (gallons) 7.S 15.1 

Paraffin wax (lb.) 8.2 13.7 

Pitch (lb.) 43.4 53.7 

Liquor 

Total gallons 95.5 87.5 

Ammonium sulphate (lb.) 89.2 -IS 

Methyl alcohol (lb.) 153 1.44 

Acetone (lb.) — 114 

Acetic acid (lb.) 8.88 Tilt 

The retorts were heated quite satisfactorily by a por- 
tion of the peat gas made during the tests, the amount re- 
quired being about a third of the total or 3.4S0 cubic 
feet per hour in the first test. Therefore on a 
throughput of 3 tons per retort per day it will be seen that 
after supplying sulllcienl heal for carbonizing the peat 

there remained for disposal from each ton of peat 26 therms 
(7,940 cu. ft. of gas. of 325 B.Th.U.), 12.6 gallons of tar, 
95^ gallons of liquor of 3.6 oz. Btrengtb per ton, and E 1 
CWt of charcoal. 



u. 0. Wynne-Roberta ot Frank Berber & Associates, 

Toronto, and sew ■ Ol x"ort Township, stated 

at a meeting ot ratepayers beld tn Todmorden on January 
10, thai Toronto is In a position to ol the fork 

Township sewage but that the] cannot turn the storm sew- 
ers into the eltj p would flood the precipitating 
ol H,,. c tta He aald thai the t II Idering 
to rj ""He th" difficult! . and they made 

thai! plans known I lie township would be ill a position 

to make them a proposition. 



January 17, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



153 



FACTORS DETERMINING THK SELECTION OK PAVE. 
MENTS FOR STREETS 



Character of Traffic Must Be Considered and Also Climatic 

Conditions. City Pavements .Must Be Durable 

And Easily Repaired 



By C. M. Pinckney 

Chief Engineer Dept. Public Works, Borough of Manhattan 

THE first factor and the most important in my opinion, 
is a thorough and complete study of the U6e to 
which the pavement is to be put. A traffic census should 
be taken to determine the volume, density, character and 
speed of the traffic. The distribution of the traffic is also 
an important matter. The division of the traffic into motor 
and horse drawn vehicles; what percentage is on steel 
tires; the percentage on rubber tires; the percentage of 
pleasure vehicle? and percentage of business vehicles, are 
all factors which enter into the selection of a type of 
pavement. If there is a great deal of parking of vehicles 
on a street this also has a bearing upon the type of pave- 
ment to be selected. 

Grades of Streets 

The next factor to be considered is the grade of the 
street. Streets with heavy or steep grades can never be- 
come main arteries of travel. The traffic conditions there- 
on, however, can be materially improved by the selection 
of a proper type of pavement. For instance: When a grade 
exceeds 5% a very careful study must be made of the char- 
acter of traffic using the street so as to provide proper 
traction. It is a good policy to restrict the use of smooth 
pavements such as asphalt and wood block to grades of 
5% or less. We have asphalt pavements, however, on 
grades as high as 7 % and they are giving satisfaction. No 
city street should be constructed to a grade above 10%. 

In connection with the selection of a type of pave- 
ment for a street where the grade is involved, consideration 
should be given to the question of skidding. If the traffic 
on the city streets is to move without interruption a non- 
skid pavement should be provided. 

Climatic Conditions 

The climatic conditions obtaining in a city should be 
borne in mind when selecting types of pavements also. In 
a city where severe winters are encountered pavements 
should be laid which will permit readily of the removal of 
snow, which will not be affected by cold, and Which will not 
be unusually slippery when the temperature is low. 

Noise on Streets 

In selecting a type of pavement for a street upon which 
there are schools, churches, hospitals, dwellings and offices, 
noise is a most important factor, and quiet must be pro- 
vided. Where manufacturing and industrial establishments 
are situated the noise element is not such a great factor. 
Quiet streets, so constructed that they will assure maximum 
comfort to brain toilers, are essential in a large city. Noise 
interferes with the health of persons who work with their 
brains, and it interferes also with the health of persons 
who, having worked all day with their brains, must sleep 
■at night. 

The zoning of cities into residence and business use 
aids the engineer very materially in the selection of pave- 
ments by insuring the character of the occupancy of the 
abutting property as well as the use of the street. The 
business interests in large cities have a tendency to con- 
centrate into districts. For instance, in New York City in 
the Borough of Manhattan, the insurance district, the 
financial district and the dry goods district can all be clearly 
traced, and the produce, butter and eggs, silks, woolens, 
cottons and yarn industries can be traced into districts. 
This helps materially in the selection of a proper type of 
pavement. 

Durability of Pavement 

A pavement in a city, in order to be satisfactory must 
be durable. It must be durable because the repaying of a 
street seriously interferes with business, Interrupts traffic, 



and produces general inconvenience. Therefore, the more 
durable the pavement the less interruption to business, etc. 
In addition to being durable, a city pavement must be easily 
repaired; that is to say, it must be possible to effect a quick 
and prompt repair, and one which will blend in harmoni- 
ously with the original pavement and be satisfactory in 
every way. The pavement which is not readily repaired, or 
a repair which has to be barricaded over any length of 
time, is not suitable for a city pavement. 
Sniiitai \ Problem 

Pavements which are porous or which are composed of 
materials which are apt to rot or disintegrate under city 
traffic, are not sanitary. The pavement with open joints 
is not suitable for use in the ciy also because of its un- 
sanitary features. 

Cost of Pavements 

In a large city, it is my opinion that the first cost of 
the pavement is not the determining factor. Where, how- 
ever, there are several ypes of pavement from which to 
make a selection wherein all of the other factors are equal, 
the cost then might be made the determining factor. The 
writer believes, however, that the use of local materials in 
so far as it is possible should be taken advantage of. Paper 
read before the City Paving Conference, Philadelphia, Oct 
20-21, 1921. 

STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR BUILDEVG WORK 

CANADIAN Allis-Chalmers Ltd., Toronto, have supplied 
"The Canadian Engineer" with the following prices of 
structural steel for building work. 

"The reduction in steel prices during 1921, has been so 
marked that we make the following comparison for shapes 
and plates, f.o.b. Toronto, as "Warehouse" material. 
Shapes Plates 

Dec. 1920 $4.70 $4.80 per 100 lbs. 

Feb. 1921 4.40 4.50 per 100 lbs. 

Apr. 1921 4.10 4.10 per 100 lbs. 

July 1921 3.80 3.80 per 100 lbs. 

Dec. 1921 3.35 3.35 per 100 lbs. 

Jan. 1922 3.00 3.00 per 100 lbs. 

The above prices, for plain sections, include exchange, 
customs and freight, i.e., f.o.b. Toronto. 

Mill base prices are now 24% higher than in 1914, 
while labor is over 70% higher than 1913 for steel produc- 
tion. From this we assume that present selling prices are 
at "rock bottom" and unless the curve lines representing 
cost at mill and labor for same soon have a closer relation, 
a small increase is more likely in the selling price than a 
lower rate. 

Our total reduction in 1921 was about $34.00 per ton. 
Lower exchange and freight may still be effective." 



SOCKETS FOR TELEGRAPH POSTS 



WITH the object of prolonging the life of timber posts 
such as are used for telegraph, telephone, and electric 
power cables, an ingenious type of reinforced concrete sock- 
et has been introduced in France. The socket is constituted 
by four vertical members, of which the lower part is inserted 
in the ground to a depth of from 2 ft. 9 in. to 3 ft. 9 in., 
•and the upper part, projecting to a height of from 3 ft. to 
4 ft., constitutes a support for the base of the timber post. 
The latter is kept at a height of 12 in. above ground level, 
and in consequence is completely exposed to the air. The 
vertical members are connected at each end by a circular 
plate and at the middle by an octagonal base, which is at 
ground level when the socket is in position. The upper 
plate is formed with a ihole corresponding in diameter to 
that of the post to be inserted, the lower end of the post 
being tapered to fit a conical hole in a ring moulded above 
the octagonal base plate. In addition to its employment 
as a means of prolonging the life of new posts, the socket 
can be applied for the utilization of old posts, which have 
been removed prematurely owing to decay of the part em- 
bedded In damp soil. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 3 



HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT IN ONTARIO 



Mini-tec of Highways and Chief Engineer Explain Policy 
ami Methods of Construction Followed on Pro. 
vinciai System 



SPEAKING before the Toronto branch of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada, on Jan. 12th, Hon. F. C. Biggs, 
Minister of Public Works and Highways of Ontario, and 
George Hogarth. Chief Engineer of Highways, outlined the 
policy of road development and the methods of highway 
construction being followed on the provincial system. 

Hon. Mr. Biggs, in introducing the subject, stated that 
until a few years ago. the general standard of highways in 
Ontario was far below that which should obtain in an old 
and progressive province. Every effort is now being made, 
with the assistance of a staff of over 50 engineers, to raise 
the standard to a satisfactory level. 

The speaker traced the growth of the good roads senti- 
ment in Ontario. With the passage of the Highway Im- 
provement Act, some 20 years ago, a systematic plan of edu- 
cation was adopted to encourage municipalities to take ad- 
vantage of the aid offered. In many instances good roads 
by-laws were voted down and public officials had to renew 
their educational work. Last year the county of Peter- 
borough, the last county in Ontario to do so, came into the 
scheme. 

Effort is being made, said Hon. Mr. Biggs, to recon- 
struct important roads to carry the heavier and more exact- 
ing traffic brought about with the advent of the motor 
vehicle. The first care should be the drainage and sub 
base, but the public, impatient for a hard surface to travel 
upon, is disposed to abuse the highway officials until it gets 
it. In the reconstruction, dangerous curves are being 
eliminated, and standard grades adopted. There are now 
about 100 miles of highway on the provincial system that 
are nearly to the stage of hard surfacing, or to the point 
where those in charge will get credit for their work. In 
1921, about 75 miles of road, on more than twice the 
length of the Toronto-Hamilton highway, which took 7 or 
8 years to build, were constructed. The Minister expressed 
the hope that still more would be built in 1922. 

In this work, said Hon. Mr. Biggs, the engineer was 
needed from the layout of the road to its completion. • Only 
first-class engineers should be employed, and he was glad 
to say that in 1920, due to his action, it had been enacted 
that county road superintendents should be graduate engi- 
neers. In the provincial organization responsible for over 
1800 miles of roads, there is a minister, a deputy-minister, 
a chief engineer, and three district engineers in charge of 
the districts of Eastern Ontario, Central Ontario and Wes- 
tern Ontario. A resident engineer is responsible for 80 to 
90 miles of road. Tie 'irmly commended the 

engineering staff for its tact and efficiency in dealing with 
the difficult situations that constantly were arising in the 
work. 

Some new questions now pressing for consideration 
were the protect ion of railway crossings by grade separa- 
tion and the carri. 00 all vehicles. The speaker 
law requiring the latter throughout Ontario 
might I • 

Hon. Mr. BlggS then dl8CUSSed the possibility of high- 
way improvement in the Toronto district and around other 
populo mi the provlnci He pointed out that 

■ i Inconvenl through having to force 

products on the market In order to ■■ ^ .hi] the 

muddy season. lie looked forward to the time when 

Niagara fmit would be laid down i.\ motor In Toronto the 
morning after it - Buch a development would be 

i ti to t lie producer and the con an 
: the motor ange of 

l mi n a rehlcle of only 8 to 10 i 

i would be 
bandll I'tionlv by motor truck over distances of 

up to Hies. 

An important incentive to the ImproYemenl of high- 
ways was the tourist traffic, according to the speaker. Last 



year Hie fifth largest source of income in the province was 
this traffic. 

Mr. Hogarth, following Hon. Mr. Biggs, decribed in a 
very effective manner, with the aid of a fine collection of 
lantern slides, the engineering and constructional features 
of the work done by the Highways Department. 

Previous to the meeting, Hon. Mr. Biggs, W. A. McLean, 
Deputy-Minister of Highways and Mr. Hogarth were enter- 
tained at dinner by the executive of the branch. 



TOWN PLANNING COURSE STARTS AT UMVERSITY 



SIX municipalities outside Toronto are represented in the 
membership of the new extension course in civics 
and town-planning, which opened on Jan. 9 at the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. These are New Liskeard, Oshawa, Gait, 
Hamilton, Port Colborne and Brantford. The majority of 
those registered, however, are architects and civil engineers 
from Toronto. The number enrolled on the first day was 
41, but it is expected that more will arrive within the next 
few days. 

While registration was in progress General Mitchell. 
Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science; Prof. Adrian Ber- 
rington, of the Department of Archite< ture; YV. J. Dunlop, 
Director of Extension, and others, met the members of the 
class informally. 

The course began with an address of welcome by Sir 
Robert Falconer, who said that it had been felt for some 
time that the university should do something in the way of 
fostering the study of town-planning. 

"In this young country," he pointed out, "there is still 
time to arrange our tow r ns and cities so that they will be at 
once useful and beautiful." 

Speaking of the case of Toronto, where it seemed al- 
most too late to do as much as should be done, he said 
that improvements are being made and will be made. He 
drew attention to the way Halifax had been planned since 
the explosion disaster. 

In closing, he bade them a most hearty welcome to the 
university, and expressed the hope that they would have 
a very pleasant and profitable time for the next two weeks. 

The Chairman, Prof. Berrington, then called on Dean 
Mitchell, who said that, while this course had been initiated 
by Prof. Berrington, he thought the idea had really origin- 
ated with Sir Robert Falconer some years ago, when he 
expressed to him his wish that the Faculty of Applied 
Science might do something along this line. The Dean 
then discussed the reasons underlying the growth of vari- 
ous Ontario cities and towns, comparing them with the 
cities of Europe. 

Prof. C. H. C. Wright pf the Department of Architec- 
ture welcomed the class on behalf of his department, and 
expressed the hope that the course would be the beginning 
of a series of annual courses of this kind. 

The real work of the course began with a lecture on 
"Maps and Plans," by Prof. W. M. Treadgold of the De- 
partment of Surveying. A. H. Chapman, of Toronto, also 
spoke on architectural treatment. This w.,s followed by a 
second lecture on maps and plans, the final hour being 
over to question and discussions, under the supervision of 
Prof. Berrington. 



TOM \ 



LANNERS in xi: SCHEME FOR 01 \ii:\i 
DEPOT 



That the most Important factor in determining the 
future development Of the CltJ plan of Toronto is the 
• n of the railroads and their terminals, which, if 
they were situated Whet I'll Toronto 

ild i.e more convenient to the citizens, ami would 
permit or the developmei ■■ waterfront with an on- 

rupted \iew ol the bay and island, was Hie view ox- 

I by .1. P. II dent of the Ontario i'own-plan- 

aUd Housing Association, speakini; on the future of 

Toronto befort the members of the short Course in civics 

and town-planning at the University of Toronto on Jan. 10. 



January 17, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



"Toronto gives evidence of tending to 1 expand fairly 
evenly in all available directions, now that the natural 
harriers are being overcome by such means as the Bloor 
street viaduct and the natural and artificial ones by the 
consolidation of the street car system. 

"A particular tendency of the development is for the 
Wells Hill elevation and the C.P.R. track between it to 
develop a line of demarcation between the business and 
industrial city on the south and the residential city on the 
north. Therefore, if the North Toronto C.P.R. line be 
developed as the transportation backbone of the city, very 
orderly town-planning may be obtained, quite in keeping 
with the trend of the present development of the city. 

Mr. Hynes then went on to explain the workings of 
such an arrangement of the railroad lines, choosing the site 
of the central union depot between Yonge street and Ave- 
nue road, and supplementing it by sub-stations along the 
line. Streets running north and south would pass over the 
railway development without interruption, lessening rather 
than exaggerating the present objectionable grade. 

"The development of this traffic backbone between the 
industrial and residential city would overcome the necessity 
of the proposed viaduct across the waterfront, and permit of 
it being developed into what should be Toronto's outstand- 
ing attraction, a park waterfront. 

Speaking on transportation within the city, A. E. K. 
Bunnell, Engineer to the Toronto Transportation Commis- 
sion, said that the growth of the city was not north and 
south, but east and west, and that the big movement of 
traffic was east and west. 

"Bloor street," he continued, "is the strategic position 
to serve traffic. It is bound to be a business street, and if 
we do not widen it now stores will spring up to prevent us 
in the future. 

"We 'have got to put the Bloor street widening through 
this year, even if we do nothing else in the way of improve- 
ment," he declared. 



hands of an international hoard of six members. Three 
representating the United States and three Great Britain. 
The board would have authority to sell hydro-electric power 
and to issue bonds for the improvements. 



INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION RECOMMENDS 
30.FT. CHANNEL 



IMPROVEMENT of the new Welland Canal between Lake 
Erie and Lake Ontario, as well as the St. Lawrence 
River, to provide a 30-ft. channel from Lake Erie to the sea, 
has been recommended by the International Joint Com- 
mission in its report on the proposed Great Lakes-St. 
Lawrence waterway, according to Representative W. W. 
Chalmers, Republican, of Ohio. 

Mr. Chalmers, on Jan. 11, introduced a bill in the 
House authorizing the improvement on the part of the 
United States, but stipulating that the expense be borne 
equally by the United States and Canada, through a bond 
issued, guaranteed by both governments. 

The report of the commission, which has been sub- 
mitted to the State Department, but has not yet been made 
public, Mr. Chalmers said in a statement, recommends that 
the project, including the widening and deepening of the 
new Welland Canal, be undertaken, and that the cost be 
met through taxation by the United States and Canada, in 
proportion to the benefits derived. 

The commission's report, Mr. Chalmers said, recom- 
mends that the division of costs be figured on the basis of 
known traffic for the past five years, to be definitely ascer- 
tained by an international survey. 

"I believe such a procedure is too indefinite and in- 
tangible to be used as a basis for determining the alloca- 
tion of the costs of the enterprise which will run into the 
hundreds of millions of dollars." Mr. Chalmers declared 
that "each country should pay an equal amount." 

The Chalmers bill provides that bonds issued for the 
Government should be retired with proceeds derived from 
the sale of hydro-electric power made available for com- 
mercial use by the improvement. The measure also pro- 
vides that the benefit derived in the way of hydro-electric 
energy shall be evenlydivided between the two countries. 

Jurisdiction over construction and operation of the 
entire waterway under the Chalmers bill would be In the 



AVOID TOWN PLANNING MISTAKES «>l TORONTO 



EVEN small communities should begin to plan for the 
growth which will inevitably come instead of allow- 
ing it to take its own haphazard course, was the idea that 
Prof. C. H. C. Wright, head of the Department of Archi- 
tecture, University of Toronto, gave in a lecture to the' 
students of the short course in town-planning on Jan. 11. 

"The small community is the seed of the big town," 
he said, 'land if we can start the sappling growing right, 
the big tree will grow right, too. 

"But, if by reasons of survey, by ignoring the topo- 
graphy of the land, by individual caprice, we allow the 
sappling to grow up wrong, we will not be able to do any. 
thing with the tree. 

"Toronto began on the low land, following the conces- 
sion lines along Yonge street until those lines became solid 
with buildings. Instead of having a city on a fine site, it 
tries to extend and grow as though that site had no other 
qualities than that of a flat plane. Ravines, instead of 
being emphasized and exaggerated as magnificent winding 
parkways, are, wherever possible, ignored. We take our 
roads up the hill in most cases at the steepest possible 
grade. 

"Exactly the same absence of thought and prevision 
are to be found in the places that consist of one grocery, a 
few shacks, possibly a meeting house and a school. These 
places, chiefly by reason of their varying topographical con- 
ditions, have each a character of their own. 

"The proper idea for every place might be roughly de- 
fined to be as different from the places around as possible. 
Then every settlement, no matter how small, will be able 
to boast that in some respect or respects it is better than 
any oher place." 



ONTARIO LEADS IN TOWN PLANNING 



SPEAKING on the results of the Federal Housing Loan 
in the Dominion before the members of the Short 
Course in Town-planning at the University of Toronto on 
Jan. 12, W. D. Cromarty of Ottawa stated that Ontario 
had availed itself of the loan to a far greater extent than 
any other province, and that, on the whole, the efforts of 
the various Ontario municipalities had met with success. 
He showed many pleasing examples of modest house build- 
ing in various parts of the province, together with one or 
two American examples and said that Canadian endeavors 
were, on the whole, superior. 

Mr. Govan of the Parliament Buildings, well known in 
housing circles, said that lie was pleased to see that on the 
program t lie word Ontario had been stressed, because our 
ideals in small houses were apt to lie turned by the influence 
of American journals toward houses suitable to Florida and 
California, but totally Inappropriate to a province that has 
to consider its coal bill for six or eight months in the 

He pointed out that by proper attention to maximum 
exposure to the south, together witli the employment of 
insulating devices and materials for the walls the coal con- 
sumption of every six-room house in the province might be 
reduced by two tons. 

J. B. O'Brlan explained how many difficulties even un- 
der existing imperfect legislation might In' overcome by a 
body of citizens really determined to better their city. 

H. L. Seymour continued Hi" BUbjecl of zoning, which 
means the sorting out of a city so that each part of it is 
assigned to and designed for certain definite [unctions. 
Under this system there would be more or less defined 
business areas, tacton areas, residential areas of \. 
l\ pes, etc. 

Prof. W. M. Treudgold exhibited motion pictures 
showing the actual processes of modern road building. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2, No. 3 




Sir: I beg to acknowledge receipt of your card of Janu- 
ary 4. calling my attention to an item appearing on page 4 
of the issue of "The Canadian Engineer" for December 2ft. 
1921. I would like to have this item corrected, beceause, 
as it stands at present, it gives a wrong impression. 

My proposal to the city of Brandon is that, if the com- 
mission undertakes to supply power to the said city, by 
means of a transmission line from Winnipeg to Brandon. 
at a total expenditure (including terminals) of about II,- 
200,000, the following conditions would rule: 

The city of Brandon to guarantee to the Manitoba 
Power Commission the fixed charges plus the actual cost of 
the power for any amount used. 

Basing the rates on the figure given and with the con- 
ditions as stated, the actual cost to the city of Brandon 
would be as follows: 
Consumption of 3,000,000 k.w.h. per year, the 

cost per k.w.h. would be 6.5 cents 

Consumption of 4,000,000 k.w.h. per year, the 

cost per k.w.h, would be 4.7 cents 

Consumption of 5.000,000 k.w.h. per year, the 

cost per k.w.h. would be 3.85 cents 

Taking either first, second or third schedule, the re- 
turn, at the price stated, would cover the fixed charges lor 
the full year of operation, and any amount over that 
scheduled would be taken at actual cost of power. As a 
consequence, the power consumed, above the stated amount, 
would cost the city of Brandon in the neighborhood of lc 
per kilowatt hour, thus permitting the city to sell power at 
a very low rate, after having fixed a rate for lighting pur- 
poses that, as proposed, could be set at between 6c and 7c. 
At the present time the actual consumption by the city 
of Brandon is somewhere about 4,350,000 k.w.h. per year, 
at 12c per k.w.h.. and there is no doubt that with the re- 
duction in rates this consumption would be doubled by the 
end of the first year, and that the load would increase from 
year to year. 

You will see, therefore, that the Item referred to does 
not give an accurate idea of the situation or my proposi- 
tion, and I would like, if it could be managed without un- 
due convenience to you, that the said item be corrected in 
accordance with the figures given herein. 
I remain, 

Yours very truly, 

T. ROCCHETTI. 
Acting Commissioner. 
Winnipeg, Jan. 7, 1922. 



Sir: In response to your request that I would forward 
you a paper containing some impressions of my inspections 
of Canadian and United Stab- Roads, I have pleasure in 
submitting the following: 

Ig first with Canadian roads, the Doremi 
"ii was as to the magnitude of the task of providing 
bard roads for so huge a country, and the second was the 
thorough way in which the task is being undertaken, and 
the third, the high standard of construction you bavi 

impllsh, if this standard can be pursued 
you should in I few years have a system of roads second to 

The widths to which construction is being 
sppmed to mo likeiv tn prove Inadequate In the near future, 
but I realize with so lengthy a mileage It is me 

a good surface on as much as is practicable al the 

earliest possible moments leaving widenin when 

[■ment Justifies an • r expenditure and more 

adequate funds win possibly be available, I can conceive 

that good roads will Immensely beaten development of your 
mails will reap an ample 
harvest In Improved values. No rountry can he exploited 
to full advantage until it has good road communications. 



I was struck with your fine cities of Montreal. Ottawa 
and Toronto, and the wisdom displayed is getting main ar- 
teries of good width and direction. It is such a contrast 
to the conditions here, where the slow and unregulated 
growth of centuries has tended to cramp all our towns. 
You have had your opportunity, and learned your lesson in 
good time, so that the congested parts of your cities are 
confined to a very small area. 

I found the same general conditions throughout my 
tour through the eastern part of the United States. Speak- 
ing quite generally your problems impressed me as being 
very similar and your road practice proceeds on almost 
identical lines. One problem I think you both have to solve 
is that of diagonal communications. Your layout being 
rectangular as a guiding principle seems to me to need 
diagonals. Admittedly it cuts up land awkwardly, but the 
advantages in the way of communication I think outweighs 
other considerations. 

Your concrete roads impressed me as affording good 
service in your present stage of development, and with 
proper maintenance, should give a good life. Your traffic 
being mainly rubber tired and in comparatively light units 
affords them a much better chance than in this country 
Here our traffic units are in every class much heavier, com- 
prise a large proportion of steel tires even on heavy steam 
vehicles, and we have as many vehicles with a registered un- 
laden weight exceeding 2 tons as we have in the category 
of under 2 tons. 

The asphalt roads of the cities I thought were extreme- 
ly good and less wavy than ours, due partly I think to the 
lighter units of traffic, but also to the greater experience 
your engineers have had in the use of this material, which 
has only been developed here on a considerable scale in 
quite recent years, largely no doubt owing to heavy freight 
charges on bitumen. 

Both Canadian and American engineers have advan- 
tages over us in the superiority of their technical anc 
scientific training supplied by your universities. We ari 
extremely backward in that respect, inasmuch as few o' 
our universities have an engineering side, and none has 
yet a chair of highway engineers. I have returned to the 
old country with a very high opinion of the equipment of 
your engineers for the beneficient work they have to per- 
form in the development of your huge country, a great ad- 
miration for the way In which they are performing that 
function, and with grateful remembrance of the kindly 
hospitality and assistance extended to me by every engineer 
it was my good fortune to meet on my tour. 
Yours faithfully, 
ALFRED DRYLAND, M. Inst 

County Engineer of Mlddlt 
Kingston-on-Thames, Dec. 18, 1921. 



Prof. C. R. Young, assistant professor of structural 
engineering. University of Toronto. gave an illustrated 
lecture to members of the Hamilton branch of the Engi- 
neering Institute of Canada on the Detroit River bridge, on 
Jan. 13. He is a member of the board i f engineers ap- 
pointed to supervise the construction of the bridge Mr 

Young gave an Interesting talk on the great feat of erecting 

the big bridge, and with slides showed the work from start 
to finish. The address was one of the most educational 
and Interesting beard by the members. The work of con- 
struction will be BUPervlsed l>> an international board of 
engineers Canada is represented by C N Monxin.it and 
II Vonnc. who are well known authorities on 

construction in the Dominion. 






luncheon of the Quebec Branch of the Eh 
■ anada, held al the chateau Fronl 
. on January 9, H Cote, Industrial commissioner 

for the Hoard of Trade, gave n: address on 'The Ship- 
building industry at Quebec In the last century." v- 

Bald that construction of wooden ships was for a number of 
years the principal Industry in Quebec but now it exists no 
longer 



January 17, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



The Canadian Engineer 

Established 1893 

A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Terms of Subscription, postpaid to any address: 

One Xear Six Months Four Months Single Copia 

$3.00 $1.50 $1.00 10c 



Published every Tuesday by 
The Monetary Times Printing Co. of Canada, Limited 



Assistant General Manager 
ALBERT E. JENNINGS 



President and General Manager 
JAMES J. SALMOND 

HEAD OFFICE: 62 CHURCH STREET, TORONTO, ONT. 
Telephone, Main 7404. Cable Address, "Engineer, Toronto." 

Western Cannda Office: 1?06 McArthur Bide.. Winnipeg. G. W. Goodall, Mgr. 



Vol. 42 



Owen Sound, January 17, 102 



No. 3 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS 

St. Lawrence Navigation and Power Investi- 
gation 139 

The Disinfection of Public Water Supplies.... 146 

New Gosoline Revolving Shovel 149 

The Maintenance of Clean Filtering Medium in 

Sewage Filters 150 

Tests on Carbonizing Irish Peat 152 

Factors Determining the Selections of Pave- 
ments for Streets 153 

Highway Development in Ontario 154 

Letters to the Editor 156 

Personals 158 



LIFE OF WIRE BRIDGE CABLES 



Satisfying assurance of the permanence of the three 
great suspension bridges across the East river at New 
York has been received recently as a result of a careful 
examination of those portions of these structures most 
frequently criticised, namely, the cables. Brought about 
by the necessity of removing the fabric wrapping of the 
Williamsburg bridge cables and replacing it by a wire wrap- 
ping of the same character as used for the Brooklyn and 
Manhattan bridges, a careful investigation of the condition 
of the wires under the wrapping of the cables for this bridge 
as well as for the other two was made by the Department 
of Plant and Structures of New York City. As interested 
parties, representatives of the engineering staff of the Phil- 
adelphia-Camden bridge made an inspection of the condition 
of the cables of the three bridges at the same time, and as 
a result of the conditions found, have indicated their confi- 
dence in the type of structure proposed at Philadelphia. 

The indication thus obtained of the long life of wire 
bridge cables properly protected is merely one of many 
that have been available to the engineering profession for a 
long time. The 1010-ft. wire cable suspension bridge 
built across the Ohio river at Wheeling, West Virginia, in 
1846 by Charles Ellet and later reconstructed by John A. 
Roebling, contains, for the most part the original cable 
material. After a use of 7 6 years this material is said to 
be in perfectly good condition. The Cincinnati and Cov- 
ington bridge, constructed originally with two iron wire 
cables, and opened for traffic in 1867, still contains these 
original cables in excellent condition. When the Roebling 
railway suspension bridge was built across the Niagara river 
in 1855, use was made of the cable wire that had formed a 
part of the original Ellet structure built in 1848. Except 
for the necessity of cutting out a few dozen wires which 



had been badly exposed, the cables so constructed con- 
tinued to do service till 1897 when the bridge was re- 
placed by the present railway arch. The excellent resist- 
ance of cable wire to corrosion was also evidenced when 
the present Lewiston-Queenston suspension bridge was built 
in 1899. On removing the old cables of the former struc- 
ture, which had been built in 1851, they were found to be 
in an excellent state of preservation. In the new structure, 
cable wire which had been used in the upper suspension 
bridge at Niagara Falls, as reconstructed in 1S89, was 
used. 

In all the suspension structures built in America prior 
to about 1880 a clean, bright wire was used, usually dipped 
twice in boiled linseed oil, passed through an oiled sheep- 
skin, on being unrolled from the reels prior to stringing and 
then carefully oiled in the strands before the wrapping was 
applied. With the construction of the Brooklyn bridge, 
however, from 1S76 to 1883, advantage was taken of the 
newly established art of galvanizing. Both the strand wire 
and the wrapping wire were treated by the new process 
with results that have been shown to be excellent. Exam- 
ination has shown that the Brooklyn bridge cables are 
as good as they ever were. 

Believing that the experience with suspension bridges 
built prior to 1880 indicated a practically unlimited life for 
bright wire properly oiled, the engineers of the Williams- 
burg bridge decided to protect the cables by filling the 
spaces between the wires with "slushing oil." a hydrocarbon, 
to which was added 25% of artificial graphite. Instead of 
covering the entire cable with wrapping wire, as had been 
done in the Brooklyn bridge, it was covered with four 
wrappings of canvas, heavily coated with the same bitumin- 
ous material as filled the interspaces between the wires. 
To make the whole entirely waterproof and to protect it 
from the atmosphere, a 1/16-in. steel sheathing was placed 
outside the fabric. The experience of twenty years has 
shown, however, that this method of protection is infer- 
ior to that adopted by Roebling. The metal sheathing cor- 
roded and the canvas wrapping had hardened so that the 
motion in the neighborhood of the suspenders had caused 
it to break destroying the waterproof seal at these places. 
Fear of dangerous corrosion prompted the Department of 
Plant and Structures to remove the faulty covering and 
wrap the cables throughout with No. 9 Norway iron gal- 
vanized wire. With this protection, there is no doubt 
the life of the Williamsburg cables will be practically un- 
limited. 

In the construction of the Manhattan bridge, CO 
ed in 1909, the Roebling method of cable protection was 
followed, although at that time there was no indication 
that the protective covering on the Williamsburg bridge 
cables would not be satisfactory. The farsightedn 
the engineering staff in charge of bridge work in New York 
City at that time has been amply demonstrated in the ex- 
cellent condition now found in the Manhattan cables. 

It thus appears, as a result of an experience with wire 
cables in this country extending over a period ot about 
three-quarters of a century, that even with the methods 
of protection devised for wire cables forty-five yeai 
there should be no doubt whatever so far as the .abbs are 
concerned, of the life and serviceability of the wire cable 
suspension bridge for centuries. 



RAILWAY POLICY IN THE MAKING 



Now that the leader of an important political party In 
Canada has demanded the immediate consolidation of the 
Grand Trunk aRilwav with the Canadian National System 
and a substantial reduction in freight rates, the announce- 
ment of a definite railway policy by the government may be 
expected shortly. In the adoption of such a pollcj 
issues are at stake. A decision must be made between the 
consolidation urged by one group and the Shaughnessy 
plan advanced by another. It is a question of carrying the 
public ownership idea to its logical conclusion, or returning 



15S 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 12, No. 3 



t ho Grand Trunk to its owners and merging the National 
System with the C.P.R. That the problem cannot be solved 
on the broad question of idealistic preference without re- 
to details is evident from a very slight consideration of 
the matter. Thus, the possible refusal of the United States 
to permit a foreign government to own and operate railways 
within its borders has a bearing on the disposal of the 
Grand Trunk that might well fix the whole policy of the 
gorerment In railway matters. 



PERSONALS 




SENATOR HEWITT W. BOSTOCK. M.A.. of Kamloops, 

B. C. the new Min- 
ister of Public 
Works, was born in 
Walton Heath, Sur- 
rey, Kng., May 31, 
1864, and was edu- 
cated by private 
tutors and. at Trinity 
College. Cambridge. 
In 1SSS Mr. Bostock 
was called to the 
Bar at Lincolns Inn 
but never practiced; 
went to British Col- 
umbia in 1893 and 
engaged in ranch- 
ing, fruit growing 
other interests. The 
new Minister was 
elected to the House 
of Commons for 
Yale-Cariboo in 
1896 and was ap- 
pointed to the Sen- 
ate on June 6, 1904. 
He is a Fellow of 
the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society. He was President of the Interior Stock 
tlon of British Columbia in 1916. 

Al.i'.ERT ROBERTS has been re-elected chairman of 
the Water Commission, of St. Thomas, Ont. 

GEORGE A GOODMAN, contractor of Windsor, Ont., 
has been elected president of the Builders and Contractors 
Association of Essex County. 

BREITHAUPT has been elected chairman of the 
Kitchener, Ont., Water Commission for the twenty-third 
consecutive term. He has been chairman ever since the 
commission was first established. 

DAVID o l-EWis, M.E.I.C., has been elected pn 
of the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province 

of British Columbia for 1922. Mr. Lewis is also a vice- 
- inei ring I nstitute of Canada 

w. I. McDOUGALD has been appointed chairman of 
the Montreal Harbor Co He assumed his new 

duties on .Ian. 11. The new chairman has been pre Idi Ql 
of the Ogdensburg Coal and Towing Co (or many years. 

GORDON i>. CONANT Iras i a elected chalrmi t the 

ird of Water Commissioners for 1922, The new 

chairman is an c\-mayor and has also II tved an the Commls 

ime lime. 

PROF. C R fOUNO, member of the Advisory Board 
i it i oil w Indsor bridi i 
Iton Branch of the ! I ate ol 

I •. on Jan l :'•. on the engin 



THOMAS R. LaBELLE. formerly a builder and contrac- 
tor, died at his home in Toronto on January 9, aged 64 
years. The deceased was born near Colborne, Ont. and had 
been a resident of Toronto for 38 years. 



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Condensed Advs. 

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« in any case: "Positious Wanted," two cents per word: all other 3 

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^ 60 per cent, extra if charged. £± 

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TRANSIT FOR SALE — Six Inch. Dietzgen Transit, 
nearly new. Can be seen at Art Metropole Ltd., 14 Tem- 
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CIVIL ENGINEER— 2fi. A.M.A.A. E., six years' exper- 
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CONTRACTORS' OFFICE manager and estimator has 
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PATENT NOTICE: Any one desiring to obtain the in- 
vention covered by Canadian Patent No. 198201 granted on 
16th March, 1920, to Juan Ismael Domingues, of Buenos 
Aires, Argentine Republic, for Apparatus for Catching Flies, 
may do so upon application to the undersigned Who are pre- 
pared to supply all reasonable demands on the part of the 
public for tlie invent inn and from whom full information 
may be obtained. Eetherstonba ugh ^- Co.. Ottawa. Russel S 
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OBITI \U\ 



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recently In that city at the King Edward Hospital 



For Quick Sale 
At a Bargain 



Generator Set and Switch Board, manu- 
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Apply to 

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r:j), 



'£> 



A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 






Construction Industries Conference in Hamilton 

Important Report Presented by Labor Committee — National Joint Con- 
ference Board Ceases to Function — Basic Principles Adopted — Business 
Outlook for 1922 Said to be Encouraging — Full Report of Proceedings 



THREE outstanding questions formed the chief topics for 
debate at the fourth annual conference of the Associ- 
ation of Canadian Building and Construction Industries, 
held last week in the Royal Connaught Hotel, Hamilton, 
Ont. These Questions were: 

1. What conditions will prevail throughout the con- 
struction industries in Canada during 1922? In other 
words, Will business be good? 

2. Will there be any further reduction in the price 
of 'building materials and in the wages paid to labor? 

3. Should the construction industries continue to re- 
cognize international labor unions, and particularly their 
paid business agents? 

After devoting four days to the study of statistics, the 
exchange of information and the discussion of basic factors, 
practically all of the members present agreed that there is 
every indication and prospect of good business during 
1922; not a boom, but good, solid business that will be 
better than 1921 and will permit most contracting and sup- 
ply firms to work to 50% greater output than in 1921 and 
to make a reasonable profit on their turnover. 

The questions regarding costs and labor were answered 
principally by the report of the Labor Committee, which 
was the most important report presented at the conference, 
and which consisted of a number of resolutions, as follows: 

Report of Labor Committee 

"Clause 1 — BASIC PRINCIPLES — Resolved that the 
basic principles herein enunciated should be adopted: 

"It is realized to-day by public-spirited employers 
and workmen that their mutual interests should be consid- 
ered in a spirit of co-operation. In order to be lasting 
and beneficial, such co-operation must admit certain funda- 
mental rights of both employers and employed, and 'be car- 
ried out by both in the spirit of fair play. 

"Co-operative efforts have been attempted in the build- 
ing and construction industry of Canada, and, in order that 
these efforts may be such as are likely to lead to satisfac- 
tory results, it is felt that certain principles should be ac- 
cepted by both employers and employees. The following 
principles are therefore considered to be of basic importance 
in these efforts to co-operation in the building and con- 
struction, industry. 

I' — No business can last unless there be a substantial 
accumulation of reserves in order to provide for expansion, 
periods of depression, and unfortunate experiences involv- 
ing loss. 

"On the other hand employeees are justly entitled to 
expect a remuneration for their services which is more 
than sufficient to provide for a mere existence and which 
will enable them to accumulate a surplus to meet contin- 
gencies always provided that efficient services have been 
rendered. 

"2 — In localities where any particular labor organi- 
zation or organizations are in the ascendency it is wise and 
expedient for employers and the employees representing 
such organization or organizations, to enter into agree- 
ments, the objects of which will be to stabilize the industry. 



But it must be recognized that every individual should 
have the unrestricted right to work where and with whom 
he chooses, irrespective of his affiliations with labor or- 
ganizations. 

"Labor organizations who effect agreements with em- 
plovers should not endeavor to make use of this relation- 
ship to the disadvantage of such employers, in order to 
wrest advantages from employers who do not make such 
agreements with labor organizations. 

"The combined efforts of both parties should be ex- 
erted to increase and stabilize the earning power of both 
employers and employees. 

•4 There should be no discrimination against either 

employer or employee in a locality where no trouble exists, 
because of the collective action of his organization in an- 
other locality. 

"5 The best efforts of both employers and employees 

should be directed to the elimination of jurisdiction dis- 
putes. 

"6 The general principles of arbitration should be 

the basis of settling all disputes. Each party should agree 
to submit disputes to arbitration and refrain from making 
use of lock-out or strike until the lapse of a specified period 
after the recommendation of the Board of Arbitration has 
been made. 

"7 — Special encouragement should be given to Ap- 
prenticeship. 

"The foregoing principles are those that may be held 
to apply to existing conditions and any change in these 
conditions that the future may bring forth may warrant 
their modification or amendment. 

"Clause 2 — BUSINESS AGENTS — Resolved that in 
the common interest of the public, the employee and the 
employer, the policy of this Association shall be to deal 
directly with the actual employees rather than with Busi- 
ness Agents. 

"Clause 3 — AGREEMENTS— Resolved that when 
any agreements are reached with Labor, that these be re- 
duced to writing and that they should only cover wages 
and hours of work, having in view the stabilizing of rates, 
and that the Basic Principles enunciated above should find 
expression in all such agreements. 

"Clause 4 — WAGES AND RKSULTS — Resolved that 
the very apparent injustice created by the flat-rate system 
appears to have no complete solution at this time: but it 
is recommended that all members of this Association should 
do evrything possible to reward the more efficient men 
by arranging by transfer, to provide constant employment 
for these men. 

"Clause 5 — INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS — Resolved 
that in our industry wo have found Joint Industrial Coun- 
cils tend only to cause dlssentlon rather than cure it. and 
therefore, such councils should not be continued. 

"Clause 6— NATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE BOARD 

. Resolved that until such time as the labor members of 

this Board can agree to the basic principles adopted at this 
conference, the activities of the Board shall cease. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 4 



"Clause 7 — APPRENTICESHIP — Resolved, where- 
as the present conditions are not favorable for the training 
of apprentices in the Construction Industry; and 
whereas it is realized that a serious shortage of trained 
artizans in certain trades exist; resolved that the Ex- 
ecutive be authorized to take up this question with the 
Federal Department of Labor in an effort to assist the em- 
ployees by proper legislation and funds to alleviate this 
condition. 

"Resolved further that the National Apprenticeship 
system as adopted at the May, 1922, Conference at Ottawa 
be modified where necessary by the preceeding and the 
following recommendations, and particularly as to age 
limit, and that it should be used as a basis for action. 

"Clause 8 — COSTS — As a preamble to this resolut- 
ion, the following analysis of the present business situa- 
tion should be given: 

"This Conference realizes that the future horizon is 
clouded and that prophecies in these days are dangerous. 
It also realizes that the national prosperity cannot remain 
much longer in the present state of stagnation; further, 
that as soon as business from a national standpoint com- 
mences to move, just so soon will building work start to 
move. 

"In the Construction Industry there exists a scarcity 
of mechanics, which scarcity will be accentuated when work 
becomes plentiful, and which condition will undoubtedly 
be accompanied by the usual drop in efficiency. At the 
same time it is realized that certain of the basic materials 
are at present at an artificially low level, and for all the 
above reasons building costs will tend to increase. On 
the other hand there still remains many centres where 
reasonable reductions in wages have not been put into ef- 
fect and there still remain many major materials the prices 
of which have not undergone proper deflation, both of which 
factors will, when righted, tend to decrease prices. 

"The Conference is, therefore, of the opinion that al- 
though the general trend of costs will be downward, the 
movement will be very slow and subject to temporary move- 
ments in the other direction." 

Resolutions Adopted 

All the above resolutions were unanimously adopted 
at general sessions of the conference. Another important 
resolution that was adopted without opposition was the 
following, which was presented by a special committee con- 
sisting of three general contractors, three-trade contrac- 
tors and three supply dealers or manufacturers: 

"Resolved that a badge or seal be at once prepared for 
the common use of all members of the Association, and that 
the seal be copyrighted. 

"That a small charge, the amount of which is left with 
the Executive, be made for the use of this seal and the nec- 
essary die, and that every application for a seal he passed 
upon by the Executive of the local branch or affiliated 
body, where such exists, in the applicant's locality, and 
further that both such Executives must endorse the ap- 
plication before granted. 

"That this seal be used on the stationery of the 
grantee. 

"That in granting the right to use this seal, the Exec- 
utive or Executives should scrutinize carefully the integrity, 
the ability and the responsibility, financial ami otbjprwise, 
of tbl applicant, and that power be given the Executives 
to withdraw the right to use this seal, for cause. 

"That it bo established as a guiding principle to the 
members of this Association, as 1" I Ion and sec- 

tion ,that they recognize this seal by working together to- 
ward their common advantage." 

Standard Practices sasd Contracts 

Another Important report was the following, present- 
ed by a committee appointed to deal with the standard and 
cost-plus contract forms that had been recommended at 
the conference of the association held laal year in Win- 
nipeg: 

1 — "STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS — Having gone 
carefully Into the correspondence relating to this form of 



contract, which is the result of certain recommendations of 
your committee at the Winnipeg Conference, when the 
form was adopted, we find nothing in this correspondence 
that would justify making any alterations; we would there- 
fore recommend that the executive of this Association at an 
early date consider ways and means of having these forms 
printed and distributed to the several exchanges, for the 
use of its members, and they as members of this Associa- 
tion do all in their power to have these forms of Contract 
adopted for general use by all architects, engineers and 
public bodies. Also that an adequate unit price per copy 
be charged to cover the cost of producing same. 

"2 — COST-PLUS CONTRACT FORMS — Your com- 
mittee would recommend that owing to the heavy expense 
involved in printing this document, that it be placed at tie 
disposal of the members through their exchanges in such 
form as the executive may decide, as we are of the opinion 
it would be a guide to the members entering into this 
form of contract. 

"3 — STANDARD PRACTICES — We feel that we 
cannot enlarge on the very comprehensive report and re- 
commendations brought in by the special committee at our 
last conference, unless it be to further strongly recommend 
that as these standard practices demand to a large extent, 
as to their adoption and enforcement (if only in spirit) on a 
spirit of friendliness and good fellowship, that the social 
side of all local associations and exchange work be given 
more attention; and as far as possible some form of enter- 
tainment should be introduced at least once a month, so 
as to foster and encourage this friendship and good fellow- 
ship to the fullest extent. 

New Officers Elected 

The report of the nominating committee was received 
without opposition, and the secretary was instructed to 
cast one ballot for the election of the following officers, 
who will form the executive of the association for the 
ensuing twelve months: 

Past President — J. P. Anglin, of the Anglin-Norcross 
Co., Montreal. 

President — J. B. Carswell, Carswell Construction Co.. 
Toronto. 

First vice-president — James Mackie, James Mackie 
Co., Winnipeg. 

Second vice-president — John V. Gray. John V. Qraj 
Construction Co., Toronto. 

Honorary treasurer — E. G. M Cape. B. G. M. Cape 
Co., Montreal. 

Honorary secretary — John Grieve. Dominion Paint 
Works. Montreal. 

.Member of Executive elected by General Contractors' 
Section — J. M. Pigott, Pigott-Healy Construction 
Hamilton. 

Member of Executive elected by Trade Contractors" 
Section — E. G. Brousseau, Brousseau Urns. Ouebec. 

Member of Executive elected by Supply Section — M. 
K. Gibson, Interlocking Tile Co.. Toronto. 

Western members of Executive P T. King, British 
Columbia; Qeo. E. Hughes, Alberta; William Wilson 
katchewan; H. T. Hazelton. Manitoba 

\llilli|.lll. , \ . 1 \ Silt 1-1. i. toi J 

Tin' attendance at the conference was consider 
satisfactory, although not so largo as the tmpC 
the meeting really lustified. The registration Includ 

era! contra.' 

of 87 trade contracting firms, an.! B 

sentatlvet of 78 different manufacturing firms or supply 
dealers. 01 the total registration ol 

. Hamilton lead with 51; .Toronto came ■ 
second wltb 51; Montreal third, with s. There t 

representatives from Saskatchewan. ^ from Manit. 
from Quebec (including Montreal i. and 5 Mari- 

time Provinces. The other-: came from rarlous cities and 
towns In Ontario 

All of the general sessions of the r • re held 

In the ball-room of the Royal Connaught Hotel. Along 



January 24. 1^22 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



161 



the walls of this room booths were arranged to accomodate 
exhibits of materials by the members of the Supply Section 
of the association. Similar booths also lined the hallway 
leading to the ball-room, and an overflow of exhibits was 
accomodated in the small rom adjacent to the ball-room. 
Among the exhibits were the Steel Co. of Canada, Pedlar 
People Ltd., Super-Cement (American) Ltd., Crane Ltd.. 
Trussed Concrete Steel Co., Brantford Roofing Co., A. B. 
Ormsby Co., Burlington Steel Co., Ontario Gypsum Co., Bab- 
cock-Wilcox Boiler Co., Frost Steel & Wire Co. Bishopric 
Mfg. Co., Canada Paint Co., Concrete Pipe & Products Co., 
Canadian Surety Co., Dominion Paint Works, Austin Mfg. 
Co., Otis-Fenson Elevator Co., Bird & Son, Bartonville Con- 
crete Products Co., Interlocking Tile Co., Canadian Metal 
Window & Sheet Products Co., National Fireproofing Co., 
Interprovincial Brick Co., Hamilton Sand & Gravel Co. and 
Toronto Brick Co. 

Luncheon, Tuesday, January 17 

The conference opened on Tuesday morning, January 
17, with registration and inspection of exhibits. At 1 
o'clock there was a luncheon, at which J. P. Anglin, presi- 
dent of the Association, presided. Mayor Coppley, of Ham- 
ilton, welcomed the visitors. Among the construction 
problems in Hamilton, he said, are those relating to sewage 
disposal, sewers, water works and roads for the districts 
that are being built up, and which will in the future be 
built up, in the western section of the city. 

Lt.-Col. B. O. Hooper, of the Bank of Hamilton, wel- 
comed the delegates in his capacity as vice-president of the 
Chamber of Commerce. During the past 18 months, said 
Col. Hooper, he had built 20 houses in Hamilton and had 
made a profit on the sale of every one of them. There is 
money to be made in building at present prices, he de- 
clared. The country is sane, and is developing on sound 
lines, so there is no cause for pessimism. Financially, com- 
pared with other nations Canada is in splendid condition. 

J. F. Mercer, president of the Hamilton branch of the 
association, called attention to the increase in building per- 
mits in Hamilton, the 10% reduction in wages in July, 
1^21. He expected no labor trouble this year. 

Tuesday Afternoon, January 17 

J. P. Anglin presided at the first general session of the 
conference on Tuesday afternoon. J. Clark Reilly, sec- 
retary of the association presented his annual report. 

The report of the treasurer was received, showing a 
balance on hand and in the bank of only $21.60. 

The president appointed the following nominating 
committee: A. A. McDonald (Halifax), W. J. Crawford (St. 
John), E. S. Mattice (Montreal), F. A. Magee (Hamilton), 
Jas. Mackie (Winnipeg) and Geo. H. Whitlock (Moose 
Jaw). 

R. J. Fuller (Toronto) suggested the appointment of 
a small committee to deal with freight rates as affecting 
the construction industries. Building materials of the 
heavier type are subject to high rates, said Mr. Fuller, 
while certain items such as contractor's plant are charged 
at entirely unreasonable rates. Mr. Fuller's suggestion 
was referred to the resolutions committee, with the result 
that a freight rates committee was later appointed under 
the chairmanship of F. B. McFarren( Toronto). 

J. P. Anglin delivered the annual presidential ad- 
dress. He would not prophesy what the immediate future 
holds in store for the construction industries, although he 
was absolutely certain of the ultimate future of Canada. 
The next quarter century will be Canada's, he declared, but 
the trouble at present is the world condition rather 
than any national or local situation. He called attention 
to the shortage of building mechanics, particularly brick- 
layers. The speed with which construction work can pro- 
ceed to-day, he said, is limited by the contractor's capacity 
to lay brick, and to meet this situation many engineers and 
contractors are endeavoring in various ways to eliminate 
brickwork. 

Mr. Anglin urged that attention be given to the prob- 
lem of continuity of employment for building mechanics, 
and said that it is remarkable that the general public should 



turn to the building industry to solve the whole employ- 
ment situatioH. Men from factories such as stove and steel 
works cannot often be used to advantage in construction 
work, he declared and each industry will have to solve its 
own employment problems. 

The construction industries are gradually being worked 
into a position where they are dealing entirely with labor 
unions, said Mr. Anglin, rather than with individual em- 
ployees or groups of employees. Contractors may soon be 
called upon to discuss international unions more seriously 
than ever before, and the subject should be treated very 
carefully, with justice to all concerned, including the public, 
and nothing should be done by either employers or em- 
ployees to discredit the industry in the eyes of the public. 

Costs of building materials, said Mr. Anglin, is an- 
other subect that the conference should handle without 
gloves. Buildings are required all over Canada, but own- 
ers hesitate to build because they think that costs may be 
reduced still further. The manufacturers point out that 
freight, fuel and labor govern costs of most commodities, 
and that until these three items are reduced, prices of many 
commodities can go down no lower. Whether this be cor- 
rect or not, said Mr. Anglin, the aim of every manufacturer 
connected with the construction industry this year should 
be to see how much he can contribute to the industry and 
not how much he can withhold from it. 

Contractors should not be secretive in their dealings 
with each other, he declared. They should not imagine 
that they have something that other firms have not; in 
most cases this is not true, and all firms would be further 
ahead if they would freely exchange information regard- 
ing their methods. 

James Mackie, of Winnipeg, agreed that a more definite 
stand 'be taken against paid labor leaders, or business 
agents. In the plumbing and heating trade in Winnipeg, 
the experience had been that the men were not unreason- 
able when facts were properly presented to them, provided 
that the men could be reached directly and the path not 
blocked by business agents whose desire was to safeguard 
their own jobs rather than to safeguard public interests. 

J. B. Carswell, of Toronto, vice-president of the as- 
sociation, reviewed the conference that had been held in 
May, 1921, at Ottawa under the auspices of the Department 
of Labor. At that conference a special committee had in- 
vestigated the question. Are buildings not required or 
are they delayed owing to high costs? It was found that 
the accumulated demand for buildings and public works 
in Canada was at that time probably $7S0,000,000^ When 
times become normal, said Mr. Carswell, there will undoubt- 
edly be a great shortage of building mechanics. There 
would not he half enough bricklayers if times were nor- 
mal at present, and some scheme for dual training 
should be perfected, he thought for example, a boilermaker 
could be taught bricklaying and a bricklayer could be shown 
how to make boilers. 

The May conference, continued Mr. Carswell, had been 
opposed to unemployment insurance except as a last re- 
sort. Joint Industrial councils had been approved as bene- 
ficial to the construction industries. An analysis of build- 
ing costs had been made and showed that S0< t , of the total 
cost is labor. Other subjects that had been covered in the 
.May conference were efficiency and production, wages and 
the cost of living, and conciliation and arbitration. 

The work of the National Joint Conference Board 
practically Stopped a tew days ago, said Mr. Carswell, owing 
to a failure to agree upon basic principles. The represent- 
atives hi the employers had frequently requested a state- 
ment of the principles upon which international labor unions 
are based, but had tailed to elicit a reply. In an effort to 
get something definite, the employers had outlined seven 
suggested principles to govern relations between employ- 
ers and employees in the construction industries in Can- 
ada. These were practically the same as the seven prin- 
ciples included in Clause 1 of the aforementioned Labor 
Comnn rt. After consideration, the labor mem- 

bers of the National Joint Conference Board had countered 
with the following: 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. i 



• Agreed to preamble and Principle No. 1. 
Wish to substitute the following for Principle No. 2: 

-For the successful operation of the building industry 

in all localities, it is fully recognized as being both wise and 

expedient, and in the best interests of both employers and 

employees, that mutual agreements be made governing 

hours of labor and working conditions. 

"Wish to substitute the following for Principle No. 3: 

"All agreements entered into between employers and 
employees should be observed to the fullest extent, both in 
spirit and letter, and where such agreements exist, all work 
should be carried on with a view of increasing efficiency, 
stabilizing the industry and removing all sources of friction. 

•Disagree entirely with Principle No. 4. 

"Agree to Principle No. 5. 

"Wish to substitute the following for principle No. 6: 

"The general principles of collective bargaining and 
direct negotiations between employers and employees, 
through their respective organizations, shall be the recog- 
nized basis of reaching agreements. Should this mode of 
procedure fail, it is agreed that the whole matter should 
be submitted to conciliation and arbitration under the In- 
dustrial Disputes Act, or to such mutual arbitration as 
agreed upon by both parties to the disputes, and no strike 
or lock-out shall take place during the period of such action. 

"Agreed to No. 7 and conclusion." 

,T. M. Pigott declared that in dealing with business 
agents the contractors are getting away from their men 
rather than closer to them. If the employers make a 
point to win an argument, it does not get down to the men 
and has no effect on the situation. 

Tuesday Evening, January 17 

Separate meetings of the general contractors section, 
the trade contracors' section and the supply dealers' section 
were held on Tuesday evening. 

Wednesday Morning, January IX 

John Grieve, chairman of the supply dealers' section, 
presided at the general session on Wednesday morning. Mr. 
Grieve read the list of exhibitors and requested the repre- 
sentatives of each firm to stand as their names were called. 

Mr. Grieve then introduced Howard A. McGill, com- 
modity statistician for the Babson Co., Wellesley Hills, 
Mass., who spoke on the outlook for 1922. 

Mr. McGill said that among the favorable factors to be 
taken into consideration in any attempt to prophesy the 
future, are the strong financial conditions of the United 
States and Canada compared with other countries, and the 
fact that nationalization of advertising and standardiza- 
tion of merchandising are here to stay. Mr. Babson is a 
decided "bull" on Canada, said .Mr. McGill, and believes 
that in the next 20 or 25 years it will have a more rapid 
growth than the United States or any other country, but 
that this is the "long swing" and will not materially affect 
the immediate situation. 

To show present condtions, Mr. McGill stated that in 
the United States in 1913 the steel mills had 35,000,000 tons 
capacity, with 31,000,000 tons production. In 1920 the 
production was 40,000,000 tons. In 1921, the capacity 
was 55,000,000 tons annually, but the production was only 
20,000,000 tons. Similarly the capacity of the cement 
mills in l :t l: l was 140,000,000 barrels annually, but they 
were producing only 100,000,000 barrels. It would be 
some time before the domestic and BZpOTl demands would 
absorb the total productive capacity of all IndUtl 
either the United States or Canada. 

The number of failures In 1921 was the largost In his- 
tory, said Mr. McOUl; scores of firms are being B] ted 

by the banks at present, and mergers and further failures 
will result iii 1922, although the worst is over In this re- 
spect. The situation regarding failures can be appreciated, 
he said, when one realties th.it during the war there were 
five times as many new incorporations each year as there 
were on the average during the ten years prior to the war. 

All unemployment will not be absorbed during 1922, 
declared Mr. McGill. The correction of employment con- 



ditions will be gradually effected by natural laws and ten- 
dencies. Wages are still inflated: the cost of living in the 
United States is still 67% above that of 1913, but it is "ex- 
pected that many of the necessities of life will be reduced 
in price this year; history shows that wages always trail 
behind the cost of living, but are inevitably adjusted. 

Transportation, taxation and the tariff are matters that 
need readjustment, said Mr. McGill, and international re- 
lations must be improved before export trade can be re- 
sumed. In this connection it must be remembered, he 
said, that Europe owes the United States three or four bil- 
lion dollars besides the eleven billion dollars of war debt. 

There will be no radical recovery of industrial ac- 
tivity in 1922, thought Mr. McGill; the tendency is upward, 
but it will be gradual. The recovery since 19 21 has been 
very moderate and probably a seasonal rather than a funda- 
mental movement. 

The situation is still very unbalanced, declared Mr. Mc- 
Gill, especially in regard to prices. Commodities are group- 
ed into three classes at present. In once class the price is 
still abnormally high; in another class the price ranges 
from 10 to 25% above that of 1913 and is probably as low 
as can be reached; in the third class, the price has sunk 
lower than the 1913 level and is too low and will probably 
stiffen in the future. 

As examples of the first class Mr. McGill quoted brick 
at 100% over 1913 prices (this quotation and all others in 
this and the next two paragraphs being in terms of United 
States prices), gingham 12.'! 9c. lime 150%, petroleum 142%, 
silk 103%, and some chemicals (such as quinine, sulphate, 
etc.) 200% over 1913 prices. 

As examples of the second class he quoted wool at 15% 
over 1913 prices, wheat 10%, quicksilver 21%, flour 19%, 
ibrass 8% and linseed oil 127% over 1913 prices. 

As examples of the third class Mr. McGill quoted some 
non-ferrous metals such as copper, aluminum, lead and zinc 
at 20% under 1913 prices, corn 15%, oats 8%, rubber 82% 
and hogs 5% under 1913 prices. 

The comparisons made in the above three paragraphs 
were based on wholesale prices, New York market, latest 
available quotations. 

There cannot be a normal exchange of commodities un- 
der these conditions, asserted Mr. McGill, and it is most 
likely that the trend of commodity prices will be downward 
for the next 10 or 15 years, although in 1922 some will go 
up while others go down and the average may be about the 
same; in fact prices of some building materials may stiffen 
during the next two or three months, he said, but it will be 
merely a seasonal recovery. The stock market generally 
anticipates the commodity market by about six months, and 
it had forecast a recovery in prices in some lines. 

The equipment industries, said Mr. McGill. are in a 
comparatively unfavorable position, and success in this 
line will depend on individual effort. In 1921 industries 
in this line worked only 10% of capacity; in 1922 it is ex- 
pected that they will work to 60% capacity, or an increase 
of 50% in business, nevertheless there will be no radical 
period of prosperity. 

Bafbson's sent oul 700 letters to prominent contractors 
regarding construction costs, said Mr. McGill, and from the 
replies it was estimated that the cost ol industrial construc- 
tion today Is 68% aibove the 1913 level, but the CO 

niiai construction is 100 . over that of 1913. Build- 
ing materials will no doubt reach a lower level, said Mr 
M oQlll, but the process may he spread over a long period 
ami two factors would tend lo hold up prices for some time 

io come: ii) The need of resiii.-ini.il construction ail oyer 
mtlnent, and the fact thai the worst of the industrial 

on has i n passed and the outlook Is more em ourag- 

lug; and (2) that there Is not a burdensome suppl) of ma- 
terials In sight for 1922. 

There can be no radical building boom until materia] 
prices do get down to a lower level, declared Mr, McOUl, 
.hoi lis they »iii noi likely gel down thl lentlai 

ruction in 1!'22 may he limited, although better than 

1921, The farmers will be very conservative in 1922, he 
said, and much of the building work will be In industrial 



January 24, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



163 



centres, hospitals, schools, public utility plants and public 
works. 

Wednesday Afternoon, January 18 

At the luncheon on Wednesday an address was de- 
livered by Grove Smith, Dominion Fire Commissioner. 
When the general session was resumed at 2:30 p.m., W. H. 
Hall spoke on "Surety Bonds." He was followed by 
A. R. Whittemore, who reviewed the building activities in 
Canada during the past few years and agreed with the Bab- 
son statistician regarding trend of costs and the 'business 
outlook. 

P. B. McFarren, chairman of the freight rates com- 
mittee, read a paper on freight rates in the brick trade. 
The Board of Railway Commissioners, said Mr. McFarren, 
invariably follows the lead of United States authorities, and 
when the latter decided that brick is not an essential com- 
modity and added 40% to the rates for its transportation, 
the Board at Ottawa had promptly followed suit. He re- 
viewed the arguments that had been used in attempting to 
persuade the Commissioners to grant a reasonable rate, and 
declared that if the rate on brick were reduced the railways 
would not be burdened with so many idle cars. 

Wednesday evening was devoted to committee meet- 
ings by some of the delegates, while others formed a party 
that attended the vaudeville show at the Lyric Theatre. 
Another large party of delegates witnessed a hockey match 
at the Hamilton Arena. 

Thursday Morning, January 19 

Practically the entire morning on Thursday was taken 
up by the presentation and discussion of a paper on "Con- 
struction Costs," by W. A. Connor, chief cost accountant of 
the Aberthaw Construction Co., Boston, Mass. 

The system of cost keeping in vogue in the offices of 
the Aberthaw company was explained in detail. Slides 
showing the forms used in this system aided greatly in 
acquiring a thorough understanding of the methods dis- 
cussed. In his opening remarks the speaker declared that 
a successful cost system is one that visualizes the work un- 
der contruction. Many failures were due to the fact that 
the contractor had a faulty cost system and a poor know- 
ledge of buying and selling. 

Three functions entered into cost accounting that were 
absolutely essential, viz: Economical handling of work, 
ability to make a correct estimate, and sufficient data in 
regard to the nature of the work. Labor costs of any day's 
work should always be available not later than the next 
day. 

The speaker expressed regret that in many concerns 
costs are kept secret from the foreman. Foremen should 
always be posted on the actual cost of operating their 
departments, and when costs are found to be lower in one 
department than another, the foreman responsible for the 
lower costs should be commended. 

Of particular interest was the code system used by the 
Aberthaw company to aid the cost clerks and managers to 
visualize the structure during its erection. 

In conclusion the speaker advised that considerable 
Latitude be given to superintendents in the purchasing of 
material. 

Discussing Mr. Connor's paper, Mr. Fuller, of the 
John V. Gray Construction Co., Toronto, advocated the use 
of the man-hour unit as well as the money unit in keeping 
costs. Mr. Fuller stated that his firm had devised a cost 
system that is simpler in some respects, and equally satis- 
factory, as that of the Aberthaw company. Cost work, said 
Mr. Fuller, should always be the basis of estimating. If the 
mill work costs $10,000, some contractors say, "Double it 
to cover the labor." Then, if they have to lay a hundred 
thousand brick, they look at the plans and say offhand, 
"Fifteen dollars a thousand to lay that brick." Judgement 
and experience are essential in estimating, said Mr. Fuller, 
but they should be backed by cost data. 

In his firm's cost system, said Mr. Fuller, overhead is 
entered on a separate sheet and not carried as a unit cost 
on each item. On that separate sheet is listed every im- 



portant item of overhead cost that had appeared on any of 
their cost sheets during a 5-year period. Such items as 
plant charges, superintendence, clerical staff, workmen's 
compensation and government tax on material purchases are 
items that are separate from labor and material, and should 
not be entered as unit overhead costs. 

Every firm, said Mr. Fuller, should have a proper quan- 
tity survey form that will indicate what is missed. Too fre- 
quently it is the fellow who has missed something who gets 
the job and then wonders why he failed. Mr. Fuller moved 
that the conference appoint a committee to devise a proper 
quantity survey system in order to determine what are the 
correct units for estimating. A standard system should 
be prepared and it should be adopted by all contractors, 
with a view toward having this work done in years to come 
by one organization on behalf of all contractors, and lead- 
ing ultimately to the inauguration of the quantity survey 
system of calling for tenders. At present if ten contractors 
each spend $100 in obtaining quantities for preparing a bid, 
that work has cost the industry the sum of $1,000, whereas 
two separate surveys could be made and checked against 
each other ior not more than $300, and the quantities used 
by all ten contractors, thus saving $700 to the industry as 
a whole. 

Mr. Fuller declared that a committee of contractors 
who had looked into the subject recently had estimated 
that $8,000,000 a year could be saved in Canada by the 
establishment of bureaux such as he suggested. Mr. Ful- 
ler's motion was referred to the executive in the form of a 
recommendation. 

Thursday Afternoon, January 19 

At the luncheon on Thursday the guests of honor were 
Senator Robertson, formerly Minister of Labor in the Do- 
minion Government, and Hon. Walter Rollo, Minister of 
Labor in the Ontario Cabinet. Mr. Rollo was the speaker of 
the day. He called attention to the need for buildings of 
all kinds throughout Ontario, and advised the contractors 
to notify all prospective builders who had obtained quota- 
tions from them during the past few years but who had not 
proceeded with their plans, that costs are now lower and 
that this would be a good time to revive their plans. A 
large number of branch banks and other buildings had been 
contemplated last year in Ontario, said Mr. Rollo, but had 
been delayed because prices had been too high. 

Mr. Rollo predicted the adoption of unemployment in- 
surance. If manufacturers and farmers look to the govern- 
ment to supply them with an adequate amount of labor 
when they need it, how can the government take care of that 
labor when the labor is not needed on the farms or in in- 
dustries? The only way he could see is 'by unemployment 
insurance, and if anyone has any better plan, the govern- 
ment should be advised of it, he said. 

The cost, up to a few weeks ago, of the municipal re- 
lief work had been $100,000 for the Ontario Government's 
share, said Mr. Rollo. The Dominion Government pays one- 
third, the provincial government a third and the munici- 
pality a third of the surplus or excess cost of any public 
works carried on during the winter as relief work to pro- 
vide employment, the excess cost being the difference be- 
tween the cost as relief work and the sum that the work 
would normally cost if carried out by contract in the con- 
struction season. 

Mr. Rollo also made a plea for safer scaffolds and the 
enforcement of other provisions of the Building Trades 
Protection Act, and urged the contractors to "Bring Back 
Industry by Being Industrious." 

After the conclusion of Mr. Rollo's speech, the remain- 
der of the afternoon was devoted to trips of inspection. 
Fifty visiting delegates inspected the bascule bridge that is 
being built over the Burlington channel by the Hamilton 
Bridge Works Co. A special car was chartered on the 
radial line and the party were the guests of W. B. Champ, 
general manager of the Hamilton Bridge Works Co., who 
also entertained them at tea upon their return to the hotel. 
Sir John Hendrie, president of the company, welcomed the 
visitors at the bridge, and at the reception at the hotel Mr. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42. No. 4 



Champ was assisted by Major Ian Hendrie. assistant secre- 
tary of the company. Other parties visited the plants of 
the Ontario Gypsum Co., the National Fire Proofing Co., 
the Burlington Steel Co. and the Libbey-Owens Co. 

Thursday Evening, January 19 

The general business session was resumed at 8 p.m., 
Thursday, with President Anglin in the chair. The con- 
ference decided to devote the evening to a discussion of the 
labor situation. E. G. M .Cape, of Montreal, and J. M. 
Pigott, of Hamilton, presented an array of statistics and 
opinions bearing upon costs of labor and materials, and in 
order to throw light on certain subjects upon which there 
seemed to be varying opinions, the president called upon 
J. E. Sweeney, special representative of the Associated 
Building Employers of Michigan, who was a guest at the 
conference, to outline the experience of Michigan con- 
tractors. 

Mr. Sweeney delivered an eloquent and forceful ad- 
dress that was a feature of the conference. He declared that 
production at the lowest possible price consistent with the 
welfare of the employee, the employer and the public is 
what must be sought to put the construction industry upon 
its feet. Production comes from competition. To be thor- 
ough and healthful, competition must have no unequitable 
restrictions imposed on it. Skill and zeal determine a 
man's value to an industry and all men skilled and willing 
must be permitted to compete freely and to lend the bene- 
fit of their skill and zeal to the rehabilitation of the in- 
dustry. "We cannot afford to have either a union condi- 
tion nor an non-union condition in the building industry," 
said Mr. Sweeney. 

"The Associated Building Employers of Michigan have 
not been afraid to deal with what we consider the biggest 
problems first, and we consider the labor problem the big- 
gest in the building business, even to the exent that we hold 
lack of production by labor responsible for the high freight 
rates. We have tackled this problem and have the most 
equitable and peaceful conditions to be found in labor cir- 
cles in the country today. 

"Our American Plan of Employment permits of union 
conditions prevailing if it is the wish of the employer so to 
deal with his workmen, but imposes restrictions to protect 
the public welfare.We have recognized that the question is a 
triangular affair, having in mind always the welfare of the 
public as well as the employer and the employee. 

"Labor unions are primarily responsible for the un- 
savory public impression of the building industry in the 
United States today, and after them the next in the group 
largely to blame for the troubles of this Industry are those 
groups of employers who have been willing to deal with 
absolute unionized groups of employees, or rather with their 
business agents. 

"I believe the membership of the American Federation 
of Labor to be 150,000- — that being the active number of 
business agents — rather than 4,000,000 as the others are 
all bystanders. 

"In conferences, do not forget that there is only a 
border line between conference and conspiracy. Do not 
confer with labor so long and so closely that public sus- 
picion be aroused and conspiracy be charged. Let us stand 
apart from labor. It is a check on our business to be quite 
apart from labor. The auditor does not sign our cheques 
and the book-keeper does not audit our books. The public 
what both sides are trying to do in all confer- 
with labor, and then they will have confidence in the 
industry." 

Upon conclusion of Ml '" Labor 

rjomin i points thai bad 

: , M , , UI ,| Mr. s.' ■ Invited to join the 

■ 

Under 1 1 > • ■ direct! in ot th, Dominion Wre 

Commissioner, I ; " then 

d to Illustrate the advisability of i pi Inkier 

I ntlonal bfllldingB. 

<aid Mr Smith, the fire loss In 1981 was $30,- 

480,000. In the last four years the loss has been $123,- 



000, and a sum of $230,000,000 was paid to the in- 
surance companies. Capitalize the unnecessary cost of the 
fire menace in Canada and we could readily pay off the na- 
tional debt. In Great Britain, with a population ol fifty 
million people, the loss in 1921 was onlj ■"'. or 

very little more than the loss sustained by nine million 
Canadians. In Hamilton last year the loss was $700,000. 
In Ipswich, England, a city of similar size, the loss 

$18,000. 

The largest fire loss is not in districts where shacks 
predominate, said Mr. Smith, but in what might be called 
first class industrial buildings. Frequently the contents of 
a building are far from fireproof even though the building 
is practically fireproof, and in such cases automatic sprink- 
lers are the only safe protection. They are 99 % efficient 
and have had a splendid record in protecting property. A- 
bout 5 00 lives are lost every year in fires in Canada, but 
not a life has been lost in a sprinklered building. 

There were 160 fires last year in public or institutional 
buildings, yet only two institutional buildings in Canada 
are sprinklered. There are no less than SO fires in schools 
every month, said Mr. Smith. All schools, jails, asylums, 
hospitals, institutional buildings and factories should be 
sprinklered. More attention should 'be paid to fire pre- 
vention in building construction, particularly in the case ot 
jails, hospitals and institutions. 

Friday Morning, January litl 

At the general session on Friday morning Mr. Fuller 
again urged the appointment of a committee to study esti- 
mating and cost-keeping, to collect data on the subject and 
to prepare a standard system that can be generally adopted. 

An amendment to the by-laws, permitting the election 
of four western members of the executive, was carried. It 
was decided that a vice-president should be elected each 
year from one of the four western provinces, and that he 
and the other four western members should form the Wes- 
tern Executive of the association and that they should 
meet three or four times each year, if possible, to discuss 
conditions in the west and to advise the association. 

W .A. Wilson presented the aforementioned report on 
standard contract forms and standard practices. 

President Anglin announced that at next year's con- 
ference a special projecting room would be supplied for the 
use of firms wishing to show industrial "movies.'' Various 
firms showed moving pictures whenever opportunity offered 
during the conference, but there was not time nor facilities 
to show all the films that were available, and it was de- 
cided that adequate facilities should be provided next year, 
as these movies are instructive and interesting, and if en- 
couraged will doubtless form a growing feature of the 
annual conference. Among the interesting films shown 
this year were several reels by the Burlington Steel Co. and 
the Austin Mfg. Co. Other films available were several by 
Mussens Ltd. and the Steel I ida. 

Mr. Dinsmore extended an invitation to the confer- 
ence to meet next year in Windsor. Mr. Brousseau extend- 
ed a similar invitation on behalf ol Quebec. As tlte confer- 
ence had already been held once in Manitoba and three 
times In Ontario, but never in Quebec Province, the dele- 
gates voted unanimously in favor of Quebec City. 

A motion supporting the Ontario Provincl 
in their light against the amendments to the Ontario lien 
law was referred to the Executive with full powi 

Norman Mil. coil (Toronto) presented the aforemen- 
tioned report ol the Bpecial committee regarding 
meetings and the use ol a seal or Insignia ol the 
tion, and the report was unanimously adopted 
i'ii,. report '•' the nominating committee 

and adopted. 

Mr. MrKanvn reported that the Irelghl 

miner would not be able to present ■ Una] report until fur- 
ther data had been obtained and be recommended the ap- 
pointment ol i permanent committee Thi pi dent ap- 
pointed Mr. McKarren. and afeSSTS. Nicholson (Toronto) 

Robertson (Toronto), afcLeod tTorouto), Keid (Windsor), 
Eaton (Orillia), and Mattlce (Montreal). 



January 24, 19 22 



THE CANADIAN' ENGINEER 



The following report was presented by J. M. Pigott, 
chairman of the Finance Committee: 

"We have carefully considered the treasurer's report 
for the year ending Dec. 31, 1021, and have noted from this 
report that the year was started with a balance on hand of 
$1,65S.53, and that the year ended with a balanceof $21.60. 
It is evident, therefore, that if we did not have a large bal- 
ance on hand at the beginning of the year, that this treas- 
urer's report would have shown a deficit of $1,600. 

"The most important thing, therefore, in connection 
with this statement is that the receipts will have to be great- 
ly increased if the work that the association is doing is 
to be carried on efficiently, and all the field that could and 
should be covered in order that an association of this kind 
can develop its true and proper value. 

"The executive officers should certainly not be required 
to attend to the actual work through the year at their own 
expense and it is to be regretted that this should have been 
found necessary during the past year. 

"The method employed in 1920 raising funds, on a 
commission basis, did not appeal to the members as a whole, 
perhaps, but, nevertheless, it is evident from a very casual 
examination that if it had not been for that campaign, it is 
doubtful if the association could have weathered the year 
1922. 

"This conference has done much to add to the im- 
portance and prestige of the association; it should prove 
easier now, year 'by year to spread the organization by in- 
creasing the membership. 

"In the opinion of this committee, the present confer- 
ence should be followed immediately by the engagement of 
a man of the highest qualifications — for a period of three 
or four months — for the purpose of covering the whole 
field by interesting the most reputable and responsible con- 
cerns in the various cities and towns of Canada, securing 
their membership applications, and leaving at that center 
some machinery in the hands of these reputable concerns 
for extending the list at their discretion. 

"As to the conferences themselves, it is in our opinion 
a most important matter that every local association in Can- 
ada should be represented by at least two delegates. In 
order that the extreme east and west delegates may not be 
constantly at a disadvantage, in the matter of railway and 
pullman expenses, this committee strongly recommends that 
in preparation for the next annual conference, the secretary 
prepare figures of the cost of bringing two authorized dele- 
gates from every local in Canada, and that this expense be 
averaged up and all pay into the secretary the same amount. 

"This might be of still greater benefit if where local 
associations came closer to the point selected for the con- 
ference, their delegations be increased to a point, for in- 
stance, where the large majority of the members of the 
local association should be included. 

"In the short time at our disposal we have not been 
able to lay down any definite recommendation, but would 
leave the matter with the above suggestion to be worked 
out in detail later by the secretary, and. if feasible, adopted 
by the association through the executive before the next 
conference. 

"Another suggestion, as an alternative, is that if the 
treasury can afford it, the expenses of at least one repre- 
sentative from inch organization outside of the province 
where the conference is held, be paid." 

Friday Afternoon, January 20 

The guest of honor and speaker at the luncheon on 
Friday was Secretary Wormith of the Workmen's Compen- 
sation Board of Ontario, who reviewed the provisions of 
the Act in that province and outlined the Board's experi- 
ences. The cost of administration of the Act has been only 
l\'27c- The assessment has averaged only $1.22 per $100 
of payroll. The assessment has been much lower than in 
many states in the United States. For bricklayers, as an 
example, the rate in Ontario is $1.S0; in Ohio, $2.90; in 
Wisconsin, $3.78; and in New York, $8.73. 

Mr. Wormith explained the Board's system of rebates 
to contractors who are required to pay assessments in other 



provinces, and t he steps taken to prevent employees from 
recovering damages in more than one province. 

In 1920 the Hoard paid $7,000,000 in awards in con- 
nection with r>4,ooo accidents, and $750,000 in medical and 
hospital and nursing expenses. In 7 years the Board ha 
dealt with 271,000 accidents and has paid $25,500, 0no in 
awards. The payrolls upon which assessments were levied 
in 1920 totalled $450,000,000. 

Questioned by various delegates, Mr. Wormith stated 
that there is no credit rating in the construction indu 
at present to encourage a record of accident prevention by 
individual employers, hut that there is such a credit - 
in ;ill other classes of industry, and the spread between the 
best class and the worst class in any one industry averages 
about 45% in assessment rate. 

James Mackie, vice-president of the association pre- 
sided at the meeting immediately following the luin I 
J. B. Carswell, the newly elected president, was introd 
and spoke briefly of the work before the association during 
the coming year. 

Mr. Mackie presented a handsome cut-glass dish and a 
ring to E. B. Osborne, secretary of the Hamilton branch of 
the association, in recognition of the work that Mr. Osborne 
had done in organizing the convention. 

The final report of the Labor Committee, as printed a- 
bove, was received and unanimously adopted. 

Resolutions of thanks were adopted, including one to 
the Department of Labor in respect to the May conference. 

J. P. Anglin said that in organizing the association he 
had never hoped or intended that it should be developed 
to sufficient strength to be arbitrary or to impose its will 
upon the industry regardless of the rights of the public and 
the employees, but that he hoped that it would continue to 
exert a great moral influence that would be beneficial. 

James Mackie, in adjourning the conference, 
that the association would never tackle its problems in t In- 
spirit of looking for trouble, and that at all times an equit- 
able solution would be sought for difficulties, and that the 
public interest will be paramount. 



NEW RECORD OUTPUT <>F CANADIAN STEEL 



PRODUCTION of steel ingots and castings in Canada 
during November, according to the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics, showed a decided improvement, the output 
rising from a high record of 72,204 long tons in October to 
a total of 75,039 long tons. Of the November output, 73,- 
806 tons was made by the producers for their own use. 
mostly in the manufacture of steel rails. A small amount 
was produced for direct sale, the total under this item being 
1,233 long tons, practically all of which was in the form of 
steel castings. 

The favorable turn in the steel making industry noted 
in October thus continued throughout November, although 
the principal activities reported were in the manufacture of 
steel ingots for further use in manufacturing processes. 
While, therefore, a considerable increase was noted In the 
output, the field of production remained somewhat limited. 
It has been nevertheless a matter of some satisfaction that 
there has been considerable improvement in at least one 
section of the steel trade. 

The production of pig iron during November was fairly 
well maintained, the total output of basic iron amounting 
to 41,232 tons as compared with (2,366 tons in the pre- 
ceding month. With the exception of some 300 tons, the 
whole output was produced by makers for their own further 
Foundry iron fell off slightly from 7.217 tons in 
October to 6,384 tons in November, practically all of which 
was produced for sale. No malleable iron has been made 
in Can LugUSt and no electric castings have been 

made since September. The quantity ol the last-named 
commodity produced, however, is always small and is en- 
tirely the product of electric furnaces. 



M. KAY & M. KAY. of Hamilton, Ont., have been again 
appointed engineers for the town of Burlington for the year 
1922. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 4 



A MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT, ITS FINANCING, 
ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION 



Describes the Functions of a Highway Maintenance Division 

and Outlines Complete System of Organization and 

Operation. Bays Cities are Judged by 

Condition <>f Roads and Streets 



By \V. A. Van Duzer 

Assistant Maintenance Engineer, State Highway Depart- 
ment, Pennsylvania 

IT IS incumbent upon any administration to construct 
durable highways and provide for their future main- 
tenance, as the condition of such highways is at all times 
an indication of the progressiveness of such municipality or 
state. The future condition of the highway is treated by 
the people in an abstract sense, while their present condi- 
tion is of vital and economic interest to them. The old 
method of hit and miss maintenance is obsolete. Present 
day practice requires that it must be carried on in a- me- 
thodical manner and as a continuous operation. 

Financing 

The most important preliminary step in any private or 
public undertaking is its proper and logical financing. 
Funds should be made available each calendar year so as 
to permit the department to proceed with its studies and 
authorizations during the winter months. 

I believe a highway engineer, knowing his traffic and 
having a history of the road's behavior in the past and the 
type of maintenance it received, can prescribe very intelli- 
gently at least five months in advance what the road will 
need the next season. This gives him and his organization 
plenty of time to perfect their plans, study the proper equip- 
ment and, if necessary, receive bids on the requisite ma- 
terials, thus assuring, to a great extent, the completion of 
work before the advent of the season of heaviest travel. 

The uncertainty as to the time that an appropriation 
will become available as well as the amount that will be 
appropriated are the principal reasons that have made it 
absolutely necessary to provide a fixed revenue to finance 
our ever-increasing maintenance. It is but natural that a 
Legislator, desirous of securing a large proportion of the 
maintenance funds for his county, should consider it his 
duty to his constituents to insist that these funds should 
be appropriated in county units, and a small fund provided 
which could be used at the discretion of the department in 
taking care of unforeseen contingencies. But traffic con- 
ditions, which are ever changing, have in the past few years 
become the real problem in proper maintenance, and are 
the disturbing element in specific county appropriations. 
The construction of a certain unimproved link, or the erec- 
tion of mills, shops and other property along a highway can 
increase traffic to such an extent that appropriations made 
for a road a year or two in advance cannot meet its require- 
ments, and therefore cause consequent deterioration and 
eventually make reconstruction oeci 

Availability of Funds Essential 

To obtain the best results in any bi tether it 

be state or private, there must be a fairly definite) time 
within which funds become ai lit tin' work 

may be properly planned. 1 lis fact 

and being imbued with keen b 
have written into the statutes a provision thai 
rived from mo applied to- 

wards the maintenance of highways on their state SJ 

In this manner the control and distribution of these 
funds are left to a great extent In the hands ol 
ment and place it in ■ 

they arise, thus assurll heavy 

travelled through roads, i shown that this 

la the logical manner of handling I portaut part 

of the problem. 

Owing to the small mileage Involved, the maintenance 
of roads not on the ItAl ystem, but constructed 

with the assistance of the state, or special maintenance on 



main trunk lines in boroughs or towns, can be taken care 
of by direct appropriation. These appropriations, however, 
should be made in a lump sum for the whole state. 

Preparing a Maintenance Budget 

The intelligent distribution of these funds must of ne- 
cessity result in a budget, this budget being prepared from 
annual estimates furnished the main office by the representa- 
tives in the field. For convenience, we have divided these 
estimates into six general classes: Indirect expense is a 
charge covering salaries and expenses of the field offices 
and forces. General repairs, as the term implies, takes 
into account the different classifications for the proper 
maintenance of the total mileage of highways, the crowning 
and dragging of earth roads: placing of drainage other than 
bridges, and the necessary repairs to improved roads. Re- 
surfacing, which includes the reconstruction of the differ- 
ent types of pavements already laid, either with the same 
material or with a higher type of construction. Surface 
treatment, which includes the purchase and application of 
the bituminous material and the chips or other covering 
material. Bridge construction, and repairs to tools and 
equipment, the last of which covers all necessary repairs to 
the tools and equipment of the maintenance division. 

The preliminary estimates are prepared by the field 
representatives after a careful and thorough study of each 
route. The roads are gone over foot by foot, distributing 
each estimate among the several units of work coming under 
the various classifications. We will not allow any guess 
or approximation and hold the engineers strictly to actual 
figures, so that each engineer has a personal pride in see- 
ing that the work is done within his estimate. 

These estimates are totaled in the maintenance division 
under the different classifications and are gone over very 
carefully. In the event that the estimated amount required 
for these roads is in excess of the estimated revenues, it is 
necessary to make reductions. In the estimate for general 
repairs, the reduction is accomplished by comparing such 
estimate with the amount of money expended during the 
preceding three years upon the different roads, always en- 
deavoring to develop work of a permanent character, such 
as widening, construction of guard rail, and the placing of 
surface and subsurface drainage at particular locations. 
The reduction in estimates for resurfacing is made after a 
personal inspection of each project by a maintenance in- 
spector from the Maintenance Division, who takes into ac- 
count the importance of the road, the traffic, and the possi- 
bility ni substituting cheaper repairs. Reduction in sur- 
- is made by a personal inspection 
of the roads and a reference to the Chart showing the char- 
acter , nt thej received In past years, together 

with tin appraisement of the probable traffic that the road 
will carry during tin' coming season. Reduction in the 
is taken from the bridge re- 
cords kept in the main office. These records are compiled 
from an actual inspection of each bridge, made by an engi- 
neer oi Division, which gives in detail the physi- 
i i t ion of each structure. 

These estimates are then returned to the engineers 
with notations as to the advisability of the reduction or 
latlon of certain work and after tin' corrections have 
ire again forwarded to the main office for ap- 
proval and the issuance of the necessary authorizations 

Co-operation With Construction Division NeeaMsW) 

in iii.' preparation or the nexl season's work tin 

ncc and COS 
,j,,„ i, traffic requirements b 

thai our malntenai how the preaenl I 

action cannot be held with economy, that particular 
,. .tided for a higher type of pavement. 

ijy the 

• Included " lt * of 

1, ol been built of ' " a.l am. and. due 

t ,, lacs ..! revenue and increased traffic, had deteriorated 
to such an extent that when we assumed their maintenance 
it was a real problem to make such temporary repairs as 



January 24, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



were necessary to carry them over until such time as funds 
became available for more permanent work. 

In order to get the full benefit o; each year's work, we 
early determined upon a regular maintenance program; that 
is, a definite program of resurfacing certain roads was 
planned for several years ahead with the thought of ulti- 
mately giving us improved through highways. 

Control of Authorizations 

Upon receipt of the final estimates, authorizations for 
the different classes of work are issued from the Main- 
tenance Division. A code number system is used to readily 
designate the type of work and approximate location. These 
authorizations are issued in quintuple, one copy going to 
the several interested divisions or bureaus. This includes 
a copy to the Auditing Division, from which an account is 
opened up chargeable to this authorization; one to the Man- 
agement Division as the co-ordinating division of the de- 
partment; one to the Purchasing Bureau, in order that pur- 
chases can be checked against the authorizations; one to 
the Maintenance Division, for the purpose of record and 
control, and one to the district engineer, which is his no- 
tification of the specific amount he has been allotted for a 
particular project. 

This authorization is the instrument used to control 
the funds and in no case can it be exceeded. It denotes the 
funds which are to be distributed over the entire season 
and, in the case of general repairs, the entire length of the 
route in the specified county. 

Our field control of funds is vested in an Engineer's 
authorization, by which he apportions to the superintendent 
the funds for a certain definite amount of work which is 
listed on the face of the authorization, excepting in the 
cases of surface treatment and resurfacing, when the entire 
amount of the department authorization is issued. The 
engineer's authorization is issued in triplicate and forward- 
ed to the Maintenance Division for approval. One copy is 
kept in that division for record and the other two returned 
to the district engineer, who retains one for his file and 
forwards the remaining copy to the superintendent as his 
notification that the work is authorized. 

A special single entry ledger is used both in the field 
and main office to keep a record of expenditures. The pur- 
chase order, which is the authority for a vendor to furnish 
certain material to the Department, is considered as a 
liability. The main office receives a report each month 
upon each authorization issued, according to classifications. 
This, being summarized, gives us the total amount ex- 
pended each month under each classification on every route 
in the entire state. 

In order that there may be uniformity in all office pro- 
cedure, a regular system of field office inspection and audit 
is employed. We can transfer any field representative 
from one office to another and the same system of book- 
keeping and filing will be in effect. 

Cancellation or Transfer of Authorizations 

Occasionally, the funds authorized for a certain pro- 
ject will be in excess of those actually required and by 
means of a cancellation and transfer report the engineer, 
with the approval of the maintenance engineer, may trans- 
fer funds from one project to any other authorization in 
his district coming under the same fund. Upon the comple- 
tion of an authorization and at the end of the year a report 
is compiled by the superintendent, which itemizes all pay- 
rolls and purchases. This is in turn checked by the dis- 
trict engineer's office and is forwarded to the auditing di- 
vision in the main office for check and record. Any un- 
used amount, not specifically transferred to other work, 
automatically reverts to the general fund. 

Tabulating of Costs 

In the cost accounting the Hollerith tabulating sys- 
tem is used. Cost records are prepared from progress 
reports submitted by the field. These reports show the 
cost of each of the different items coming under the par- 
ticular classification, and are filed under route number and 



by different years. By referring to them we have a record 
under the jurisdiction of the Highway Department. 

This gives you a brief outline of the functions neces- 
sary to tin proper financing of maintenance work. The 
financing and organization are really so closely related 
that, in order to make certain details of the financing as 
clear as possible, it has been necessary to borrow some of 
the functions which would ordinarily come under organiza- 
tion, such as the checking and revision of estimates, issuing 
of authorizations and cancellation and transfer of funds. 

Organization 

An organization, to operate with as little friction as 
possible, must be so planned that divisions of authority do 
not overlap. Its principal success depends upon proper 
planning. This particularly applies to resurfacing and sur- 
face treatment work. The three outstanding features in 
planning a job are labor, equipment and material. Labor 
is taken care of by the local representative in the field. 
The equipment requirements of each engineer are submitted 
to the central office at the beginning of each season, showing 
the estimated time that the equipment will be in use upon 
each project in his district. This includes rollers, trucks, 
sprinklers, concrete mixers, asphalt plants and dump wag- 
ons, together with the available supply of equipment in his 
district. From this, a working chart is compiled showing 
the total amount of equipment in use in each district and 
the surplus which can be transferred to other districts in 
the state. 

The purchase of materials is made by requisition 
drawn by the superintendent and approved by the district 
engineer and the central office. If competitive bids have 
not been previously received the superintendent asks for 
quotations from at least three producers and, providing the 
material meets the Department's specifications, a purchase 
order is drawn upon the vendor submitting the lowest quo- 
tation by the Purchasing Bureau. 

The regular payment of approximately eight thousand 
men twice a month lor seven or eight months in the year 
is a problem of some magnitude, for it means that if we 
are to keep efficient labor we must pay them promptly and 
correctly. We use a time card with the workman's name 
and number on it. the workman retaining the card. The 
number of hours worked is punched by the timekeeper or 
foreman each clay. Our caretakers send a daily report card 
to the superintendent, showing the number of hours worked 
and the kind of work performed, these men working alone 
under the direct supervision of the superintendent. We be- 
lieve the post card system is an incentive for the caretaker 
to produce good results. 

The foreman keeps a time sheet and at the end of the 
pay period prepares a progress report showing the timr 
worked by each workman upon the different units of work 
which is mailed to the superintendent with the time sheets. 
He checks the progress report and forwards it to the Audit. 
ing Division, the time sheets being retained in his office 
until the receipt of the checks. The checks are delivered 
personally to each workman by the superintendent, who re- 
the time card as a receipt tor the delivered check. 
These time cards are then sorted according to route and 
liod. and periodically forwarded to the Auditing Di- 
vision where they are Bled as a record of payment made. 
We think the most important feature of this method of 
payment is the personal contact with the superintendent. 
In this ma nner be becomes better acquainted with his em- 
ployees ami by checking up frequently In going over the 
roa d I, lily pick up any attempt to defraud the 

State. 

From time u> time pamphlets of instructions are issued 
to the maintenance employees, but we believe that the best 
results are obtained by frequent circular orders and the 
nds for carrying out the dif- 
ferent methods of ii. work. 

'. considerable time is taken in the 
plannln idullng of work previous to the actual 

operation. A schedule of the various types of maintenance 
showing the tentative dates of beginning and completing 



16S 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, Xo. t 



work is submitted by the district engineer to the main 
office, and a careful followup is employed to assure the com- 
pletion of all work authorized. 

Handling Complaints 

One of the most important functions of the Maintenance 
Division is the handling of complaints. These receive care- 
ful personal attention, no matter by whom written or the 
nature of the complaint involved, and we endeavor in each 
case to have a represenative of the Department call upon 
the complainant and adjust the matter if it is within his 
power to do so. We take the position that the section of 
road in front of any man's house is to him the most im- 
portant highway in the State and his opinion of the work 
performed by the department throughout the State is based 
to a great extent upon the manner in which his special case 
is handled. A record of these complaints is kept in the 
main office according to route and county, and, provided 
further complaints are received from other sources, an in- 
spection and usually a call upon the complainants is made 
by a representative from the main office. 

System of Reports 

In order that our records may be complete and aid in 
centralized control, a series of reports, statements and 
charts have been developed covering each phase of the work, 
included among which is a weekly report made by the 
superintendents showing the roads covered by them during 
the past week and their condition. The surfacing and sur- 
face treatment reports are compiled in the field and for- 
warded to the main office. They show the amount of each 
particular type of work completed and from the informar 
tion furnished a chart is compiled each week. 

Snow Removal 

Pennsylvania has organized its forces and equipment, 
for snow removal on approximately 1100 miles of improved 
main arteries. These roads are kept open for all kinds of 
traffic throughout the winter. This snow removal work is 
handled through the co-operation of the various local offices 
of the United States Weather Bureau. Postcard reports, 
showing the condition of eac,h road at five o'clock in the 
evening, are mailed each day simultaneously to the Weather 
Bureau meteorologists and the main office, the weather 
bureaus furnishing this information to the newspapers. 
Prior to the receipt of this postcard we assume that the 
road is open unless advised by wire to the contrary. 

Central Office Inspection 

To standardize practices and methods, we have two 
maintenance inspectors who make periodic inspection of 
all State Highway Routes, submitting a report of their con- 
dition to the main office, together with their recommenda- 
lons. They are usually accompanied on an inspection trip 
by the engineer of the district, or his representative, to 
whom is eiven instructions and advice on the handling of 
their maintenance work. These inspection reports show 
the progress of each job. 

The field operations are directly In charge of the dis- 
trict engineer who baa three or more counties, with usually 
three superintendents. Bach district engineer has an 
and is directly responsible for all construction and main- 
tenance in his district. The superintendent, who al 
an office and clerk, devotes his entire time to the details of 
maint'- eU and makes requisition for 

the purchase of all materials and supplies, employs all labor 
and Is dire. le for the economical maintenance 

• ration Of all equipment. 

The success of It" d( peinli'iil I" 

extent upon the continuous and economical operation of 
equipment We have worked out a complete equipmenl 

ollowed up oloaely by the 
main office and wh lipment is Idle without an 

planatlon It Is immerli.it P with the superintend- 

ent In charge. 

ontrol of funds, as referred to In the early 
part of this paper. Is entirely In the hands of the district 
engineer. 



Each foreman, caretaker and truck driver must have 
an appointment card approved by the district engineer 
which show's his name, by whom he was recommended, a- 
mount he is to be paid and date the appointment is to be- 
come effective. This is forwarded in triplicate to the Main- 
tenance Division for approval, one copy of which goes to 
the Pay-roll Bureau of the Auditing Division for its guid- 
ance in passing pay rolls and one copy each to the district 
engineer and superintendent showing that the appointment 
has bee approved. In the case of truck drivers, the sup- 
erintendent submits a questionnaire with the appointment 
card. The questionnaire gives details as to the ability of 
the applicant to operate motor equipment, and is approved 
by the equipment engineer before the man takes charge of 
department equipment. 

Operation 

The actual operation of the maintenance division is as 
closely interlocked with the organization as the organiza- 
tion is with the financing. It is very hard to differentiate 
in some cases between the two. We will assume that the 
organization has been determined upon and the actual op- 
eration is to take effect. The Maintenance Division selects 
the means to be employed in the repair or reconstruction 
of th roads, the development of standards and the prepara- 
tion of instructions as to how to apply these standards and 
methods. 

We have spoken several times regarding the necessity 
of planning and scheduling your work. Periodic inspection 
is also necessary and a real system of followup is very im- 
portant if the best results are to be obtained. Of course, 
the principal problem for the field to solve is to have a 
thorough understanding of their roads, type and behavior 
under various conditions. 

In' the natural physical conditions to be overcome the 
study of drainage and local materials is most important. 
Our slogan from the first has been to repair a road with 
material in harmony with its original type, that is an earth 
road with earth, a gravel road with gravel, a stone road 
with stone. 

In the resurfacing of the waterbound macadam type, 
we have always advocated the use of large stone, varying 
in size from 1 V2 to ZVz in.; this stone must be thoroughly 
locked by the roller before the application of the screen- 
ings; screenings to be from to % in. and well broomed 
in with push brooms in order to get a uniform coating; no 
water to be used until after the voids in the stone have 
been filled with si 1 The use of a templet upon the 

grade and also upon the finished road is advocated. A 
straight edge should be used longitudinally. There should 
be jn screenings to properly bind the road 

without lea ' "ii the top. 

On newly built macadam roads, we believe the first 

surface treatment should be a low viscosity tar of about .5 

of a gallon applied to each square yard. As much of the 

of future applications depends upon the initial 

treatment, great rare mua( be exercised to Bee that the road 

IS thoroughly cleaned especially along the edges In Order to 
insure a maximum penetration. The second application 
may be either a medium vlscositj tar or asphalt, applying 
.25 to .8 of a gallon per square yard as the road requires, 

from twenty to twenty-live pounds of quarter inch to 
inch Chlpa to the square yard. A load thus treated should 
not require another treatment for at least a year, but we 

find thai we obtain much better results if we treat out 

tor the Brat three years, after which we may 
be able to omit the treatment for several seasons. \\ ,. 
have 1 alts by placing ■ third treatm 

lltlc content of B8 to 

1 Boat test I of approximately 
1 entigrade, Usually from .18 

of a gallon la applied p< ""*■ Which requires from 

30 to I" 1 ,ial - 

One very important function of the Malntena 

... roads as safe as possible for traf- 
fic. With this Idea in view we have co-operated with the 



January 24, 19 22 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



169 



railroads in the erection of advance warning signs at all 
grade crossings, which signs are placed 300 feet from cross- 
ing. 

Standard danger and direction signs are used by the 
Department. These are constructed of cast iron and the 
base is placed in concrete. To augment the direction signs, 
we whitewash telephone poles to a height of six feet from 
the ground, which not alone directs the traveler to his des- 
tination but is of considerable advantage in traveling at 
night. 

Maintenance work does not alone mean the proper 
patching and maintenace of the surface but also the proper 
care within the right-of-way lines. With this idea in view, 
we have insisted that superintendents place all their patch- 
ing material in long piles outside of the ditch lines, and 
that all brush should be cut periodically, piled and burned. 
With this same idea in mind, where bituminous material 
is used in the patching of roads, we have constructed drum 
racks. It not only makes a much neater appearance, but 
saves the caretakers considerable time in drawing out the 
materials. 

A checkerboard marking is used on abutments and 
wing walls of dangerous undergrade crossings, which shows 
up to great advantage as does also the center marking 
which has been adopted for divisional traffic lines on sharp 
curves. 

The organization and operation of the Maintenance 
Division of any State can be arranged with a little modifi' 
cation, and the addition or subtraction of units, to conform 
with the above outline. The principle has been found cor' 
rect. The changes on account of legal difficulties or geo- 
graphical difference can be readily made. From the head 
of the Department to the humblest workman, there must 
be no break in the organization, no conflicting division of 
authority, no deliberation of Boards before action can be 
taken. It must work straight to the point, with but one 
object. Maintenance is as true an investment as construc- 
tion. The smoothness requisite to good results is only 
arrived at after careful study of the problem. Paper read 
before the American Association of State Highway Officials, 
at Omaha, Neb. 



MILEAGE OF GOOD ROADS BUILT IX QUEBEC IX 1921 

Report of the Quebec Minister of Highways Shows that the 
Government Good Roads Policy Has Made Satis- 
factory Progress During Last Year 

IN spite of the hard times the Province of Quebec has not 
been marking-time in regard to good road building but 
has rather been steadily forging ahead with that persistency 
which is characteristic of its population. This fact is fully 
demonstrated by the figures given out by the Hon. J. L. 
Perron, Quebec Minister of Highways, in his annual re- 
port which has just been tabled at the Legislative Assembly. 
As a matter of fact, the results achieved during the 
last season can favorably stand comparison with those of 
the previous years, when the financial stringency was less 
acute and money more plentiful. For instance, a total of 
416 miles of good roads have been built in this Province 
during 1921, compared with 452 miles in 1920, and 451 
miles in 1919, as follows: 

1919 1920 1921 

Waterbound macadam 93.94 82.70 55.437 mi. 

Gravel 341.77 347.51 322.69 mi. 

Bituminous macadam 6.87 13.24 12.773 ml. 

Concrete 6.75 8.89 12.612 mi. 

Asphaltic Concrete 3.07 none none 

Macadam with cold patch none none 5.759 mi 

451.40 452.34 416.271 
It is also interesting to compare the mileage of roads 
under construction at the end of these three years, and also 
that of the roads that have been rebuilt during the same 
period. 

1919 1920 1921 

Roads under construction 92.25 181.70 125.75 

Roads rebuilt 5.8 14.16 30.41 ml. 



The rebuilding of some of the oldest roads has been 
made necessary by the enormous increase of traffic and the 
ever-increasing capacity of motor trucks, especially in the 
vicinity of the city of Montreal. In most of the cases old 
waterbound macadam roads are resurfaced with bituminous 
macadam. 

A distance of 120 miles has been added to the pro- 
vincial highways of the Province of Quebec by the comple- 
tion of the Beauce Junction-Sherbrooke highway, which 
establishes a direct connection between Sherbrooke and 
Quebec. The total mileage of the provincial highways, 
directly under the control of the Highways Department, is 
now of $470.75 miles compared with 35o miles last year. 

Considerable work has been done over the following 
main communication roads, which are likely to be declared 
provincial highways as soon as they are completed: Levis- 
St. Lambert, Montreal-Sherbrooke, Caughnawaga-Malone, 
Richmond-St. Francois due Lac, Laprairie-Lacolle, Levis- 
Sherbrooke, Beauceville-Sherbrooke, Levis-Rimouski, Hull- 
Aylmer, Montreal-Mont Laurier, and Montreal-Ottawa, (via 
Hull). Nearly 100 miles of roads have been built on these 
various routes and it is expected that at least two or three 
of them will be completed in the course of next season. 

The Montreal-Sherbrooke road is the first on the list. 
Work has been carried on in no less than ten municipali- 
ties, along that road, during the last season and it is an- 
ticipated that it will be resumed with utmost activity from 
early spring. It is also understood that the Sorel-Montreal 
section of the Levis-St. Lambert road, on the south shore, 
will be completed by next fall. The same can be said of 
the first section of the Montreal-Mont Laurier road, which 
it is expected, will be completed as far as Ste. Agathe by the 
end of 1922. 

The municipalities of the province continue to show a 
great interest in good roads, and they co-operate with the 
Government in a very efficient manner. The question of 
repairing and maintaining earth roads has been taken up 
with them with great success. The main difficulty at the 
beginning was to induce them to abolish the old system of 
individual work on the roads which was obsolete and un- 
satisfactory. To this end the government placed generous 
grants at the disposal of municipalities ready to take direct 
control of their roads and undertake what repairs and up- 
keep work that the government inspectors should deem to 
be necessary. The lact that no less than 646 municipalities, 
out of a total of 1,000, have taken advantage of this offer, 
fully demonstrate that the people of Quebec are well a- 
ware of the importance of good roads. 

The Highways Department is looking for a banner 
year in 1922. With the appointment of a man of initiative 
and action like the Hon. J. L. Perron, as Minister of High- 
ways, last September, it may be inferred that the good roads 
policy of the Government will receive all the care and at- 
tention it deserves. 

Mr. Perron has made it clear to everybody that the good 
roads policy of the Government will not be discontinued. 
On the contrary, he is proposing to have the road law a- 
mended at the present session of the Legislature to author- 
in certain special cases, especially in regard to the question 
ize him to increase the ordinary grants to the municipalities 
of maintenance Ot provincial highways. He will also pro- 
pose that the Government be authorized to borrow twenty 
millions more for good roads, as the thirty millions already 
authorized are nearly exhausted. He has also pledged 
himself to maintain in the best possible condition the 4,000 
miles of improved roads. These roads have been built at 
cost, during the last ten years, and Mr. Perron con- 
siders it a national duty that they should be maintained 
in first class order. It will be his first consideration, and 
all necessary repairs, on these 4,000 miles of roads, will be 
made early next spring. It has been estimated that no less 
than 42,000 tourist cars entered the Province of Quebec 
during last season, and It is expected that the 50,000 mark 
will be passed in 1922. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. *2, No. i 



THE OI'IKITH \ OF SEWAGE TREATMENT 1M.ANTS 



Sfflcient Management Essentia] for Successful Operation of 
Sewage Treatment Plants. Weekly Report Suggested 
\~ .1 Means of Preventing Neglect and Conse- 
quent Breakdown of System 



15y John 11. Dunlap, 

Professor of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering, University 
of Iowa. 

THE tendency of mankind to do the wrong thing, and to 
avoid thinking, is demonstrated forcibly in the opera- 
tion of sewage treatment plants. In fact, the chief failures 
in operation are usually human failures. Doctor Thresh, 
Medical Officer of Health for the County oi Essex, England, 
in an address before the Association of Managers of Sewage 
Disposal Works, once made a statement somewhat as fol- 

"I have so repeatedly seen excellent works give bad 
results on account of inefficient management, and very de- 
fective works give fair results on account of the efficiency 
of the manager, that I have come to regard the manager as 
being even more important than the works." 

In this connection the writer must confess that he has 
visited scores of sewage treatment plants, at one time or 
another, and has yet to find a plant which was not laboring 
under difficulties, usually of insufficient management. In 
making this statement, it would not be fair to place the 
blame upon the men who are theoretically in direct charge 
of operation oi these plants. Usually the cause is farther 
back and may be located only by an analysis of our in- 
efficient American plan of city and town government. The 
conduct of the business of our cities and towns is, by our 
American system, placed each biennium, for the most part, 
in the hands of new and untried men quite unacquainted 
with the city's business as a whole, and perhaps, failing to 
understand most disastrously of all, such a complicated 
machine as a sewage treatment plant. The common mis- 
take made is to conclude that the sewage plant is auto- 
matic, and therefore needs little or no attention. Accord- 
Lngly some individual like the water works superintendent, 
or the chief of police, or the city clerk, or some one who 
already has more to do than he can do, is assigned the task 
of operating the sewage treatment plant. Naturally, un- 
der these conditions the plant is neglected. The bacteria 
are to be depended upon to do their work if given a chance. 
The human .actor, however, generally fails to function 
properly, with the costly result that the plant fails to per- 
form its duty. Truly Dr. Thresh was right. The manager 
is of even greater importance than the works. 

The Situation Throughout the United States 

In order to ascertain how far the human factor in- 
volved in the operation of sewage treatment plants was per- 
forming its share of the work, a letter was sent to he sani- 
tary englm era of he state Boards of Health of each of our 
res. The lett ted an outline of the law, or of 

the rules, followed in the control of the operation ol 
age treatment plants. 

Forty-one replies to the 4 8 letters were received. 
Judging from these 41 replies, apparently only IS states 
are now requiric and approval ol plana 

for sewage treatment plants by the State Board of Health. 
only ii tiring monthly reports, namely, Weal 

Virginia, Michigan, Kansas. New Jeraej and Ohio. Only 
one is requiring licensed operators, namely, New Ji I 

The Impression ti • la that the 

general sin ery unsatisfactory, h'or instance, in 

the third annual report o! the Department ol Public Health 

Of the . id from July 1 . 1 91 

June 30 

nown thai there is a strong tendencj 

Dfl operation of •■ 

treatment plants hi Idee that 

sewage treatment re little or no attention, and 

consequently they are neglected until objectionable condi- 
tions prevail because of oders from the plant or because of 



pollution. Some sewage treatment plants have 
been so neglected that they have become permanently dam- 

and can be put back into operating condition only at 
■fable expense." 

The situation in Connecticut is apparently much the 
same, as the following quotation from a letter from J. 
Frederick Jackson. Director of the Bureau of Engineering, 
indicates: 

"I am sorry to say that very few of our plants, ex- 
cepting the old sand Biters, are properly operated. We 
endeavor to regulate them by occasional inspections and 
advice, but this is not satisfactory." 

A Typical Example in Iowa 

The writer was recently called in to advise a city council 
as to what was the matter with its sewage treatment plant. 
An inspection of the plari^was made, which revealed the 
following facts. The Imhoff tanks were being operated like 
septic tanks, with a heavy scum on the sedimentation 
chambers and with the slots filled with sludge. The at- 
tendant in charge of the plant stated that he had been or- 
dered by the city council to let this scum accumulate, since 
the council thought that this was the proper thing for the 
tanks, that they could not operate properly without the 
scum. Of course we all know that septic action in the 
sedimentation chambers of Imhoff tanks should be avoided, 
since it interferes with the process of sedimentation. 

On taking soundings to determine the depths oi 
sludge, it was found that the sludge was solid from the 
bottom of the beam forming the slots to the bottom of 
the tanks. Since no perforated pipes had been placed in 
the bottom of the tanks at the time of construction, it was 
impossible to apply water under pressure and agitate the 
sludge. Accordingly it could not be gotten out of the 
pipes Due to this fact, the sludge obtained from 
the tanks was not as well ripened as it ought to be and dried 
with difficulty on the sludge bed. Furthermore, a good 
deal of trouble was experienced with foaming from the gas 
vents. It was found later that the sludge capacity of the 
sludge digestion compartments was altogether too small for 
the population now connected to the sewers. 

Two oi the four sand filter beds were badly pooled not- 
withstanding the fact that 18 in. of sand had been added 
two months before to one of the filters, and at the same 
time 12 in. of sand to tne other. The remaining two filters 
of the plant were Hooded with sewage ii to 8 in. In depth, 
and the sewage was flowing over one of the uuderdrain 
vents at the corner of one of the filters. 

The trouble with the filters was that they wen 

I heir combined capacity was only about 

2,200 people, whereas about 6,000 people were using the 
Bewers. Furthermore, the past season has been an un- 
usually wet one, and this particular sewer system admits 
large amounts of ground water and also some storm water 
runoff. 

It will be observed that the trouble with this plant was 
or, In this instance principally the 
city council of six members. Bve "t v. ho m were new on the 
job this sirring, who even went so far as to give the attend- 
ant instructions Which were absolutely wrong in regard to 
the operation of the plant, of course, the principal r. 
mendationa 'hat the plant be increased in ca- 

pacltj to care for the present population connected to the 

and. furthermore, that a competent sanltar] 
neer be employed to hue general charge of the operation 
of the pi, nit . 

\ Suggested Waj oi Increaalng Bfflciencj of Sewage Plant 

( >peiMI inn 

Tin- way out from this Inefficiency and this « 

treatment plants will consist In three 

Of Which though perhaps difficult to lake, is 
, suitable return is to be made upon the large 
tmenta now required lo -it tn.-nt plants. 

In the first place it is believed that the State Hoard 

of Health should require the operator of everj 
treatment plant in the state to render a weekly report of 
daily operation. A form for such a weekly report is sug- 



January 24, 1922 



tHE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



M. 

T. 

w. 

T. 
F. 
S. 
12. 

Col. 
1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 



9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 



(To be printed on a postal card) 
WEEKLY OPERATION REPORT OF THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT 
... for the week ending Submitted by 



Sewage 

by- 
passed. 

Hrs. 

1. 



Tanks 

Countei'. 
Read- 
ing. Time. 
2. 3. 



Depth. 
4. 



Cameron or Imhi 
Sludge. Settling 

Re- 
moved. Inf. 

5. 6. 7. 



Filters 


Outlet 




(Sand, 


sprinkling into 




or 


contact.) 


(Name of 


Hours 




Effluent 


creek, 


spent 


Cond 


stabil- 


river, etc.) 


at 


tion. 


ity. 


Stability. 


plant 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 



WHAT TO RECORD (To be placed on the left half of the front side of the postal card.) 
No. 

Length of time in hours sewage was by-passed. Under remarks state reason. 
Reading of counter in siphon chamber. 
Exact time at which reading was taken. 

.Measure of depth of sludge in tanks at several points and record average depth. 
Cubic feet of sludge run out, computed from dimensions of sludge bed. 
Find c.c. of settling solids in 1 hour from influent. See directions for tests. 
Find c.c. of settling solids in 1 hour from effluent. See directions for tests. 
Condition as to surface mat, pooling, evenness of distribution of sewage, etc. 
Number of days' retention of blue color. See directions for tests. 
Collect sample about 100 ft. below outlet and record days' retention of blue color. 
Record the number of hours spent in work at the plant. 
Under remarks state any work not included in columns 1-11, such as removal of sludge from sludge bed, etc. 



Suggested Form for Weekly Report on Operation of Sewage Treatment Plant 



gested herewith. This form can be printed upon one side 
of an ordinary size postal card, and when filled out at the 
end of each week, mailed to the sanitary engineer of the 
State Board of Health. On the address side of the post 
card should be printed the address of the sanitary engineer 
of the State Board of Health, and then upon the left half 
of the front side can be printed certain directions as to 
what to record in each column. 

It is believed that there are many advantages to be se- 
cured by requiring a weekly, rather than a monthly report 
from Iowa plants. For instance, the report card for a week 
is small enough so that it can be carried in the pocket of 
the operator, and filled out on the job when the readings 
and tests are made. Furthermore, the weekly report will 
aid in securing daily visits to the plant, and prompt know- 
ledge by the sanitary engineer of the State Board of Health 
of neglect. 

While the suggested form does not go much into de- 
tail, it does contain sufficient facts so that the sanitary 
engineer of the State Board of Health should know when 
plants are being operated properly. The facts called for 
are easily obtained. For instance, in column 1, the num- 
ber of hours sewage is bypassed on any given day, and the 
reason for it, should be given in order that the state sani- 
tary engineer may know just how much use is being made 
of the plant. The writer recently visited an expensive 
sewage treatment plant at which the sewage had been by- 
passed for a year's time, due to complete neglect on the 
part of the city authorities. A threatened law suit alone 
was able to get the plant put back again into operation, 
and then naturally, at considerable expense. The counter 
contemplated in columns 2 and 3, is one oi the simple de- 
vices now on the market. 

The depth of sludge in the tanks, columns 4 and 5, 
is an important matter, especially at this season of the year 
when it must be ascertained whether or not there is enough 
room in the sludge compartments tor the winters sludge. 
The tests for settling solids on the influent and effluent, 
columns 6 and 7, are simple to make. Imhoff conical sett- 
ling glasses are used. One glass is filled with the sewage 



as it enters the tank, and another with sewage as it leaves 
the tank. At the end of one or two hours the cubic centi- 
meters of settling solids at the bottoms of the glasses may 
be read directly from the graduations on the glasses. The 
average removal of settling solids by Imhoff tanks as 
shown by these settling glasses, is about 95 per cent. 

The condition of the filters, column 8, is of course an 
important part of the report, since on the average two- 
thirds of the organic matter in sewage is in solution, and 
therefore, must be oxidized by the action of the filters. 
The test for stability of the effluent, column 9, is very 
easily made. A sample of the effluent may be caught in a 
4-ounce bottle, to which is added the proper proportion of 
methylene blue, by using an ordinary pipette. The num- 
ber of days' retention of blue color, when the sample is 
kept at room temperature, is then noted. If the sample 
retains its blue color for four days, no nuisance will be 
caused by discharging it into an ordinary creek or ditch. 

The test lor stability of the mixed creek or river water 
and sewage effluent, column lu, is an imporant test in case 
the landowners below the plant should sue the city for 
damages due to supposed putrescibility of the creek water 
caused by the addition of sewage. The test is made in a 
manner similar to that upon the effluent from the filters, 
tirse full directions for these tests should be made in 
a sin ill pamphlet to be issued by the State Board of Health. 

Naturally column 11, hours spent at the plant, is one 
of the most important columns of the report. Under re- 
.11 oi the card should be stated any work 
done, which is not included in columns 1-11, such as re- 
moval of Bludge from the sludge bed, etc. 

Operation Under Engineer When .Necessary 

The second step in the process of placing the opera- 
tion of treatment plants upon a more scientific basis would 
appointment of a competent sanitary engineer in 
I latit whenever the weekly operation report, or 
on on the part of the State 
l' Health, shows that the plant is not being operated 
properly. It would not be necessary for the sanitary engl- 



THE C A X A P I A X E X G I X E E R 



I, N\v ! 



neer to devote much time to a given plant. By having cop- 
ies of the weekly reports sent directly to him as well as to 
the sanitary engineer of the State Board of Health, and by 
giving the necessary instructions to the local attendant, 
proper operation of the plant could be obtained at all sea- 
sons of the year. 

It is interesting to note that this recommendation was 
made in the Third Annual Report of the Department of 
Health of the State of Illinois already referred to. On 
page 64 of this report it is recommended: 

"The burden of constant control of sewage treatment 
plants should not be borne by the state, but rather the 
municipalities should retain competent engineers to make 
sufficiently frequent examinations to insure proper opera- 
tion. The state should, of course, supplement the work of 
these engineers and employees by periodical inspections of 
the plants at reasonable intervals, to check their operation 
and give advice which can often be based upon the experi- 
ences at other treatment plants." 

Genera] Directions for Operation of riant Should Be Pre. 
pared 

The third step in securing better operation of Iowa 
plants would include the preparation of a set of general di- 
rections for the operation of the various parts of sewage 
treatment plants of all types. This set of directions 
should contain drawings and photographs of the proper 
tools to be used in carrying out the directions. A descrip- 
tion of the tests necessary, such as those for settling solids 
and stability, hould be carefully explained. Furthermore, 
the State Board of Health might assist in obtaining the ne- 
cessary equipment for making the tests by furnishing com- 
plete lists, stating where the equipment may be purchased, 
and its cost. 

Conclusion 

The fact that much of the investment in Iowa in sew- 
age treatment plants is now a waste of money is to be re- 
gretted. Usually the fault is not with the design of the 
plants, or with the bacteria upon which the transformation 
of ory depends. The reason for this situation 

is due principally to the human factors involved in the op- 
eration of those plants. It is believed that the three steps 
of requiring weekly reports, operation under the charge of 
competent sanitary engineers where necessary, and the 
preparation of a carefully prepared set of directions will do 
much to remedy the present deplorable state of affairs. Of 
course all this presupposes that the Iowa State Board of 
Health will have funds to finance this extension of its work. 

The final question, therefore, again Involves the human 
equation: "Will the state pay the price"? We must not 
allow ourselves to forget that well-known axiom in the 
science of public health, propounded by the New York State 
Department of Health: 

"Public health is purchasable. Within natural limita- 
tions any community can determine its own death rate." 

Paper presented at Conference on the operation of 
Sewage Treatment Plants, held at Iowa State College, Oct. 
27, 1921. 



l; \\\ I. I'M (. ni. Now ORGANIZED TO SI I' 
( \v\IMA\ M XKKI.T 



•IA 



Rawi.pi.i ■ i for enabling an ordinary screw to 

hold in any material, are now being [nit on I 
n.irli., i . ■ I • - in 

three 
years. The plugs will be manufactured In Montreal by 
the Rawlplu 
tlons Ltd aa sole sales agents. H. Driver, 

formei < lation of the Ra\i Lplug 

factory in Gnglan Ing director 

of ln\' i at 128 Bleury St., Montreal 

Rawlplugs are m of stiffened, longi- 

tudinal fibre strand ited thai once In position they 

can never crumble or pulp. Rawlplugs are said to be un- 
affected by weather changes or moisture, and Impervious 
to decay. The plug expands as the screw Is Inserted, be. 



coming an integral part of the brick, concrete, plaster or 
other material in which it is placed. The screw automati- 
cally threads the Rawlplug, thus permitting removal and 
reinserting as often as desired, without stripping threads. 

The plug required to hold any screw is relatively very 
small, and only a small hole is required. The head of the 
screw entirely covers the hole. Mr. Driver states that 
millions of Rawlplugs are now in use in Europe and the 
United States for fastening all kinds of devices to stone, 
slate, marble, glass, metals, plaster, brick, tile, concrete, 
hard rubber and other materials. They have proven 
especially valuable to contractors, engineers and others 
engaged in concrete and brick construction, and to electrical 
firms for use in all switchboard, conduit and wiring work. 

Tests of Rawlplugs under working conditions have 
shown a force as high as 1,250 lb. to be required as a direct 
pull to withdraw screws fixed with these plugs in stock 
brick, and 700 lb. for screws inserted in slate. 

Discussing Rawlplugs, "The Architect," of New York, 
says: "An excellent invention which will, we believe, meet 
with universal adoption in the building trades within a very 
short time." 

BUILDING INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION EL1< I - 
OFFICERS 



A RADICAL change in the system of financing its opera- 
tion was adopted by the Hamilton branch of the Ca- 
nadian Building and Construction Industries Association at 
its second annual meeting on Jan. 11. Instead of raising 
the operating expenses by means of a flat fee, the associa- 
tion was divided into three sections, each of which under- 
took to raise a fixed amount of the budget presented by the 
finance committee. The three sections are: The gen- 

eral contractors, the trade contractors and the manufac- 
turers and supply men. Each section will raise the 
amount agreed upon by a system of assessment. This plan 
was adopted instead of the recommendation of the finance 
committee, that a membership drive be held and the initi- 
ation fee reduced for a short time. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: 
J. F. fiercer, president; J. .M. Pigott, first vice-president; 
R. K. Palmer, second vice-president; Thos. Patterson, lion, 
secretary; Frank A. Magee, hon. treasurer. 

Five committees were appointed ami tin' chairmen of 
these are: Thos. Patterson, membership; Herbert Harper, 
finance; J. C. Stuart, labor; Guy Long, business relations; 
E. A. Wark, entertainment. 

The trade contractors reported the) were willing to 
handle all jobs initialed by the emergencj employment 
committee of the citizens' relief committee at cost, plus a 
small percentage for overhead. This depart men t reported 
that the matter of details of the team to help the unemploy- 

men situation would be worked out with G -ge H. Lees, 

chairman of the citizens' committee. 

No action was taken in regard to trade agreements or 
wages for the coming year, that matter being laid over till 
alter the annual conference of the present association, which 
takes place in Hamilton next week. 



It is reported that the Montreal Public S. 

ation, which la another subsidiary of the .Montreal Tram- 
ways ami Power Co., has applied to the " ..nine 
id ns operations through a large part of 

,1,,. p, ol the proposed Carillon 

development, and tire and oarrj on the on 

,, t ,,i her con lectricltj w Ithin its territory 

ium of American 
p, oh tbh twentj million dollars, 

i,i, development, and that American In- 

i H here recently looking Into the proposition. 

i ,i,u that even if the propi ipment 

effect upon Irani power earnings is not 

likely to in- felt \' oust be 

Involved in the Carillon development would probably take 
two years to complete. 



January 24, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



INTERNATIONAL, JOINT COMMISSION 
RECOMMENDATIONS 



ACCORDING to an announcement from Washington a de- 
tailed plan for the construction of the St. Lawrence 
ship channel and power development has been submitted to 
Congress together with the recommendations of the Inter- 
national Joint Commission which are as follows: 

(1) That the Governments of the United States and 
Canada enter into an agreement by way of treaty for a 
scheme of improvement of the St. Lawrence River between 
Montreal and Lake Ontario. 

(2) That the new Welland Ship Canal be embodied in 
the scheme and treated as a part thereof. 

(3) That the proposed works between Montreal and 
Lake Ontario be based upon the report of the Engineering 
Board accompanying this report, but before any final deci- 
sion is reached, the report of the board, together with such 
comments, criticisms and alternative plans as have been 
filed with the commission, be referred back to the board, 
enlarged by other leading members of the engineering pro- 
fession. 

(4) That there shall be an exhaustive investigation 
of the extent and character of the damage through flowage 
involved in the plan of development, finally adopted. 

(5) That, assuming the adoption of the plan of the 
Engineering Board, or of other plans also involving a re- 
adjustment of the international boundary, in order to bring 
each of the power houses on its own side of the boundary, 
appropriate steps be taken to transfer them to one country 
or the other, as the case may be, and the slight acreage of 
submerged land involved. 

(6) That Canada proceed with the works necessary for 
the completion of the new Welland Ship Canal in accordance 
with the plans already decided upon by that country. 

(7) That such "navigation works" as do not lie wholly 
within one country or are not capaible of economical and 
efficient construction, maintenance and operation within one 
country, as complete and independent units, be maintained 
and operated by a board hereinafter called "The Interna- 
tional Bdard," on which each country shall have equal 
representation. 

(8) That "such navigation works" as lie wholly within 
one country and are capable of economical and efficient con- 
struction, maintenance and operation as complete and in- 
dependents units, be maintained and operated by the country 
in which they are located, with the right of inspection by 
the said International Board, to insure economy and effi- 
ciency. 

(9) That "power works" be built, installed and oper- 
ated by and at the expense of the country in which they are 
located." 

(10) That except as set forth in recommendation 11 
the cost of all navigation works be apportioned between 
the two,. countries on the basis of the benefits each will re- 
ceive from the new waterway, provided that during the 
period ending five years after completion of the works — and 
to be known as the construction period — the ratio fixing 
the amount chargeable to each country shall be determined 
upon by certain known factors such as the developed re- 
sources and foreign coastwise trade of each country within 
the territory economically tributary to the proposed water- 
way, and that that ratio shall be adjusted every five years 
thereafter and based upon the freight tonnage of each 
country actually using the waterway during the previous 
five-year period. 

(11) That the cost of navigation works lor the com- 
bined use of navigation and power over and above the cost 
of works necessary for navigation alone should 'be appor- 
tioned equally between the two countries. 

Suiuniary of Commission's Report 

A summary of the report of the International Joint 
Commission has been issued which says in part "that the 
members of the commission as a result of their long and 
careful study of the situation from every possible angle, 
have reached the conclusion that the proposed deep water- 
way is practicable both from an engineering and an eco- 



nomic standpoint, and that it would result in adding very 
materially to the prosperity of the t i tar as 

tin' United States is concerned, they believe that the benefit 
would be immediate. In the case of Canada, it might take 
a somewhat longer time to reap the full advantage of such 
a route. 

"As to the engineering features of the improvement, 
the commission has had the benefit of the expert advice and 
assistance of a board of engineers created by the two Gov- 
ernments, Canada being represented by W. A. Bowden, 
chief engineer of the Department of Railways and Canals, 
and the United States by Col. W. P. W'ooten, of the corps 
of engineers. This board, as a result of over a year's pains- 
taking study and field work, filed with the commission a 
comprehensive report as to the best means of improving the 
river for both navigation and waterpower development in 
the international section of the river, that is, from Lake 
Ontario down to Cornwall, with the principal power works 
in the vicinity of the Long Sault Rapids, designed to pro- 
duce about 1,500,000 horsepower, one-half of which would 
go to each country. In the purely Canadian section of the 
river from Cornwall down to Montreal, only a navigation 
system is provided, the development of power to be under- 
taken at some future date when the growing markets in 
Canada make it desirable. Locks and canals with a depth 
of 25 feet are provided for at the Long Sault, Valleyfield 
and Lachine. The estimated cost of the entire improve- 
ment, both for navigation and water power, is about $252,- 
000,000. 

Problem of Cost 

"Probably the most difficult and delicate problem the 
commission had to settle was how the cost of this inter- 
national project could be divided between the two countries 
so as to put the thing on a fair and equitable basis. The 
commission's solution, as embodied in its report, is that the 
cost of that portion of the work chargeable to navigation 
should be divided on the basis of benefits received; that is 
to say, that each country should pay a proportion of the cost 
equivalent to the benefit it actually derives from the water- 
way. Obviously this principle involves the readjustment 
at periodical intervals, as the traffic develops on one side or 
the other. Provision is made for a tentative distribution 
during the construction period, based on the production and 
foreign trade of the territory economically tributary to the 
waterway on each side of the boundary. Further, in dis- 
tributing the cost of the waterway, Canada is credited with 
her expenditures on the Welland ship canal, which is con- 
sidered an essential part of the general scheme of improve- 
ment. 

"These are in substance the recommendations of the 
International Joint Commission as embodied in its report to 
the Governments of Canada and the United States. It now 
rests with these Governments to accept or reject the 
recommendations as they see lit." 



MAY BUILD BRIDGE AT LE AMIDE 



YORK Township is considering building a bridge from 
Leaside to Todmorden. County Engineer Frank Barber 
of Frank Barber & Associates, Toronto, at a meeting of 
ratepayers held at Todmorden, strongly advocated that 
the bridge be built. It would form the main part of a great 
north-eastern highway into the city. Its construction 
would break down the harriers which bad prevented the 
development of a corner of Toronto's Immediate suburbs 
16 square miles in extent. The bridge, Mr. Barber declared, 
would connect Todmorden and the city south with Leaside 
and North Toronto. At present Todmorden is a stone's 
throw from Leaside as the crow Hies, hut 6 miles by road. 
Mr. Barber estimated the cost of the bridge at $S70,000. 
including the approaches, and the subway under C.P.R. and 
C.N.R. tracks. With approaches the bridge would be one 
mile and 2 feet long. The length of the bridge proper 
would be 1,400 feet, its height 130 feet, and its width 5(3 
teet. 



174 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 4 



ToiMViu SCHOOL BUILDING PROGRAM 



A Administrator Pearse, the 

buildi a of the Board of Education for the 

in preliminary estimates c:i Us tor the expendi- 
711,700, will include $695,000 for High Schools 
g for the new Jarvis Collegiate, $150,000 
.or adding eight rooms to Humbereide, $95,000 for adding 
nid $30,000 for additional property 
rth Toronto High Schools. The total of nearly three 
million dollars required also includes $1,338,000 to pro- 
le class rooms, and $522,000 for new sites. 
Schools already under construction call for $66,700, and 
the Hii:h School of Commerce will have to be completed at 
".000. 
The additions to the \ ools and additional 

sites will cost as follows: 

To relieve congestion at Balmy Beach, Williamson 
Road and Kimberley Schools, eight new rooms are required 
at a cost of $118,000. site $30,000; total, 14S.000. 
Norway and Hod j, $180,000. 

Gledhill 4-room addition, $6". 

and Leslie, 8 rooms, $118,000; site, $40,000; 
total. S15S.000. 

North Rosedale, 8-room new building, $118,000. 

rd Park, site, $40,000. 
McMurrich. 6-room addition, $95,000. 
Carlton and Hughes. S rooms, $11S,000; new site, $25,- 
000; total, $143,000. 

Ryerson, .Manning. Niagara, Brant and King Edward, 
12 rooi 10; site, $90,000; total, $250,000. 

Ogden, McCaul, Landsdowne and Orde, 12 rooms, 
$160,000; site, $50,000; total, $210,000. 

How. 3-room addition, $45,000; site, $30,000; 
total, 7.",. nun. 

Givens, Alexander Muir, 8 rooms, $118,000. 
site, $90,000; total, $208,000. 

Parkdale. 3-room addition, $45,000; site, $7,000; 
total. 

Runnymede, 4-room addition, $6n 

-ite between Wilkinson and Gledbill, $40,000. 



ASSOCIATED MANUFACTURERS OF WATER 
PI Kll VIM, EQUIPMENT 



AT B the executive committee of the Associ- 

tfanufacturers of Water Purifying Equipment 
held h it the Win. Penn lintel on January 

7. 1922, it I tr, hold the annual meeting at the 

I, Philadelphia, Pa., on February 7. 
A full attendant everal ma Iters o( im- 

portan iken up for final determination, one of the 

ml being the adoption of standard specification 
requirements ror p era tor various services, to the 

end tb Deere may have a standard to 

which all bidders must comply. 

In thl as main d 

ildders, 

which caused confusion to the pun i . hicli might 

to bit requii lulted 

in the pure! entirely Inadequate and un- 

satisfactory, and detrimental to business. This Association 
illy all the builders of water 

purine nan. uf the W. I! 

of I he American 

\Vat> i lent, and II G . 

i ry . 



CONSTRUCTION OUTLOOK DISCUSSED VI TORONTO 
BR INCH, l I ' 



i in it w Pepper, 

line Insl ll 
ada, i' 
tion .i. lie greatest one in this country with the 



culture. It is altogether the greatest in 
terms of labor employment. There is a volume of deferred 
construction, said Mr. Pepper, amounting to one and a 
quarter billions of dollars. Apparently labor is responsible 
for a great deal of this slowing up. since the cost of building 
labor is off from the peak ol 1920 only aboil! 10%, while 
materials are off 50%. 

.1. M. Oxiey. continuing the discussion exhibited a chart 
showing the variation of wages for common labor, of the 
"Engineering News-Record" construction cost index and of 
the cost of living from 1913 to 1921. Labor is now getting 
in terms of the cost of living, said Mr. Oxley, 50% more 
than it d"id in 1913. 

Notice of motion that the Branch by-laws be amended 
to conform to the length of session now adopted and so as 
to remove certain ambiguities was given by J. M. Oxley. 
While the formal discussion will be held on Jan. 26, an in- 
formal one took place on the notice of motion. 

On account of the illness of the chairman. William Stor- 
rie. vice-chairman, presided. 



OTTAWA ENGINEERS ELECT OFFICERS 



AT the annual meeting of the Ottawa branch of the Engi- 
ring Institute of Canada, held in the Daffodil Tea Rooms 
on Jan 12. which was largely attended by local engineers, 
the following 'officers were elected for the ensuing year. 

Chairman. K. M. Cameron, assistant engineer, Depart- 
ment of Public Works; secretary treasurer, F. C. C. Lynch, 
superintendent of natural resources, Interior Department; 
executive committee, O. S. Finnie, administrator of the 
Northern Territories, Interior Department; A. Ferguson, 
inspecting engineer, Department of Railways and Canals; 
A. P.. Lamb, Dominion Water Power Department; C. M. 
Pitts. Pitts Construction Co.; J. L. Raunie, Geodetic survey. 

The meeting terminated one of the most successful 
years in the history of the branch, largely due, it was stated, 
to the energetic leadership and untiring efforts of the 
genial retiring chairman, Commander C. P. Edwarda.D.S.O. 
The financial statement showed a substantial credit for the 
year. It was also stated that 41 new members had been 
accepted into the branch. 

The vote of thanks to the retiring chairman was moved 
by George Mountain, chief engineer to the railway com- 
mission, who eulo Kinder Edwards after a witty 
fashion, and concluded 'by making him a 'presentation" on 

i f of the branch. 

The activities of the branch for the coming year were 
outlined by the new chairman, when returning thanks for 
his election, and lie announced that the "Engineers' Hall" 
under the distinguished patronage of Their Excellencies the 
ieneral and Lady Byng of Vlmy, would be held 
i in Laurier on January 26. Among.-! the sub- 
il lectures ami addresses to be given during the ensu- 
i Roads," by Oeorgc Hogarth, chief engi- 
neer, provincial department of highways, Toronto. "Stand. 
arils. " by R. J. Durley, secretary. Canadian Bngini 
Standards Association; "Canadian Forestry Corps iii 
France," by Major R. 11. Nelles; and 'Concrete." by Col 
ll C Boyden, of Chicago. 



In the December s. 1921, Issue of "The Cans 

neer" an article appeared by Mr. ll. I.. Seymour, entitle,]. "A 

Compilation of Town Planning Legislation, i 

Ontario" Unfortunately this article omitted to 

the author. Mr. Seymour, was Indebted for the Intorn 
it contained i.> the following gentlemen: Mr. 'i 
Federal Town Planning Ad\ i • 

,, 11 of the Civic Otflld, ■ ad Mr. T. D. 

LeMay, City Surveyor, Toronl 



Bve hundred engineers »iii assemble In Montreal 
this wi Bering 

institute of Canada. An Interesting program ha 
arranged and a number of important addresses will be given. 



January 24, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



175 



Letters to the Editor 



Sir: I beg to draw your attention to a report con- 
tained on page 116 of your issue of the 3rd instant, con- 
cerning certain activities of the London Branch of the 
Engineering Institute of Canada, which is most erroneous. 

In the first place the matter of petitioning the Ontario 
Legislature to make the engineering profession a closed one 
and together with other branch Institutes to present a pe- 
tition to the Government at an early date praying that 
legislation to that end be spread on the Ontario Statutes, 
has never been considered or discussed. The proposed 
engineering legislation, while protecting qualified engi- 
neers, is primarily intended to protect the public interests. 
The whole intent of the Bill is to place the engineering 
pro.ession on a similar footing to the profession of Law and 
medicine and it might be pointed out that similar legis- 
lation, to that proposed for the Province of Ontario, has 
already become law in all Provinces of the Dominion except- 
ing in Alberta and Prince Edward Island. 

Then in the second paragraph of the report referred 
to a most absurd statment is made to the effect that, a 
closed engineering profession means that no one would be 
allowed to do engineering work unless he was a member of 
the Engineering Institute of Canada and membership in 
'that body is made contingent upon the applicant for ad- 
mission holding a degree from a qualified school of science. 
A mere glance at the proposed Engineering Bill would show 
that this statement is absurd for the reason that the Engi- 
neering Institute of Canada is only one of the several con- 
stituent bodies of engineers, surveyors, etc., that would 
be represented in the proposed body of Professional Engi- 
neers: furthermore, membership even in the Engineering 
Institute of Canada is not contingent upon the applicant 
holding a degree from a qualified school of science. 

As representing the London Branch of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada I would ask that you publish in your 
next issue this correction of the report referred to. 
Yours truly, 

GEO. C. WRIGHT, 
Secretary, London Branch Eng. Inst, of Canada. 



Sir: In an item headed "Want Engineering Profession 
Protected" on page 116 of "The Canadian Engineer" of 
January 3rd, information is furnished your general readers 
in which the following paragraph appears: 

"A closed engineering profession means that no one 
would be allowed to do engineering work unless he was a 
member of the Engineering Institute of Canada, and mem- 
bership in that body is made contingent upon the applicant 
for admission holding a degree from a qualified school of 
science." 

The information in this paragraph is not only inac- 
curate and misleading, but may, unless promptly corrected, 
work an injustice to the engineering profession in Ontario. 

As one of the two representatives of the Ontario Pro- 
vincial Division on the original Advisory Conference Com- 
mittee, and as one who had to do with the organization of 
this committee, I am in a position to state most emphatically 
that there has never, at any stage of the movement for ap- 
propriate legislation to define the status of the engineer 
in Ontario, been any action taken or even attempted, on 
the part of those in official authority anywhere in the Engi- 
neering Institute of Canada to dominate in any manner, 
shape, or form, any efforts on behalf of the engineering pro- 
fession in Ontario for legislation. On the contrary, how- 
ever, the Engineering Institute did, notwithstanding its 
predominant numerical strength in Ontario, take the initi- 
ative in suggesting to other professional engineering bodies, 
the formation of the Advisory Conference Committee, upon 
which the Institute had but two members, the same as the 



rship for other bodies — one for instance which had 

but five per cent ol the numerical strength of the Institute. 

This action was taken by the Provincial Division upon 

the advice of Council of the Engil ring Institute in order 

that there should be no doubt whatever about the desire of 
the Institute to work in the closest possible harmony with 
rofessional engineering bodies Cor the general good 
of the profession, wherever and whenever such action was 
possible. It was particularly realized that in so far as the 
province of Ontario was concerned, all action of the Institute 
should be taken with full appreciation for the powers and 
prerogatives of other organizations interested in the ad- 
vance of the engineering profession. 

At no time in the course of the work of this Advisory 
Conference, in none of their reports, and in no action which 
the Committee has taken, has there >,y thought 

that membership in the Engineering Institute of Canada, 
or indeed in any professional body except the Ontario Land 
Surveyors, could prove a prime factor in the question of 
qualification for membership in any association of engi- 
neers which might be set up pursuant to the desired legis- 
lation. 

As one of the original members of the Advisory Con- 
ference Committee perhaps I may be permitted to express 
a wish that this letter be published, in order that the im- 
pression given in your paragraph referred to above in the 
news item of your last issue be corrected. 
Yours very truly, 

J. B. CHALLIES. 
Ottawa, Jan. 13, 1922. 



GREATER WINNIPEG WATER DISTRICT 



To Take in Town of Tuxedo — Transcona Authorities Sell 
Water tn C.N.R. Shops 



PART of the town of Tuxedo, Man., entered the Greater 
Winnipeg Water District last summer. Legislation 
will be introduced at the next session of the Manitoba Legis- 
lautre to bring the whole town properly within the District, 
but there will be no engineering or construction work in- 
volved in this procedure. 

The town ol Transcona. Man., which is the municipality 
which first draws water from the Shoal Lake aqueduct, and 
which has its own pumping station and reservoir, recently 
entered into agreement with the Canadian National Rail- 
way to have the railways shops at Transcona take its en- 
tire water supply from the town. The consumption of the 
shops will be approximately three hundred gallons per 
annum. This quantity will undoubtedly be increased at a 
later date. 

Only three of the municipalities at present comprising 
the Greater Winnipeg Water District are supplied directly 
from the Shoal Lake aqueduct, these being the city oi Win- 
nipeg, whose reservoir is the terminal of the aqueduct; the 
city of Boniface, whose reservoir is immediately adjacent 
to the aqueduct: and the town of Transcona, which has a 
separate connection direct from the aqueduct, built by the 
District at its own expense. 

The municipalities of Fort Garry. Asslniboia, East Kil- 
donan and West Kildotiau are supplied from the distribution 
mains of the city of Winnipeg, and the municipality of St. 
Vital is supplied from the distribution mains of the city of 

St. Boniface. This arr i merely an extension or 

mance of an arrangement which existed between these 
municipalities he. ore the Greater Winnipeg Water District 
came into existence. 

None of these smaller municipalities operate their own 
pumping station. They pun iter from th 

trict and the pressure from either the city of Winnipeg or 
the city of St. Boniface, both the cities and the District be- 
ing paid at nd uallons of consump- 
tion. This arrangement will be continued until such time 
as the consumption of the smaller municipalities in. 
sufficiently to warrant the construction of a direct connec- 
tion to the aqueduct. 



176 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. i 



The Canadian Engineer 

Established 1893 

A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers ayid Contractors 



Terms of Subscription, postpaid to any address: 
One Year Six Months Four Months Single Copies 

S3.00 S1.50 $1.00 lOr. 



Published every Tuesday by 
The Monetary Times Printing Co. of Canada, Limited 

President and General Manager 

JAMES J. SALMOND 
HEAD OFFICE: 62 CHURCH STREET, TORONTO, ONT 
Telephone, Main 7404. Cable Address, "Engineer, Toronto.' 

Western Canada Office : 1206 McArthur Bldr.. Winnipeg G. W. Goodall, Mgr 



Assistant General Manager 
ALBERT E. JENNINGS 



\..l I".. 



Owen Sound, January 24, 1922 



No. 4 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS 

Construction Industries Conference in Ham- 
ilton 159 

Maintenance Department, its financing, or- 
ganization and operation 166 

Mileage of Gpod Roads built in Quebec 169 

age Disposal Plants 17n 

Commission Recom- 
173 

to the Editor 175 

lis and New Publications 1 7 r> 

Construi 178 



il ional Joint 
idations 



I EGISLATION NEED] i> IN ONTARIO 



MEMBERS of at least seven engineering societies in the 
Province of Ontario are co-operating in the prepara- 
tion of a Bill tor regulating the practice of engineering, to 
troduced In [stature this winter. A 

similar Hill was Introduced last winter, and, as our readers 
will remember, was heartily supported by "The Canadian 
Engineer" in a Dumber of editorials which rtro 
the adoption of the Bill and which pointed out the fairness 

Ity for. the prop i. "The 

Canadian Engineer" has had do reason to change its atti- 
tude toward this legislation, and believes that the Ontario 
legislators should adopt it at ■ possible date; and 

in fact, that some such measure for the regulation of the 
been put upon the statute books of 
vince years 

unary 3 there appeared a news item 
from a London. Oi ondent, Intlm hould 

the i" nobody would be allowed to 

i nee ring unless he were a member 

ml thai mi D that 

il upon the holding of a degree from a 

qiialii • ■ ' publli 'lion of 

this item, which ted during the absence of the 

who la familiar 
with I 

• nly one of a 

,M in the propoaed Bill 

of an> oi the institute | n order 

' mi. ola know 
that there are many members of that Institute who have 
never attended any school of science, and that any qualified 



engineer can be elected to membership in the Institute, re- 
gardless of any lack of university degrees. 

In almost every paper, news items can be found oc- 
casionally which are contrary to the editorial policy of the 
paper. Also, unfortunately, it is at times difficult to prevent 
the appearance of a news item that is totally wrong and 
unfounded. Readers of "The Canadian Engineer" may be 
assured, however, that it is the aim of this paper to have 
its news columns as correct as possible, and as much in 
line with the editorial policy as possible, and where errors 
are made, we have no hestitation in confessing the mistake 
and publishing a correction. Two letters, calling our at- 
tention to the above-mentioned error, appear in another 
column of this issue. We heartily concur with the state- 
ments of the writers of those letters, and thank them for 
having called our attention to this unfortunate item, which 
should not have been allowed to get into type. 



FUTURE SOURCES OF ENBRGE 



SERIOUS stocktaking of the world's supply of energy 
took place at a meeting of the American Chemical 
Society last autumn. Scientists and engineers of vision 
are keenly aware of the fact that the source of energy con- 
tained in fossil coal, allowing for the rapidly growing con- 
sumption, will not be available lor more than about 1500 
years. At the same time, the reserves of petroleum are 
rapidly being depleted. The United States, which consumes 
80 % of the world's output, has remaining only an ascer- 
tained supply of 7,000,000,000 bbl. from which it is draw- 
ing at the rate of nearly 400,000,000 bbl. a year on a rapid- 
ly rising curve of production. In view of the constant in- 
crease in the number of motor vehicles, it is estimated that 
the gasoline demand for the United States will be 
000,000 bbl. in 1930. It therefore appears that however 
useful and valuable the oil supplies of this continent may 
be, they are at best a short-lived a -set. Natural gas is. 
too, a waning asset. When it is considered that about as 
much gas is wasted as used, the known supply cannot be 
counted upon for any great period. 

With the prospect of lessening supplies of power for 
fuel, attention is bound to be focused more and more upon 
hydro-electric energy. It is fortunate that this country is 
singularly well supplied with this source of power. Esti- 
mates place i lie total water power possibilities ol Canada 
at nearly 20,000,000 h.p., of which about 12,000,000 are 
available in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The 
available horse power per capita is over twice as great as 
in the United States, and is larger than for any other 
country, except sparsely settled countries such as Iceland 
and Norway. Of the total available power in Canada, only 

aboul one-eighth has actually been developed, so that we 
have a resource that should enable us to view with less 
alarm than might otherwise be the case the possibility of 
dwindling fuel supplies. 

Renewed attention has been directed during 
years to the utilization of the power of tides. The most 
promising project of tins character that has been outlined 
is the proposed tidal power development In thi 
the Severn River In England. Taking advantage of the 
30-ft. tide, It is proposed to build a clam across this body 
of water, so arranged as to trap the rising tide and lead it 

through turbines when the tide is tailing. A total 

output of about half a million horse power will thus be 
provided, although an installation Of over 1,1 ,000 h.p. 

u in bi to provide the estimated block ol power 

mi a Continuous basis. In order that energy may be avail- 
aide during the pel lOd of rising lide. tie 
obtained when the turbine-, are operating is used to pump 

water int.. In the valley <>f the river Wye, from 

Which Obtained when the plant would otherwise 

,i down. This development Is calculated to save 

aboul three or four million to per annum and to 

collateral advantages by waj ol providing a road 

and lailwav vi.nl! LC estuary and ai coinmodation 

for shipping In the basin above, that the project is regarded 
as a promising one financially. 



January 24, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



It is natural that in this general inquiry as to possible 
sources of energy, attention should once again turn to the 
energy derivable from the wind and the heat of the sun. 
"While small quantities of power may be obtained from the 
wind, it is too variable and uncertain a source to be con- 
sidered for any more than purely trifling requirements. 
Science is turning, however, with more and more interest 
to the possibility of utilizing solar energy. It will be 
remembered that John Ericsson nearly forty years ago ol>: 
tained 1 h.p. with a mirror having an opening of ten square 
meters. Shuman undertook the construction of a solar 
engine near Cairo, in Egypt, but was not able to obtain the 
amount of power derived by Ericsson. However, it is seri- 
ously believed that a renewed study of the problem would 
show it to be feasible to derive useful blocks of energy from 
solar installations on the great deserts, or wherever long 
periods of continuous sunshine may be counted upon. 

Apart from these definitely known sources of energy, 
engineers of a speculative turn are disposed to look forward 
to t he ultimate utilization of atomic energy. "While such 
is probably a long distance in the future, it is interesting 
to reflect on the observation of Sir Ernest Rutherford that 
"The human race may date its development from the dis- 
covery of a method of utilizing atomic energy." 



the city of Ottawa, a son of William Kennedy and his wife, 
Julia Costello, both Irish. He was educated in Toronto. 
He now resides in Windsor, Oat., and is a gas and oil oper- 
ator. 



PERSONALS 



WILLIAM WALKER has been elected chairman of the 
Water Commission of AVindsor, Ont. 

JOHN A. CAMPBELL has been appointed Water Works 
Engineer for the town of Dresden, Ont. 

ARTHUR ST. LAURENT has succeeded the late Eugene 
D. Lafleur as chief engineer of the Department of Public 
Works, Ottawa. 

WILLIAM KEITH, Reeve of Newmarket, has been 
re-elected Chairman of the Toronto and York Roads Com- 
mission. 

ALD. C. E. TISDALL, at one time Minister of Public 
Works in the British Columbia Provincial Legislature, has 
'been elected mayor of Vancouver. 

L. G. READ has just been appointed Consulting Engi- 
neer for the National Water Main Cleaning Company of 
New York with head quarters at Bridgeport, Conn. 

W. K. SANDERSON has been again elected chairman 
of the St. Thomas, Ont., Hydro-Electric Power Commission. 
Mr. Sanderson was first elected chairman in 1914 when 
hydro was introduced into the city of St. Thomas and has 
been re-elected every year since. 

E. A. LUNDERVILLE, formerly purchasing agent and 
comptroller 'of the Canadian Ingersoll-Rand Co., Ltd., 
Sherbrooke, Que., has been appointed as sales manager of 
the Bawden Machine Co., Ltd., Toronto. Mr. Lunderville 
resigned from the Rand Co. in 1917 in order to enter busi- 
ness on his own account. He purchased the plant of the 
Colonial Machinery Co. at Cowansville. Que., and became 
president and manager of that firm, but recently sold his 
plant to local interests and moved to Toronto. 

T. KEXNARD THOMSON, consulting engineer of New 
York City, delivered an address before the Peterborough 
branch of the Engineering Institute of Canada entitled 
"Some Problems of a Consulting Engineer." In the course 
i). his address Dr. Thomson made reference to the power 
possibilities of the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers and 
also dealt with caisson work and other interesting engi- 
neering problems. Dr. Thomson graduated from University 
of Toronto in 1886, secured his degree of C.E. in 1892 and 
his D.Sc. in 1913. 

HON. WILLIAM C. KENNEDY, the new Minister of 
Railways and Canals in the Dominion Government has been 
in the House of Commons since 1917. He has always been 
regarded as a forceful speaker and a clever politician. He 
was one of those chosen by the Prime Minister to accom- 
pany him on his recent campaign tour, and following the 
election. Mr. Kennedy was born on August 27, 1S68, in 



OBITUARIES 



MILTON C. JACKSON, for many years a contractor 
in Napanee, Ont., and later in Toronto, died in Toronto on 
January 13, aged 74. 

JOHN EDGAR SHOWLER, at one time a prominent 
builder and contractor of London, Ont., died in Winnipeg 
on January 13, aged 75. 

EUGENE D. LAFLEUR, chief engineer of the Depart- 
ment of Public Works, Ottawa, died on the 14th instant in 
his sixty-second year. Mr. Lafleur was a graduate of Ecole 
Polytechnique, Montreal, and also a member of the Engi- 
neering Institute of Canada. He was in charge of the 
surveys of the Georgian Bay Canal in 1904-5, and was 
appointed to his present position in 1904. He was one of 
the promoters of the Manitou Oil & Gas Company and re- 
ported on the proposed Prince Edward Island tunnel in 
1906. 

ARTHUR E. B. HILL, B.A. Sc, M.E.I.C., died in Van- 
couver on Jan. 12, aged 76. The deceased was born at 
Hillside, N. S., and graduated from McGill University in 
1875. He joined the engineering staff of the C.P.R. in 
1881, but went west in 1886 to take up the position as engi- 
neer and manager of the Coquitlam Waterworks Co. Later 
he designed and supervised the construction of the water- 
works system of New Westminster. He was employed on 
the final location and construction of the C.P.R. in British 
Columbia during the early years, when the railroad was 
being built through the Rockies. 

ROBERT W. THOMSON, mining engineer, died at 
Kamloops, B.C., on the seventh inst. Mr. Thomson gradu- 
ated from the University of Toronto in 1S93 and went 
directly to South Africa and entered mining work in Jo- 
hannesburg, later occupying responsible posts in the mining 
operations of the Rand. He saw service in connection with 
the restoration of order at the time of the Jamieson raid 
and was obliged to leave the country during the Boer war. 
After the war he returned and took up the work at the 
mines where he remained until 1908 when failing health 
compelled him to return to Canada. In 1910 he resumed 
practice in Canada and at the time of his demise he was 
District Mining Engineer for British Columbia. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



DEEP WELL PUMPS — Catalogue B issued by the 
Chippawa Pump Co., Inc.. Chippawa Falls, Wis.; .12 pages 
and cover, 6% by 9 % in., printed in two colors on coated 
paper; well illustrated. 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH REQUIREMENTS AS 
TO SEWAGE PURIFICATION by S. H. Adams. A.M E I<\ 
To those who have to do with the design, construction and 
operation of sewage disposal works this book, written by 
one who has had so extensive and unique an experience in 
this phase of sanitary engineering work will prove of great 
interest. 

The book contains thirty-nine pages and covers the 
history of sewage disposal, makes important quotations 
from the reports of the Royal Commission, in addition to 
many Interesting tables and diagrams all of which are cal- 
culated to be of specific and practical use to those who are 
concerned with sewage disposal work. There are tables 
covering rainfall, pumps, electrical pumping and many 
others, all of which will be found of great reference value 
to sanitary engineers generally. 

The author who has devoted a life time to the study of 
such questions as this has in the preparation and publica- 
tion of this book, made a distinct contribution to the liter- 
ature of the subject. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 4 



Ji»>llllllllill!llll!lll!l!llllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIMI!ll'lll';w : < I ' I ) 1 ! 1 i f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1^ 

I CONSTRUCTION NEWS SECTION j 

Readers will confer a great favor by sending in news items from time to time. We are particularly eager S 

to get notes regarding engineering work in hand or proposed, contracts awarded, changes in staffs, etc. 

^Illlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllt>lllllllllllllllllllllll'llllllllllllllllt!llllllllllll!ltlllllllllllllllll]'llllllll^ 



TENDERS PENDING 



Construction news items, including notes of various 
tenders called, are published on pages 44 to 50 of this issue. 
The following tabulation is presented as a reminder to con- 
tractors in regard to tenders that are still pending, other 
than those reported on the above-mentioned pages. The 
word "Issue" refers to the issue of "The Canadian Engineer" 
in which there appeared a notice giving some details re- 
garding the call for tenders. 

Tenders 
Place of Work Close Issue 

Ottawa, Ont., supply of steel pipe, valves 

and fittings Jan. 31 Jan. 3 

Orillia. Ont., supply of road roller with 

scarifier Jan. 31 Jan. 17 

Ontario. Province of. work on provincial 

highway, Township of Ameliasburg .. Feb. 10 Jan. 17 
Victoria. B.C., fabrication and erection of 
part of the superstructure of John- 
son Street bridge Feb. 13 Jan. 17 



BRIDGES, ROADS AND STREETS 



Uberta, Province of, — City Engineer George W. Craig. 
Mayor S. H. Adams. Commissioner A. J. Samis. and Com- 
missioner Angus Smith, of Calgary, made a strong appeal 
to Hon Alex. Ross, minister of public works, that the pro- 
vince rebuild the old Bowness road, between the city limits 
and the Bowness bridge. 

Aylmer, Ont. — The council will petition the Povincial 

Government for further highway improvements on Talbot 

thai town and St. Thomas. 

Birch Cliff, <>nt. — Scafboro Township Council decided 

down a hill on Denton Ave. to provide work for the 

unemployed. A fill may also be made on Pharmacy Ave. 

Clerk. W. A. Annis. Scarboro. 

Brldgebnrg, <>nt. — \V. M. German, M.I 1 ., has gone to 
Will take up with the commission that is now 
running the Canadian National lines and the Grand Trunk. 
the question of enlarging the International Bridge here. 

Britannia Beach, B.C. — The contract for the rebuild- 
ing of the bridge which was carried away in the flood last 

ii awarded to Hodgson, King and M 
of V ' $10,000. 

ry, \iia. — L. C. Charlesworth, of the provincial 

ptfbHi lartment, and George W Craig, City Engl- 

.'.ill hold a with C.P.R. engi- 

i as the repl old w len bridge over 

iii. '.n ii xtension of Seventeenth 

Chatham, Ont. — committee ol the Kent 

sron, chairman of 

. Ward, ol Orfora; and 
Hoi r C 
I public works, regardu 

Kent County. 

Deaden, Bask. — The local board of I Ing co- 

• : a, Canwood, Shallbrook 
ivincial 
Ubrook bighv 

■ ,•■ old 

Hamilton, On«. — The advisability of diverting the 

rdown road to connect with bridge No. 3 at the wes- 



tern entrance of the provincial highway system to this city, 
was discussed by the suburban area commission with Hon. 
F. C. Biggs, minister of public works recently. F.stimates 
for the work were presented, and there is a strong likeli- 
hood that this shortcut will be incorporated in the good 
in. The plan is to build a road from a point 
near the .Jewish cemetery to the provincial road. To do 
this would require, according to estimates, excavations of 
6,500 ni. yds., and a fill of 18,000 CU. yds. 

London, Ont. — The Suburban Roads Commission is to 
be reorganized and new work resumed. First plans are to 
be laid for continuing the pavement of the pipe line road 
through from the city limits to Springbank Park. Address 
Ex-Mayor E. S. Little. 

London, Ont. — The works committee decided to carry 
o\it all paving work this year by day labor and filed the 
recommendation of the 1S24 works committee that tenders 
be called on all city works or supplies contracts. Tenders 
will be called, however, on sewer construction, curbs, gut- 
ters and sidewalks. 

Montreal, Que. — Work on the plans for the widening 
and enlargement of the subways on Wellington and Ontario 
Streets will be commenced immediately. 

Ontario, Province of, — It is understood that the De- 
partment of Public Highways intends to build about four 
miles of the Kingston-Ottawa highway this year, commenc- 
ing at the village of Barriefield. 

Ontario, Province of, — A diversion of the provincial 
highway between Belleville and Picton is being urged by 
various interests in Prince Edward County, and as a result 
of representations made to the Department of Highways by 
Hon. Nelson Parliament, member ;or the riding, engineers 
will be sent down to go over the ground and report on the 
proposal. 

Ontario, Province of/— Seeking for an extension this 

• i road work from Burk's Falls to Magnetawan. a 

deputation Ol North country men. headed by Dr. J. J. Wil- 

! 'ink's Falls, waited upon Premier Drury and Hon. 

ii Bowman, and received assurance that as much work 

a< is practicable will be gone on with during the winter. 

Ontario, Province of, — A deputation from Elgin County 

waited on Hon. F. C. Biggs, minister of public works, asking 
that the provincial highway be continued through from 
London to St. Thomas, the principal object being to gel the 
iy from Talbotville into St. Thomas, a distance of 
three miles. It is stated thai Mr Biggs gave assurance 

that this would be gone on with next summer. 

Ontario, Province of. — The Department of Public 

Highways will shortly call for tenders for the construction 

of a high-level brl the Highland creek Valley a) 

Hill on the Kingston Road The highway will be 

diverted to a point somi tth ol where the pi 

roadwaj winds down the "S" bend from West Hill, and will 
the valley where it narrows to a width of about 

Quebec, Province of, — The Govenunenl will construct 
■i i, r i,i he Gatlneau river at Oracefleid, - 

ummer. Chief Engineer. Emile l.emon- 

Qnebec, Que. — Hon. J. L Perron, Minis 

Will CI • tor the completion of the balance of the 

Montreal \1 nt l.aurier high" 

ii Montreal and St. Agathe Tec,;. 

i . ; i ion on the 81 Lambei 

action to be built is 28 ■.. ml 

Sorel, ami construction will i 

Another highway which will be built next 



January 24, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



summer, and for which tenders will be called by the depart- 
ment within two weeks, is the toad between St. Hyacinths 
and Rougemont. Tenders will also he called in about two 
weeks for the building of 25 miles of road between .Mon- 
treal and Sherbrooks. 

Seymour Tp., Ont. — The Township Council plans road 
work and will probably appoint a road superintendent 
and foreman for same. Clerk, George A. Hay, Campbell- 
ford. 

Toronto, Out. — Ward Seven ratepayers are agitating 
for the preservation of Dundas St. as well as Bloor St. as a 
provincial highway, with a high-level bridge at the Humber 
River. 

Toronto, out. — It is understood that the program for 
this year of the Toronto and York Roads Commission will 
*e one of the largest attempted in the twelve years the 
commission has been in existence. 

Toronto, Ont. — Dr. Hugh A. Stevenson, M.P.P. for Lon- 
don, accompanied by a delegation representing Huron 
County, waited on Hon. F. C. Biggs, minister of public 
works, to urge that the road from Brucefield and Egmon- 
ton to Wroxeter Station, in Huron County, be taken over as 
a provincial road and converted into a permanent highway. 

Inioiiville, Out. — At a joint meeting of Markham and 
Whitchurch Township Councils it was decided to go ahead 
immediately with the opening of the Markham-Whitchureh 
townline. Reeve George B. Padget and Deputy-Reeve W. C. 
Gohn, of Markham, and Reeve Crawford and Councillor 
George Leary. of Whitchurch, were appointed a committee 
to look after the work. 

Vancouver, B.C. — The City Council authorized the ex- 
penditure of $1,700 on new trails, to be built on Somerset 
St., between Finlayson and Tolmie Avenues; on Jackson 
St., between Finlayson and Dolmie Avenues; and on Lotus 
St., from Harriet Road to its end. City Engineer, F. C. 
Fellowes. 

Walkerville, Ont. — Mayor C. J. Stodgell has advocated 
the widening of the Sandwich Street bridge over the Grand 
Trunk Railway. 

Waterloo, Ont. — Waterloo County Council plans to 
pave the roadway running two miles south of Elmira this 
spring. County Engineer, Herbert Johnston, 103 Frederick 
St., Kitchener, Ont. 

Windsor, Ont. — The City Council passed a by-law 
providing for the construction of pavement on Pierre Ave. 
City Engineer. M. E. Brian. 

York Tp.. Ont. — The Township Council estimates the 
cost of constructing a subway under the Grand Trunk 
tracks, asked for by the residents of Hilbury Ave., at $50,- 
000 or $60,000. 



WATER, SEWAGE AND REFl'SE 



Brantford, Ont. — Work on the new $130,000 trunk 
sewer system is to be started within the next few weeks. 

Brantford, Ont. — The Brantford Township Board of 
Health is in favor of proceeding with the construction of 
more sewers as a means of preventing pollution of the 
Grand River. 

Brantford, Out. — Because of the pollution of the 
Grand River the Brantford Township Board of Health will 
send a deputation to the Provincial Board of Health in an 
effort to secure relief. R. W. Henry of Br svnshtp 

is chairman of the Board. 

Chatham, Ont. — The Water Commission lias decided to 
submit to the ratepayers at the next civic election, in No- 
vember, a by-law to provide for an expenditure of approxi- 
mately $600,000 for the construction of a new water works 
system. 

Fort Garry. Man. — On February 7 a by-law will be 
submitted to the ratepayers of St. Vital School District No. 
1024 to authorize the borrowing of $9,000 for water supply. 
sewer and general improvements of the school. Secretary- 
Treasurer, H. D. de Moissac. 

Gait, Ont. — The City Council intends to construct sani- 
tary sewers and storm drains on Wright Ave., Todd St., and 
Dayton St., at a total estimated cost of $23,907.41. 



Gait, out. — The city Council intend 

lary sewers and storm drains tin 

Dundas. Dun rden, Grandview Ave., Waterside 

Ave., and Augusta St., at a total estimated cost of $33,- 
City Clerk. Joseph McCartney. 

Hamilton, tint. — I 
mended to the Board of Control that a consulting sanitary 
engineer be engaged to assist in drawing plans for the re- 
arrangement of the sewage disposal system. 

Hamilton, Ont. — The Board of Control is considering 
the question of extending the sewage dis] City 

: E. R. Cray bas recommended the consolidal 
the Gage Avenue, Wentworth st. and Fe 

and the installation of modern equipment. Mr. Cray said 
tern would have to be extended eventually to 
take care <i. the v. Hamilton, Mountain Top and 

f Barton below the mountain but not in the < 

a suitable loca- 
tion for one of the new plants. 

Hamilton, Ont. — In a report to the Board of Control 
regarding the condition of the present sewage disposal 
plants. City Engineer E. It. Cray recommended that the 
existing plants be modernized and that the Gage 
Wentworth and Ferguson Avenue riant- dated, 

the combined plant to be located east of Gage Ave., which 
would require a considerable alteration in the present sewer 
system. Mr. Gray stated that he was not in a 
yet to recommend any special system for the handling of 
the city's sewage problems. 

Kitchener, Ont. — A water works line will be constructed 
from Queen St. I ide Terrace. 

London, Ont. — The Provincial Government has put 
through orders approving inn worth of sewer con- 
struction work to be undertaken here at once. City Engi- 
neer. H. A. Brazier. 

Midland, Ont. — Mayor W. H. Duncan has advocated 
the construction of sewers in the east and s iuth-east sec- 
tions of the town, plans for whicb have been prepared. 

Mimico, Out. — Mayor Bought;. orders for the 

construction of water mains on Dean St. 

M mico, Ont. — The Town Council d instruct 

a sewer on Cavell Ave., from Victoria to Albert St.. and on 
Melrose Ave., from Wesley to Grand Ave. Clerk, B. A. 
Telfer. 

Montreal, Que. — Tenders have been received for the 
construction of sewers in the following streets: Lajetl 
Mazarin. Rosy In Ave. and Street Cadastral. City Clerk. 
Rene Bau'set. 

Montreal, Que. — Ten tenders were received by the ex- 
ecutive committee for the construction of a sewer on Hoche- 
laga St.. bel - The 

lowest tender, $ 4 . 7 7 r» , was received from A. Thezand, and 
the highest, 11,500, from I". Savageau. The tenders were 
referred to A. E. Doncet, Director of Public Works, for a 
recommendation. 

\ew Westminster, B.C. — Rusk in Operations. Ltd . will 
apply to the Comptroller of Water Rights for the approval 
of the plans of the works to be constructed for the diversion 

of water from Whonnock Creek and Vanaka C. 

Peterboro, <>m — The City Council plans the consruc- 
tion of sewers this winter. City > 

Peterboro, Ont. — The section of the Romaln* 
from Aylmi • at a 

Peterboro, Ont.- — 

R. Parsons to have plans and sp 

for the pre-. plant on I 

sludge principal ordered by the Provinci Health, 

e and submitted to I b 
vincial Board of Health for approval. 

Port Credit, Ont. — The council li 
water works by-la 
R. M. Parkinson. 

ttharines, Out, — According to a statement made 
by F. A. Dallyn. Provincial Sanitary Eugiueer, Toronto, a 
meeting will be held shortly to discuss the Immediate de- 



180 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 4 



velopment of a water works scheme for the municipalities 
ol St. Catharines. Thorold and Merritton. including a filtra- 
tion plant at DeCew Falls. It is possible that "Wetland may 
be asked to join in the scheme. 

St. .lolin, X.R. — A bill providing for a sewage district 
in the Parish of Simonds will be sent to the Legislature 
for enactment. 

St. John, \.P». — An issue of bonds amounting to $12,- 
r fire hydrants in Lancaster Fire District No. 2 has 
been authorized. 

St. John. X. 15. — Tlie Committee of the Common Coun- 
cil opened the following tender.- tor the supply of cast-iron 
pipe for the water and sewage departments: — S. Norman 
Sancton, $55.75, $55 and $54.65 per ton for S, 10 and 12- 
in pipe, respectively: Canada Iron Foundry. Ltd. ( Vroom 
A Arnold), $52, a ton. or $53.33, including sales tax; B. & 
S. H Thompson ,V- Co., Ltd.. $53, $53 and $18.50 for S, 10 
and 12-in. pipe per ton; F. Garson, $3S a ton for 12-in. pipe; 
T. McAvity & Sons.. Ltd.. $53.50. including sales tax; 
Francis Hankin & Co., Ltd., $51.25 and $126.04 for two 
different grades; Canadian Fairbanks Morse Co., $172 and 
$220.38 per 100 lbs. for two classes of machine-cast pipe. 
The bids were referred to the city engineer and Commis- 
sioner of Water and Sewerage for a report. 

Scarboro Tp., Ont. — The Public Utilities Commission 
will proceed at once with the laying of a number of water 
mains. 

Smith's Falls, Out. — The Town Council will proceed at 
once with the construction of a sewer at a cost of $22,700. 
Town Engineer, S. B. Code. 

Toronto, <>nt. — The Board of Control awarded the con- 
tract for the construction of a sewer on Woodington Ave. 
to the Murphy Contracting Co., at $11,130. 

Toronto, Ont, — Contracts for the laying and jointing 
of water pipes have been let to the Grant Contracting Co., 
Ltd.. Toronto, and Commissioner R. C. Harris. 

Toronto, Ont. — A contract for constructing a sewer 
on Woodington Ave has been awarded to M. J. Murphy at 
$11,130. The other tenders offered were for $29,000 and 
$ H" . I • 

Vancouver, B.C. — The water works by-law, calling for 
an expenditure of $270,000 on water works and sewage was 
passed by the ratepayers. 

Welland, Ont. — W. E. Forster, city clerk, will call for 
tenders for the construction of sewers on Garner and Asher 
Streets. 

Wetland, Out. — The City Council may construct a 
near Garner and Asher Streets. City Engineer, 
Charles L. Coulson. 

Welland, Ont. — In the annual report of the Water 
to the City Council. Superintendent Milo made 

mendations: That a Bystem of metering 

the water be installed; tii<' construction of 6-in. mains on 
River Road, from Dorothy St. to John St., and on Park St., 
from South Main to Hester Lane: the extension of the main 
and that the system of mains in the Fifth 
Ward be somewhat changed, involving the construction of 
about 1,000 ft. of 6-in. mains and the necessary hydrants. 

Whitby, <>nt. — The Public Utilities Como 

i nment with a view to having a larg- 
installed. Chairman, W. J. Luke. 



LIGHT, Mi.vi \mi POM I i; 



Brant ford, On) — \ scheme Is non Water 

i tlon of t he ratepayers i i 

■ .ind-by pumping plant to be run eti- 

pproxlmate cost, $200,000 or $2511.- 
000 it is clalmi 

.11 tiiis plant whlcb would In turn supply 

Hydro Commission 1 considerable 

enough it Is said, to relieve the local 

requii • 

- uiltt.'e will wait on the 

: 1 . for Hi ilin lighting In 
Eastwood Park. 



Frederlcton, X.B. — The Provincial Government has 
sold a bond issue of $1,890,000 which will be devoted to 
Hydro-electrc development and permanent highways. 

Kitchener, Ont. — The Engineering Department of the 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario will install 
more modern and adequate switching equipment at the 
Kitchener power station. 

Port Moody, B.C. — Thurston & Flavelle, Ltd.. have a- 
warded a contract to Smith, Robinson & Co . of Vancouver 
and Victoria, for the installation of a 1,000-kw. generator 
and the electrification of their mill, at a probable cost of 
$60,000. 

Toronto. Ont. — The Property Commissioner submitted 
a report to the Property Committee regarding a proposed 
new lighting system for the city generally, except In the 
down-town district. A sub-committee will make an in- 
vestigation of the situation. The report submitted three 
different propositions. One is to remove all existing 100- 
watt tungsten lamps on the streets of the city and substitute 
therefore 100- watt nitrogen lamps. There are some 46,000 
lamps in service. The present rate is $7 per lamp per an- 
num, and for 100-watt nitrogen lamps the rate would be 
$8.50, or a total difference of $69,000 on the system. This 
applies to general residential lighting. The other two 
schemes refer to such business streets as Queen, King. 
College. St. Helen's Ave.. Carlton, Bloor, Dundas. North 
Yonge and Bathurst streets. To replace the tungsten 100- 
watt lamps on these streets with 100-watt nitrogen lamps 
would mean changing 3,012 lights, or an increased cost of 
$6.24. The third scheme is to replace these lights with 
200-watt nitrogen lamps, and would mean a cost of $30,120 
per year. 

Woodstock, Ont. — The officials of East Oxford Town- 
ship have been notified' by the Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario that out of 138 contracts sent in for 
Hydro power, 130 have been accepted. This means that 
between 30 and 35 miles of Hydro lines will be constructed 
on the highways of Oxford Township during the coming 
summer. 



RAILWAYS 



London, Ont. — Mayor J. C. "Wilson has announced that 
one of the first acts of the new City Council will be to re- 
sume the campaign for the electrification of the London, 
Huron & Bruce Railway. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Hydro-Electric Power Commission 
of Ontario has been approached regarding the construction 
of a Hydro-radial line from St. Mary's to Exeter. 

Ottawa, Out. — Notice has been given of applications 
to be made to parliament at the next session in resn 
five railway charters. In each case extensions of time are 
being asked. The companies applying are: Canadian 
Pacific Railway Co . in respect to several extensions in the 
western provinces; the Inter-Provincial and .lame- Baj Co., 
peci of a line from the C.P.B to or tear Lain 

Mills or towards Dee Quince river; La Compagnle de Cher- 

m in de Per de Colonization de Xord for a line from Le 
Belle io Mont I.aurier and Lake Temiskamingue in Pontiac 
county; the K.-quiniaH and Naiiairno Railway Co. and the 
Kettle Valley Railway Co. 

St. Catherines, <>m. — A by-law win be submitted to 
the ratepayers of the Townships of Crowland, Grantham. 
Humtoerstone and Thorold, on January 80, in conn 

with the proposed purchase of the Niagara, st Catn 

& Toronto Railway. 



1 \. poru B IMD 1 \R".i: Bt ndMNGfl 



LnnapoUa Royal, N.s. — The contract f.; 

additions to the Court House has been awarded to .1 H 

Britannia Beech, B.G — The following contra, 
been tel to Vancouver firms by the Britannia Mining and 

Smelting I'n in connection with the rebuilding of the ore 
11 which wa8 destroyed by fire last spring For 



IluAS 




Tlf 



i , i 



TTiW 



A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Hydro-Electric Developments Near Bathurst, N. B. 

Construction Details of Bathurst Co. Ltd. Plant at Grand Falls, Nepisiguit 
River — Fifteen Miles of Standard Gauge Railway Laid to Work — Power 
House and Dam of Reinforced Concrete — Transmission Line 19 Miles Long 

BY JAMCETS DICK 

Resident Engineer for the Contractors 

THE construction work on the Hydro-Electric 
development for the Bathurst Company, 
Limited, of Bathurst, N.B., was recently com- 
pleted and the units installed are in operation 
supplying power for the saw mills and pulp mill, 
of that company, at Bathurst. 

With the installation of all machinery pro- 
vided for, the total capacity of the plant will be 
13,500 h.p., under a head of 100 ft., and it is 
understood that the intention of the company 
is to supply power to neighboring municipalises 
from the surplus not required by themselves. 
Little difficulty is anticipated in disposing of 
the surplus power in the neighborhood and it is 
expected that there will be an increase in in- 
dustrial activity now that an ample supply of 
power is available. A detailed description of 
the plant and equipment was given in the "Can- 
adian Engineer" of September 23, 1920, but a 
short description here will not be out of place. 

Dam at Grand Falls 

The development comprises a reinforced 
concrete dam and power house built at Grand 
Palls on the Nepisiguit River, twenty miles from 




FIGURE X 



the mouth, at which point the town of Bathurst 
is situated. A stop log dam 305 ft. long, hav- 
ing 9 openings 16 ft. wide, extends across the 
river at the head of the falls. From this a spill- 
way dam of the O. G. type extends to the power 
house and in plan is circular, the curve at the 
upstream face having a radius of 200 ft. A 
wing wall between the power house and the hill 
side forms the other side of the forebay. 

This construction raises the level of the 
river above the falls 2 3 ft. increasing the natural 
head of the falls to 100 ft. Flood discharge is 
regulated through the sluices of the dam by 
timber stop logs bolted together in pairs mak- 
ing a unit 14 in. x 28 in. deep. These are 
handled very quickly by an electrically driven 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 5 




FIGURE 3 



lifting machine, the steel stems of which hold the logs from 
binding during operation. The spillway crest is at Elevation 
"4 2. pond level, and the length of discharge is 313 ft. The 
maximum height of this section is 400 ft. by a width of 38 ft. 

Power House and 
Equipment 

The power house is 
constructed of rein- 
forced concrete and 
comprises the gener- 
ator room, transform- 
er room and gate 
house all under the 
one roof, the maxi- 
mum dimensions over 
all being 93 ft. x 123 
ft. The building is 
situated opposite the 
foot of the falls and 
is built on, and into 
the cliff which at that 
point is 80 ft. high 
and practically verti- 
cal above the water 
level. 

Space is provided 
for the installation of 
three 4,500 h.p. Bov- 
ing vertical turbines. 
each direct connected, 
by a shaft 42 ft. long, 
to a 3,600 k.v.a. Ca- 
nadian General Electric Co. 4,400 volt, three phase, 60. 
cycle generator, operating at a speed of 300 r.p.m. Three 
3,600 k.v.a. water cooled transformers are provided for in- 
creasing voltage to 33,000, at which it is transmitted. Ad- 
ditional transformers are installed for stepping down vol- 
tage to supply power for the operation of motors on pumps, 
headgates, cranes and also for lighting the plant. 

Connection between intakes and turbines is by steel 
penstocks 8 ft. 6 in. in diameter. The control is at the in- 
take end and is regulated by a butterfly valve operated by 
motor at the gate house floor. A gravity water supply is 
installed for serving transformers and the water wheel hear- 
ings. Filters are used on the service line to the latter. 

Before any construction work could be done it was 
necessary to lay 15 miles of standard gauge track from 
Nepisiguit Junction on the Canadian National Railway to 
the falls. This was laid on the embankment of the North- 
ern New Brunswick & Seaboard Railway, the property o' 
the Canada Iron Corporation, the rails of which had been 
removed some time ago. 

Eighty pound rails were used and laying was done by 
hand, the material being transferred from steel train, fol- 
lowing the laying operations, to lorries. Ties were distrib- 
uted by wagons and was generally done at night. Owing 
to the lateness of the season ever; effort was made to rush 
this work and including delays and lost time was completed 

in five weeks. 

Topograph] 

Of Kite 

The location of 

the plant and the 

rugged topography at 

of the work 

Involved teatu 

design and COBVtl 111 
Hon which mnv 
iDterest. In order 
'o secure the greatest 
possible head with 
1, the river be- 
t tailrace. The 




5PILUN< 




the dam as located and 

low the falls was utilized 

falls has a natural head of about SO ft. and Is com 

prised of tare" eharr 1-fccnts the last terminating In 8 



narrow gorge, the sides of which are from SO to 90 ft. high 
rising practically sheer above the water level. To utilize 
this part of the river as a tailrace it was necessary to ex- 
cavate into the face of the cliff to provide space for the gen- 
erating machinery, penstocks and draft tubes. 

The excavation was 40 by 87 ft. in plan, at which 
dimensions it was carried down for a depth of about SO ft. 
and a further depth of 22 ft., approximately 30 ft. wide by 
60 ft. long, was necessary for the installation of the draft 
tubes. The side of the excavation was open on the river 
side down to about four feet above mean water level. It 
will be noted that the nature of the site presented many 
problems for the engineers and contractors, more particu- 
larly in connection with the construction of the power house 
but these difficulties were successfully overcome. 

The strata of the rock was on an incline with the 
length of the excavation and at about an angle of 60 degrees 
with the horizontal. Seams in the rock made it necessary 
that particular care be taken in the excavation so as to 
avoid breaking outside the lines laid out for the shaft walls 
that had to be lined with concrete. The average depth of 
blasting operations was 12 ft. and forty percent dynamite 
(Forcite) was used for charges. Ingersoll-Rand drills 
were used for all 
heavy drilling and ro- 
tating hammer air 
drills for light work 
and trimming the 
sides of the excava- 
tion. 

Two stiff leg der- 
ricks with 60 ft. 
booms wer^ located 
at the sides of the 
cut so as to reach all 
parts of the work for 
the removal of the 
rock without rehand- Draft 
ling. As crushed 
stone was used as 
concrete aggregate 
the material from the 
excavation was de- 
posited by one of the 
derricks directly to 
the crusher and the 
balance dumped in 
the most suitable 
place for rehandling 
to the crusher later. 
Lack of space for the 
storage of crushed 
•stone necessitated 
this, the disposition Lower Section 
of excavated material 
was difficult owing to 

the steep side hill between the railway and the edge of the 
gorge. 

The steepness of the cliff at the tailrace made it impos- 
sible In place a cofferdam so as to unw.itor the excavation 
required below t lie river level for the installation of the 
draft tubes and the necessary DUtlel lo tin- river. In order 

CCOmpliSh this, a section of the rock outside Hi'' build 
Ing line, and extending I cross the width of the excavation 
IntO the cliff, was left iit.nl to act as a cofferdam while 
lie- required Work was being done The removal of the 
natural rock Cofferdam presented an in:. Ineei 

ing feature in this section of the work hut it « 
■bed Without an element Ol 

Will, .llli.- j|, I \. :i\ ill. .11 

were taken to determine li I 
•>f the cliff at this point was eroded and undermined hv 
the action of the water. Results showed that the rock 
sloped gradually to the centre of the pool until a maximum 
depth of 100 ft was reached. 

This depth made It possible to blast the rock In one 
(ear of blocking the .hannel. 



Tube ami I'iihit 
Excavation 



j * 


Kiff^BnlEj^/^l 


IT 

•• 


1 







f Draft Tube ami 
Rock Wnll at Tailrace 



January 31, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



The incline of the rock across the excavation, deviating 
from the general direction encountered elsewhere, sloped 
toward the excavation and a natural retaining wall section 
was obtained. The maximum head was 20 ft. 
and contrary to expectation very little seepage 
occurred. 

The sectional elevations of the power house 
shown in Figures 1 and 2 gives an idea of the 
size and appearance of the excavation with rela- 
tion to the building. Before removing the rock 
left in the tail race the concrete work was 
brought up to the intermediate floor at Elevation 
278.5 and the floor formed. 

Figure 3 shows a typical section of the rock 
wall and the position with relation to the 
building and also shows the manner in which 
drill holes were located. 

Owing to the narrow section it was impos- 
sible to "spring" the holes for heavy charging as 
there was danger of flooding the area behind the 
wall before drilling and loading operations could 
be completed. The holes were therefore spaced, 
so as to give as good a distribution of the ex- 
plosive as possible, from 3 to 5 ft. apart with a 
maximum depth of 18 ft. The lower sets of 
horizontal holes radiated from the mouth o£ 
each of the three draft tubes from which, owing 
to the narrow space between building and the 
rock, the drills operated. 

Before the charges were fired the openings in the drait 
tubes were protected and the space in front of the build- 
ing was filled with water. Over GOO cubic yards of rock 
was removed and required 850 lbs. of dynamite. 



of the shaft up to the main floor level and the penstocks 
completely enclosed in concrete, which is carried above them 
forming the breast wall at the intakes. 





VIEW OF POWER HOUSE 

Following the completion of this work the building 
walls of the generator room were built up to the crane 
beams in order to have the crane installed as quickly as 
possible for the handling and placing of water wheel equip- 
ment, which work was carried on during the 
construction of the building. 

The river is subject to sudden rises at flood 
water periods and the normal rise below the 
falls at such times is about 13 ft. making water 
level 4 ft. higher than the lower floor level. In 
order to prevent interruption of the work of 
installing the water wheels, the draft tubes were 
fitted with timber bulkhead designed to with- 
stand pressure occasioned by any head up to 30 
ft. 

These were built of 10 x 10 timbers cut to 
fit the tapered and circular wall of the steel 
draft tube, and were bolted to the underside of 
3x3 steel angles fastened around the inside of 
the tube below the top far enough to be clear 
of erection operations. In the centre of the 
bulkhead an 18 in. x 24 in. manhole with 
watertight cover was provided for access to the 
underside for caulking and bolting timbers. To 
prevent a reverse pressure, in the event of a 
sudden fall in the water creating a vacuum a 
pipe with a check valve was connected to the 
bulkheads. 

Construction of Power House 

The walls of the generator building, with the exception 
of the downstream wall, are formed against the rock face 



FOREBAY, SPILLWAY AND POWER HOUSE 

All surface drainage and springs from the face of the 
rock walls were diverted into a system of box drains fitted 
to the surface of the rock, and these were connected to a 
main drain emptying into the tailrace. 

To prevent seepage of water from the fore- 
bay the foundation under the gate house piers 
and apron in front of the intakes was carefully 
excavated to secure bed rock free from seams 
before concrete was placed. 

Each penstock was received in four sec- 
tions and after each piece was placed the con- 
crete was brought up before the succeeding sec- 
tion was connected. All rivets and connections 
were carefully caulked and to take care of any 
passible leakage each penstock was surrounded 
by a series of weep drains all connected and com- 
municating with the main drain. 

The generator floor is of heavy construc- 
tion, each generator with connecting water wheel 
superimposing a load of approxiately 90 tons. Each unit is 
carried on two reinforced concrete beams 22 in. wide by 7 ft. 
6 in. deep spaced 10 feet apart with a clear span of 24 feet. 
A circular wheel pit 10 ft. in diameter is formed be- 




SHOYVING WATER DIVERTED THROUGH SLLK'KS 



tween the beams, the sides of which with the main beams, 
provide bearing and anchorage for the generator. 






THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42. Xo. 5 



All beams are supported try the mass enclosing the 
penstocks and on bnttress walls at right angles to the 
downstream wall of tlie building.. These supports extended 
down to the mass foundation around the draft tubes. 

To secure entrance to the generator room for the in- 
stallation of machinery a roadway was excavated along the 
top of the cliff from the railway about 500 feet away in or- 
der to secure a suitable grade!. This terminated at the 
main door of the power house in a platform IS ft. wide by 
35 ft. long constructed of concrete supported by structural 
steel beams and struts extending from the wall of the 
building. The plaform is- 63 ft. above water level. 

With the exception of the section crossing the river 
channel all foundation ex.cavation required for the dam was 
on dry land. The material was rock wifh. some overburden 
of earth. The channel of the river was free from loose ma- 
terial with the exception of some gravel found in deep 
pockets worn in the rock and an excellent foundation was 
secured after cleanin; %. 

I'nwatering was done in two sections, the first coffer- 
dam being placed from the north shore to mid-stream and 
then parallel to the flow diverted the water from the site 
of the north abutmeint and the two adjoining sluices. 

The concrete aj >ron of these sluices was left out so that 
the water could be diverted through them -while construc- 
tion was being proc eeded with across the remaining section 
of the river bed. A rock reef below this part of the dam was 
removed to provide a channel for the flow when diverted. 
The channel closure was made py placing stop logs across 



Sand was taken from a pit 




PLAN SHOWING LOCATION 

OF SITE 



the openings of the sluices. Projections were built out from 
the adjoining piers to a height above any water level which 
might be encountered and the stop logs were held in checks 
placed clear of the formwork of the sluices. 

Cofferdams were built nf round timber cribs, rock 
filled, with two thickesses of two inch plank on the stream 
face and a second row of sheeting placed about three feet 
Inside the crib with the Intervening space puddled. 
Detail* i>r Concrete Construction 
Concrete work on the spillway dam and the mass 
foundation of the stop log section was poured in lengths of 
approximately 50 ft. The vertical joints between to 
tions were covered with a thickness of tarred felt and 
■ keys were formed In the face of the concrete. 

► te proportions were 1 cement, 2H sand and 5 
crushed stone tor all heavy work and 1-2-1 respr. 
for reinforced. A "Climax" jaw crasher, driven 'by motor 
placed within reach of thi moving rock from 

the power bouse excavation. The crushed stone was de- 
bneket conveyor into a stock pile, adjacent to the 
concrete mixing plant, and from there It was transferred 
to the bins above the mixing room by a one yard clam shell 



bucket operated by a derrick, 
about 1200 ft. away. 

Three yard side dump cars of 36 in. gauge were used to 
transport this to the top of the bins. Cars operated from 
the pit by gravity and the return was made by cable haul 
operated by a motor driven hoist located at the pit. Cement 
was delivered direct from railway cars to a storage building 
at the rear of the mixing plant. 

During a period of the work it was necessary to ac- 
cept shipments of cement in bulk. This condition not be- 
ing anticipated, no storage facilities were provided for 
cement received in this manner. Shipments were there- 
fore arranged so as to have cars arrive during the time in 
which mixing was being carried on in order that the cement 
could be sent direct to the mixers. To handle it in this 
form is was unloaded into boxes each containing the equiva- 
lent of one bag and these were placed on a gravity roller- 
conveyor placed between the car and the charging hoppers. 
From the sand and crushed stone bins the aggregates 
were delivered by gravity in chutes to the hoppers above 
the mixers. Two engine driven mixers each of % cu. yd.„ 
capacity deposited the concrete into a hoisting bucket by 
which it was conveyed to the hoppers on the tower above, 
from there it was distributed by gravity in chutes, one lead- 
ing to the power 
house and anoth- 
er to the dam. 

Concrete for 
the dam was tak- 
en from the end 
of the chute in 
steel side dump 
cars of one yard 
capacity. The 
narrow gauge 
track for these 
was on a trestle 
above the level 
of the dam and 
was extended as 
the form work 
progressed. Side 
chutes were so 
arranged that 
concrete could be- 
placed wherever- 
required. Con- 
ditions were fav- 
orable for plac- 
ing the greater 
part of the concrete in the power house direct from the 
tower in chutes. For superstructure walls and floors the 
distribution was made in buggies from platforms placed a- 
round the inside of the walls at different stages as the work 
progressed. 

Construction of Transmission Line 

The tranmission line to Bathurst is about 10 miles long 
and for 14 miles it is parallel to the railway between the 
works and Nepisiguit Junction. A single circuit No. 00 B & S 
standard copper wire is carried on steel poles anchored to 
concrete bases spaced 400 ft. apart. Standard poles are 
32 ft. long built up of 4-2 in. x 2 in. angles spaced 2 ft. 
8 in. apart and latticed with 1 Vis in. x 1 x k In. angles. Steel 
cross arms were provided with top pins for the Installation 
of two circuits. Poles were assembled at the plant and 
leaded on flal cars tor delivery to the various locations a- 
long the line. From the end of the railway to Bathurst 
this work was done by wagons and the poles were generally 
handled In two section. Erection was done by block 
and tackle With gin pole, the only work necessary after 
pole was vertical being the bolt connections to the angles 
in the concrete base. Along the railway line an average 
of 12 poles a day were Installed by this method. 

\t ill angles in the line and at important crossings 
the special towers provided were built up on the site. These 
are of heavier construction than the standard poles and 
are anchored to four concrete pedestals. 



January 31, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



185 



Copper wire was distributed from a moving train 
for the transmission line along the railway. Three reels 
at a time were placed in stands on a flat car at the rear of 
the train and the wire paid out to the side of the track 
through snatch blocks on outriggers at the side of the car. 
After the necessary splicing was done the wire was swung 
to the cross arms by block and tackle attached to the top 
of the poles. 

The plant was designed by Wm. Kennedy, Jr., con- 
sulting engineer, Montreal, the preparation of plans and 
details of costruction were under the supervision of Ernest 
Loignon who represented him on the work. The work was 
done under contract by Morrow & Beatty, Limited, Engi- 
neering Contractors, Peterborough, Ont., under the direc- 
tion of L. B. Kingston as general manager. During the 
time of costruction the late Senator Edwards was President 
of the Bathurst Co., Ltd., and Angus McLean vice-president 
and general manager. 



PRODUCTION OF IRON AND STEEL IX CANADA 



THE monthly report of the production of iron and steel in 
Canada for December, 1921, issued by the Bureau of 
Mines, Ottawa, shows a marked decline in output as well as 
in prices. 

Pig Iron and Ferro-Alloys 

The production of pig iron in Canada during December 
declined to the lowest level for the year, the total pig iron 
made amounting to only 39,917 long tons, all of which was 
made in blast furnaces. By kinds of iron produced the out- 
puts for December are as follows: basic, 30,698 tons; 
foundry, 2,948 tons; and malleable 6,271 tons. Practically 
all the basic iron was made by the operators for their own 
further use, only 516 tons being made for direct sale. 
Foundry iron while showing a considerable decline from 
the amount produced in November was for the most part 
made for direct sale, a total of 2,882 tons having been 
credited to this item during the month. For the first month 
since August a production of malleable iron was recorded 
and a total of 6,271 tons was produced for sale. 

Ferro-alloys declined from 1,683 tons in November to 
846 tons in December, the entire output consisting of the 
several grades of ferro-silicon. 

Two furnaces of the Algoma Steel Corporation which 
were in blast at the beginning of the month were closed 
down before the end of the month. The Dominion Steel 
Corporation also which had two furnaces in blast on Decem- 
ber 1, finished up the year with only one furnace work- 
ing. There were therefore only two furnaces active on 
December 31st, one operated by the Steel Company of Can- 
ada at Hamilton and one by the Dominion Steel Corpora- 
tion at Sydney. Throughout the greater part of the year 
at least five furnaces were active, December being the only 
month in which fewer than five were in blast. 

The average monthly output of pig iron in Canada dur- 
ing the twelve months ending December was 50,000 tons, 
or less than the average monthly record for any year since 
190S. Throughout the entire period during which a total 
of 5d5,000 long tons of pig iron was made, the market was 
decidedly quiet and the suspension of interest in iron was 
general. In the United States as in Canada the final week 
of 1921 was characterized by a quiet market and declining 
production. In spite of this there was evidence at the close 
of the year that there would be an early resumption of 
activities in the iron trade and the opinion was generally 
expressed that the first month of the new year would see 
the beginning of an upward movement in production. 
Stc<-1 Ingots and Castings 

The decline in the output of pig iron during December, 
and the generally dull market for steel resulted in a marked 
falling off in the production of steel ingots and castings, 
the decline from November amounting to more than 30,000 
tons. The outputs for the months of November and Decem- 
ber were respectively 75,039 tons and 42,653 tons. Of the 
December output 41,100 tons consisted of basic open 



hearth steel ingots made by the producers for their own 
further use in manufacturing. A total of 1,551 tons of 
direct steel castings was made, of which 1,458 tons was 
produced for direct sale, comprising 65 7 tons of basic open 
hearth castings, 97 tons Bessemer castings, and 704 tons 
of steel castings made from electric furnaces. During the 
month 93 tons of direct steel castings was made by the firms 
reporting for use in manufacturing in their own plants. 

During the twelve months ending December 667,484 
long tons of steel ingots and castings was produced as com- 
pared with 1,109,000 tons made during 1920. The average 
monthly production during the year just closed was 5 6,000 
tons as compared with 92,000 tons during the preceding 
year. Of the total production of steel ingots and castings 
during 1921, 645,075 tons was in the form of direct steel 
ingots comprising 641,882 tons of basic open hearth steel, 
239 tons acid open hearth steel, 94 tons Bessemer, anh 2,1 
860 tons made in electric furnaces. The whole basic and 
acid open hearth production of steel ingots was made by 
the operators for the use of their own mills. Of the Besse- 
mer ingots produced 37 tons was used directly and the bal- 
ance was produced for sale. A total of 2,200 tons of 
electric steel ingots was used by the plants reporting and 
660 tons was made for sale. 

Steel castings produced during the year amounted to 
22,409 tons, comprising 6,531 tons basic open hearth, 256 
tons acid open hearth, 1,638 tons Bessemer and 13.9S4 tons 
castings made from electric furnaces. Of the whole amount 
18,495 tons was made for sale and 3,914 tons used by the 
firms reporting. An analysis of the 18,495 tons of direct 
steel castings made for sale shows 5,081 tons was made by 
the basic open hearth process, 25 2 tons in acid open hearth 
furnaces, 1,401 tons by the bessemer process and 11,761 
tons from electric furnaces. 

The low price of steel in December was not only the 
lowest for the year but was lower than at any time since 
January, 1916. While the production of steel.during 1921 
was less than for any preceding year since 190S the senti- 
ment prevailing in the steel trade at the end of December 
was favorable to an early resumption of activity and hope 
was everywhere expressed that the early months of the new 
year would be marked by a resumption of construction 
work as a result of the more favorable purchasing market 
established and that as a consequence a considerable devel- 
opment in the production of steel might be expected. 



NEW CANADIAN COMPANIES INCORPORATED IN 1921 



AUTHORIZED capital of $778,173,149 is represented by 
new companies, incorporated in the first eleven 
months of 1921, according to "The Monetary Times' " esti- 
mate. Companies with Dominion charters constitute 
$336,S54,650, or about 45 per cent, of the total. Ontario 
claims about 30 per cent. 

The following table gives the details for the eleven 
months: 

Dominion $335,S54,650 

Alberta 17,958,000 

British Columbia 74,997,000 

Manitoba 32,942,000 

New Brunswick 1.135,100 

Ontario 239,700,585 

Prince Edward Island 600,000 

Quebec 69,495,499 

Saskatchewan 5,490,500 

Total $778,173,149 

There were only six with a capital of $10,000,000 or 
over, against twenty during the first eleven months of 1920. 
The 1921 list is as follows: 

Southern Alberta Oils, Ltd., Calgary, $10,000,000; 
Harrison Lumber and Pulp Co., Ltd.. Vancouver, $15,000,- 
000; Bathurst Co., Ltd., Bathurst. $15,000,000; J. E. Booth 
Co., Ottawa, $10,000,000; Canadian International Paper 
Co., Three Rivers, $20,000,000. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, So. 3 



Engineering Institute's Convention at Montreal 

Two-Day Session Held Last Week — Combined Annual and Professional 
Meeting — Reports of Committees and Branches — Presidential Address — 
Officers Elected — Papers on New Shawinigan Turbine and St. John Bridge 



APPROXIMATELY four hundred engineers attended the 
thirty-sixth annual meeting of the Engineering In- 
stitute of Canada, held last week in Montreal. The meeting 
had been scheduled to be held in Winnipeg, but It was 
decided a few weeks ago that it would not be advisable to 
take the annual meeting to the West until next year. Due 
to the short time available in which to prepare a new pro- 
gram, the Montreal meeting was briefer, more routine and 
not so well attended as has been the standard in the Insti- 
tute during the past few years. 

J. M. H. Fairbairn. president of the Institute and chief 
engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway, called the meet- 
ing to order at 10 a.m., Tuesday, January 24, in the as- 
sembly hall of the Institute's headquarters building. F. S. 
Keith, secretary of the Institute, read a telegram from the 
secretary of the American Federated Engineering Societies, 
inviting the Engineering Institute of Canada to join the 
American Federated Engineering Societies. It was decided 
to discuss the invitation later in the clay under the head of 
'New Business." 

Mr. Keith presented the minutes of the last annual 
meeting of the Institute, held in Montreal, January 25, 
1921, and in Toronto, February 1, 1921, and they were 
taken as read and adopted. 

President Fairbairn appointed W. S. Lea and C. K. 
McDougall as scrutineers to report upon the balloting for 
officers for the ensuing year. 

Upon motion of H. G. Acres, the auditors, Riddell, 
Stead, Graham & Hutchison, chartered accountants, were 
appointed for another year. 

Report of Council 

Secretary Keith read the report of the Council of the 
Institute for 1921. Three new branches were established 
during the year: London, Ont., Lethbridge, Alta., and the 
Cape Breton branch. 

"It is undeniable," said the Council, "that the year 
just closed has been one of the poorest from the viewpoint 
of engineering operations for many years. It is some 
satisfaction to note that the outlook for the coming year is 
more promising. 

"The difficulties involved inconnection with the work 
of the Committee on Policy, due to its breadth of scope and 
the many factors presented to it for consideration, became 
apparent during the year, and although the Committee has 
done a great deal of work it has been found impossible to 
put the result into final shape without a meeting of the 
committee, and it is therefore recommended to the Incom- 
ing Council that a meeting be held shortly of the committee. 
ad Remuneration have been advanced 
to a point here the committee's final report is under con- 
sideration by Council at the present time, and it is antici- 
pated that this report will be submitted to the various 
Mute future, for discussion and sug- 
gestions." 

Membership oi Institute 

There WM an increase in membership o( the tl 
of abo ring the pas! P ' " r ,l "' 

Council, 71 members, 330 associate members, LIB Juniors, 
L0 associates having been admitted, while 

.,,,,1 removals from the totalled 16 mem 

bers, BO associate members, 71 juniors. LOO Student 

10 associates. Death was responsible for the loss of 32 

institute during ths row M present 

Membership totals 4,688. including 10 honorary mem- 

1,011 members. 2,285 associate members. 188 juniors, 

899 students and 38 associates; and In addition, 191 mem- 



bers of various grades have been elected whose acceptance 
of membership is still pending. 

Finance Committee's Report 

R. A. Ross, chairman of the Finance Committee of 
the Institute, presented the report of that committee, show- 
ing $39,877 income from fees, $6,204 net profit on publica- 
tion of the Institute's "Journal," and $1,416 income from 
other miscellaneous sources. The expenditures totalled 
$37,183, leaving a balance of $10,313 as surplus of revenue 
over expenditure. The assets of the Institute now amount 
to $115,088, and the liabilities to $24,333, of which $22,- 
000 is the mortgage on the headquarters property. The 
surplus amount stands at $90,755. It is intended to apply 
$10,000 of the surplus for the year 1921 to a reduction of 
the mortgage on the Institute's headquarters property, 
which will then leave a mortgage of only $10,000 outstand- 
ing. 

Budget Closely Estimated 

The year 1921 was the first year during which the 
financial affairs of the Institute were conducted upon the 
budget system. The estimated operating surplus appearing 
in the budget prepared early in 1921 was $10,468. The 
actual operating surplus certified 'by the auditors was $10,- 
313, or only $155 less than the estimate, which certainly 
speaks well for the business foresight and judgment of the 
members of the Finance Committee. 

Committee Reports 

Routine reports were received from the Library and 
House Committee, Legislation and By-laws Committee. 
Papers Committee, Publications Committee, Canadian Na- 
tional Committee of the International Electro-Technical 
Commission, Civil Service Classification Committee, Honor 
Roll and War Trophies Committee, Publicity Committee, 
Uniform Steam Boiler Specifications Committee and the 
Committee on International Co-operation. 

Walter J. Francis, chairman of the Committee on 
Legislation and By-laws, stated in his report that the com- 
mittee had "kept in close touch with the legislation situ i- 
tion throughout the whole Dominion, and confidently be- 
lieves that the period of evolution (through which the pro- 
fession is now passing will end in the haven of recognition 
already attained by our sister professions — law and medi- 
cine. This end cannot be reached by us. however, until its 
need is fully recognized by our members, and by everyone 
engaged in any branch of the profession, as well as by our 
legislators, and it is more than ever Incumbent upon us. 
each and every one, to act in such a way that the public 
will appreciate our high Ideals and in the end realize the 
wonderful part the engineer is playing in our great civiliza- 
tion." 

In the report of the Canadian Engineering Standards 
Committee, of which Mr. Francis is also chairman, he states 
there are now about 2. r >0 members on the various working 
committees of the Canadian Engineering Standard 

sociatlon. Stan. lard b) Bcations toi 

mil telephone wire and for wire rope tOI mining and 

dredging purpo es were issued during the pa I year, and a 

standard Specification tor Portland cement is DO 

"The following publication ," tatei Mr Pram 
in an advanced stage of progress, and «'H shortly be ready 
for submission to the Main Committee toi authorltj to 
print Reprlnl of standard Specification for Steel H 
Bridges; standard Specification for steel Highwaj Bridges; 
standard Requirements for a..C. Watuhour Meti 

"During the last few weeks a number Of important 
suggestions for activity have been received, among which 
may be mentioned one from the Automobile Club of Canada 



January 31, 19 22 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



requesting the formation of a committee to draw up. it 
possible, specifications for gasoline, which will be accep- 
table to, and used by the manufacturers, and one from the 
Dominion Highways Commission, asking for the organiza- 
tion of a sectional committee on road materials and con- 
struction, with the view of obtaining the co-operation of the 
various provincial highways authorities, engineers ami con- 
tractors, in defining and specifying road materials and 
methods so as to avoid confusion and secure uniformity 
wherever possible in the requirements for this important 
work throughout the Dominion." 

Prof. L. A. Herdt. chairman of the Canadian National 
Committee of the International Electro-Technical Commis- 
sion, reported that Canada will probably ibe represented by 
Major Edgcumbe at the international conference in Paris on 
technical problems of high-tension distribution. 

W. A. McLean, chairman of the Roads and Pavements 
Committee, submitted a report which appears in full on an- 
other page of this issue. 

Award of Gzowski Medal 

The Gzowski Medal Committee announced its award 
for 1921 to P. Ackerman for his paper on "Relay Protec- 
tive Features of the Toronto Transmission and Distribution 
System." The winner of the student's prize was A. M. 
Robertson for a paper on "Organization of Engineering 
Services during the War." 

Concrete in Alkali Soils 

The Committee on Deterioration of Concrete in Alkali 
Soils, in a report signed by its secretary, Prof. G. M. Wil- 
liams of the University of Saskatchewan, announced that a 
total of $13,200 had been contributed to the funds of the 
Committee, as follows: Canada Cement Co. $3,000, C.P.R. 
$1,000, City of Winnipeg $200, Province of Alberta $1,000, 
Province of Saskatchewan $3,000, and the Research Council 
$5,000. Approval was asked of the appointment of Dr. T. 
Thorvaldson, professor of chemistry at the University of 
Saskatchewan, as chemist in charge of the committee's 
chemical research for a period of two years. It was decided 
to discuss this appointment under the head of "New Busi- 
ness." 

C. C. Kirby, of St. John, N.B., requested that the scope 
of the committee's investigations be widened to include 
deterioration of concrete in sea water, but it was decided 
that this could not be done because the committee's funds 
had been donated for the particular purpose of investigating 
deterioration in alkali soils; and, moreover, because com- 
mittees have been at work for years, in the United States 
and many other countries throughout the world, on the 
sea-water problem, and it was thought ibest not to endeavor 
to duplicate that work but rather to confine the committee's 
funds and effort to a solution of what is more essentially 
a Canadian national problem. 

J. A. Jamieson said that the trouble in alkali soils is 
due entirely to chemical reactions, while in sea-water frost 
is a big item. Both investigations are very important, he 
said, and any information gained by the western committee 
should be available at once to the committee of the St. 
John Branch who are working on the sea-water problem, 
and vice versa. 

Publicity and Legislation 

In discussing the report of the Publicity Committee. 
R. A. Ross urged the publication of more information about 
engineers and engineering in the daily newspapers. He 
said that the public should be properly impressed with the 
fact that there is not a single thing in the way of public 
utilities or similar advancement that is not due to engi- 
neers. He announced that the Research Council intends 
very soon to send out a series of articles on research in 
order to endeavor to secure public backing for the move- 
ment to establish a research institute at Ottawa. 

J. B. Challies, discussing the report of the Finance 
Committee, suggested that in view of the large surplus on 
the year's operations, the loan of $100 made by Council 
to the Ontario Provincial Division in connection with ex- 



penses re legislation, be considered as a gift instead of as 
a loan This request did not meet with much sympathy 
from the Quebec and New Brunswick members, who ap- 
peared to be of the opinion t hat there are enough engineers 
in Ontario to be able to finance their own legislation. On- 
tario engineers pointed out that one-third of the member- 
ship of the Institute are resident in Ontario, and that if 
that province does not adopt suitable legislation for regu- 
lating the profession, the progress of legislation in other 
provinces will be hampered, and that certainly it will not 
work so smoothly as it would were Ontario well in line. 
The matter was finally referred to the incoming Council 
with power to act. 

Luncheon at Windsor Station 

At 12:30 the meeting adjourned and the members 
walked to the C.P.R. Windsor Street Station, where lunch- 
eon was served in the mezzanine dining room. There 
were no speeches, but the secretaries of the branches from 
Sault Ste. Marie to Halifax, nearly all of whom were pres- 
ent, were introduced. At 2:30 p.m. the annual meeting 
was resumed at headquarters, with H. G. Acres, vice-presi- 
dent of the Institute, in the chair. 

Nominating Committee 

Announcement was made of the election of the follow- 
ing as members of the nominating committee for the en- 
suing year: John Murphy (representing the Ottawa and 
Kingston branches), H. Thorn (Border Cities Branch i . G. 
D. Macdougall (Cape Breton), C. MacN. Steeves (St. John). 
C. J. Mackenzie (Saskatchewan, J. Muirhead ( Vancouver i. 
P. L. Allison (Peterborough), J. A. McFarlane (Hamilton). 
J. D. McBeath (Moncton), F. W. Alexander (Calgary I, A 
J. Grant (Niagara Peninsula), William Storrie (Toronto), 
J. G. Legrand (Winnipeg), F. A. Bowman (Halifax), C. C. 
Sutherland (Edmonton), B. E. Barnhill (Sault Ste. Marie), 
A. B. Normandin (Quebec), G. N. Houston (Lethbridge) . 
O. O. Lefebre and P. B. Motley (Montreal) and K. M. Chad- 
wick (Victoria). 

Proposed Amendment to By-laws 

Mr. Acres read a petition from the Ontario Provincial 
Division to amend the by-laws so as to make every retiring 
branch secretary an ex-officio member of the branch execu- 
tive for a period of one year following his retirement as 
secretary. Secretary Busfield, of the Montreal Branch. 
stated that his branch had discussed the proposed amend- 
ment and were opposed to it on the grounds that a very 
good secretary might make a poor executive official, and 
also because a branch which desired to get rid of a poor 
secretary would be saddled with him as a member of the 
executive for a year. After considerable discussion it was 
decided to let the proposed amendment take the usual 
course and be sent out for letter ballot. 

Resolutions re Deceased Members 

A resolution was adopted expressing regret at the sud- 
den death recently of Eugene D. Lafleur, who was for many 
years chief engineer of the Department of Public Works. 
Ottawa. Fitting tributes were paid to his memory by a 
number of speakers, including Geo. A. Mountain, chief 
engineer of the Board of Railway Commissioners, Ottawa, 
who had known Mr. Lafleur for forty years and had been 
associated with him in many undertakings. Mr. Acres re- 
ferred to Mr. Lafleur as one who had labored long and hon- 
orably in the service of his country. 

A similar resolution was adopted in regard to the 
death of Sir John Kennedy, one of the past presidents of the 
Institute and the dean of the engineering fraternity in 
Canada. 

Report of Branches 

The routine reports of the 'branches and of the Ontario 
Provincial Division were received and adopted, and the 
"New Business" was reached on the agenda of the meet- 
ing. The appointment of Prof. Thorvaldson by the Com- 
mittee on Deterioration of Concrete in Alkali Soils was ap- 
proved upon the distinct understanding that the Institute 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42. No. 5 



is not to be held liable in any manner for any portion of 
his salary, which, it is understood, is to be met from the 
funds already contributed to the committee from other 
sources. 

Recognition Follows Service 
There was considerable discussion regarding publicity 
for engineers in connection with a motion introduced by 
C. A Mullen, but no suggestions of any value were forth- 
coming and the discussion was finally closed by Mr. Acres 
with the assertion that publicity will follow meritorious 
work without solicitation, and that if every engineer will do 
his work to the very best of his ability and do it faithfully 
and well, that recognition and publicity and remuneration 
will follow as surely as night follows day. 

Election of Officers 

The report of the scrutineers, announcing the officers 
elected for the ensuing year, was as follows: 

President — J. G. Sullivan, consulting engineer, Winni- 
peg. 

Vice-presidents — Gen. C. H. Mitchell, dean of the 
Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of 
Toronto; and Arthur Surveyer, consulting engineer, Mon- 
treal. 

Councillors — Geo. McLeod, engineer of sewers, City 
Hall. Montreal; J. Duchastel, city engineer, Outremont; 
J. E. Gibault. division engineer. C. N. R., Levis, Que.; A. 
F. Stewart, chief engineer, C.X.R., Moncton, N.B.; Col. 
Alex. Macphail, Queen's University, Kingston; R. O. Wynne- 
Roberts, consulting engineer, Toronto; C. H. E. Rounth- 
waite. Sault Ste. Marie; Lt.-Col. D. A. Ross, consulting 
engineer, Winnipeg; Prof. A. R. Greig, University of Sas- 
katchewan; R. S. L. Wilson, University of Alberta; Major 
Geo. A. Walkem, Vancouver Machinery Depot, Vancouver. 
Presidential Address 

Mr. Acres called upon the retiring president, Mr. Fair- 
bairn, for the annual presidential address, stating that the 
pleasure of hearing Mr. Fairbairn's speech would be temper- 
ed by a very full measure of regret at his retirement as 
chief executive officer of the Institute. 

Mr. Fairbairn expressed the opinion that the expected 
reaction from intense war-time activity had reached its 
maximum, and that business is again on the upgrade, al- 
though there must be a further downward trend in the 
prices of many commoditips and a considerable increase in 
the demand for manufactured products in order to bring 
conditions back to normal. The decrease in business dur- 
ing the past year had worked a hardship on the younger 
engineers, said Mr. Fairbairn, but there are now signs of 
improvement and it remains only for us all to help one 
another over the few rough spots that may still appear, in 
order to tide everyone over until we reach the prosperity 
that must await an intelligent and industrious people in 
such a young and wealthy country. 

The activities of the 22 branches of the Institute con- 
stitute the most important phase of its work, continued 
Mr. Fairbairn, and it is encouraging to note that every 
branch had held meetings and was active throughout the 
year, and that all of them had grown in membership. Dr. 
Geo. Herrlck Duggan. upon his retirement from the presi- 
dency of the Institute in January, 1017. had exhibited a 
number of charts showing the increase in growth in mem- 
bership of the Institute from its organization in 1887 to 
the end of the year 19 1G. Mr. Fairbairn said that he had 
extended the curves plotted by I>r Duggan to show thf> 
figures to the end of 1921, with the following re 

The 10 teased from 700 in 1918 to 1,000 in 

1921; the associate members, from 1,600 to 2,800; the non- 
corporate member*, from BOO to 1,600; the total 

an increase of 1,800, or more than :■" I 
in five years. 

Mr. Fairbairn showed a chart of the division of mem- 
bership geographically. Of the t..t 

S.5% In British Colum- 
1 in Alberta; B.1% In Manitoba; 3.8% in Nova Sco- 
Ua; i7 r in New Brunswick: 3.3% In Saskatchewan; and 
9.6% In the United States and elsewhere 



Among the subjects to which attention must be given 
by the Institute, declared Mr. Fairbairn, are professional 
ethics, publicity for engineers, enrolment of more student 
members and a reclassification of members or the organiza- 
tion of additional classes in order to broaden the Institute 
and take in many men who are not at present eligible for 
membership in the existing classes. 

Expressing regret at the absence of the president- 
elect, J. G. Sullivan, who was unavoidably detained by 
important business in Winnipeg, Mr. Fairbairn read a mes- 
sage from Mr. Sullivan reminding the members of the pro- 
fessional meeting to be held in Winnipeg in September, 
and inviting them all to attend. 

Annual Banquet 

The annual banquet of the Institute was held in the 
Prince of Wales Room, Windsor Hotel, and was followed 
by a smoker and vaudeville entertainment. 

Visited Dominion Engineering Works 

Special cars left the Windsor Hotel at 9:30 a.m. Wed- 
nesday to convey the members to the plant of the Dominion 
Engineering Works, Ltd., at Rockfield. where they inspected 
the 41,000-h.p. hydraulic turbine now under construction 
for the Shawinigan Water & Power Co., and other large 
machinery now being built at that plant, including the 
largest Lamer-Johnson valve ever constructed, some large 
newsprint machines and three 30,000,000-gal. single-stage. 
240-ft. lift, centrifugal pumps in hand for the city of 
Montreal. 

Romance of Engineering 

Luncheon was served in the Rose Room of Windsor 
Hotel at 1 p.m., followed by an address entitled, "The 
Romance of Engineering," by Prof. H. E. T Haultain, of the 
University of Toronto. The title was, perhaps, somewhat 
misleading, as Prof. Haultain did not deal with the romance 
of engineering work but rather with the romance that pos- 
sibly awaits any young lady who interests herself in the 
welfare of the young engineers who are graduating every 
year at McGill, Toronto and other universities. Prof. 
Haultain's address was modelled closely upon the Sir An- 
drew Macphail style, and, like the latter's after-dinner 
speeches, aroused all sorts of comments varying from en- 
thusiastic approval to severe censure. 

Julian C.Smith's Address 

John T. Farmer, vice-chairman of the Montreal Branch, 
called the first sesison of the professional meeting to order 
at the headquarters building at 3 p.m. Mr. Farmer was 
chairman of the committee on arrangements for the meet- 
ing, and it was largely to his efforts that its success was due. 

Julian C. Smith, vice-president and general manager of 
the Shawinigan Water ami Power Co., gave an illustrated 
address on the new 11,000-h.p. unit now being installed at 
Shawinigan Falls. The paper was followed by a lively dis- 
cussion which lasted until nearly "> o'clock. A report ol 
some of the features of design outlined by Mr. Smith will 
appear in an early issue of "The Canadian Engineer." 

si. .ii.im Cantilever Bridge 

In the evening it had been intended to have a paper 
on "Electros and Atoms'' bj W. B, Cartmel, of the Northern 
Electric Co, on account of serious illness Mr. Cartmi 
unable to be present, and Major Draper, of the C P R. 
Bridge Department, gave an excellent Impromptu I 
nn (be new St. .lohn Cantilever Bridge. Major Draper's 
remarks will be fully reported In an early issue of "The 
Canadian Engineer." 



Mimiro anil New Toronto have a joint water commis- 
sion ani •' commission, and it Wl 
recently at a meeting of the New Toronto council that Miml 
co has been buying water from New Toronto tor 7\ 
per 1,000 gallons and selling it to the sewerage commission, 
for which New Toronto pays half the bills, for 15 cents 
per 1,000 gallons. 



January 31, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF ST. LAWRENCE 
NAVIGATION 



Shortcomings of Schemes So Far Proposed — Navigation 

Value of Side Canals Questioned — Two Stage Develop* 

merit on International Section Favored. 



By Chas. P. Loveland 

President. Great Lakes & Atlantic Canal & Power Co., Ltd. 

FOR many years there have heen insistent demands for 
improved waterway comunieation on this continent, 
particularly between the various points on the Great Lakes 
and the seaboard. The five great inland seas known as the 
Great Lakes are surrounded by a vast expanse of fertile 
country, rich as well in mineral and other resources, and 
capable of supporting an enormous population. Numerous 
great cities have grown up on the shores of these lakes, 
and commerce between them is largely waterborne, often in 
steamers rivalling those of the ocean in size and other es- 
sentials. Trade with the outside world, however, must be 
carried on by aid of either railroads or small canal-size 
boats to the seabord, there trans-shipping to ocean car- 
riers, with great attendant expense and delay. This fact 
has caused much dissatisfaction and public protest. At 
the same time, certain interests have been working so 
diligently to obtain the control of waterpowers on the St. 
Lawrence River, that finally the Canadian and United States 
governments directed the International Joint Commission, 
which has control of boundary waters under the Ashburton 
and succeeding treaties between the United States and Great 
Britain, to investigate and report on the possibilities of 
making the St. Lawrence River navigable for sea-going 
vessels of large capacity from the head of deep water navi- 
gation at Montreal to Lake Ontario, as well as those of the 
development of the available waterpower. 

It is a matter of common knowledge that the Com- 
mission has held numerous public hearings, where the topic 
has been freely discussed by many interested parties. As 
a result, several schemes have been proposed to the Com- 
mission for St. Lawrence River improvement, one by the 
engineers of the Commission itself, and others by various 
public and private interests. While differing in details, 
these schemes all resemble each other in the following 
particulars. 

Schemes Proposed 

Each scheme provides for an elaborate power develop- 
ment on the International stretch of the river between 
Prescott and the Quebec boundary at St. Regis. The vari- 
ous deep pools created by the waterpower development are 
to be connected by locks, thus making this section of the 
river navigable for deep draught vessels. The cost of this 
part of the whole project would be apportioned between 
Canada and the United States, and would undoubtedly be 
partly repaid in time by receipts from the sale of power. 

Various schemes are proposed for the improvement of 
navigation between Lake St. Francis and Montreal, none of 
which is adequate for the future demands of transporta- 
tion, as they all propose tortuous, narrow channels which 
could only be negotiated by large vessels at a much slower 
speed than that maintained in the present canals by ordi- 
nary canal-size steamers, and even then only with consider- 
able danger both to themselves and to others. Power pos- 
sibilities in this section of the river, though greater in 
quantity and closer to markets, as well as more easily and 
cheaply developed, seem to be relegated to the far-distant 
future in all these schemes. In at least one of these pro- 
jects it is even proposed that when developed, the receipts 
from the sale of power shall be partly applied to the re- 
imbursement of the cost of developing the International 
section, thereby admitting that the latter project is not 
self-supporting. 

The portion of the St. Lawrence just considered, i.e. 
that from Lake St. Francis to Montreal, lies entirely in 
Canada, and it is inconceivable that Canada seriously 
consider allowing another nation to contribute officially 
towards the cost of improvements wholly in Canadian ter- 



ritory. On the other hand, American citizens will secure 
the major portion or the benefit to be derived from these 
improvements, at least for many years, and Canada would 
hardly be justified in undertaking such an expense in the 
present state of her finances, nor until her own needs may 
warrant it. 

Outcome of International Development 

In the event that the governments of the United 
States and Canada should commit themselves to one of the 
schemes proposed, it seems to the writer that the net result 
would be about as follows: 

The hydraulic power of the International section of 
the river would be fairly well developed. 

By the insertion of a few locks in the dams necessi- 
tated by this development, part of the cost of construction 
could be charged against "improvement to navigation," 
thus ostensibly permitting the electric power to be sold 
at a reasonable figure. 

Owing to the great cost to Canada and the doubtful 
value to anyone of the navigation improvements proposed 
below Lake St. Francis, as well as the prevention of power 
development by private enterprise while the government 
was committed to one of these schemes, work on this sec- 
tion of the river would be deferred for many years, auto- 
matically nullifying the effect of the navigation improve- 
ments already referred to on the International section. 

In short, the interests which have been agitating for 
hydro-electric power from the Long Sault would have it 
supplied to them at a nominal rental, and nobody else would 
get anything within the lifetime of the present generation. 

The writer must not be understood as taking a gloomy 
view of the possibility and feasibility of navigation for deep 
draught vessels between the Great Lakes and the ocean. On 
the contrary, in this article he will outline a project which 
he and his associates have been studying for many years, 
which will provide for the reasonable needs of navigation 
for all time to come. Before proceeding to describe this 
project, it will be well to state the situation as it is. and the 
problems to be solved to render it as nearly perfect as is 
economically practicable. 

Existing Situation Analyzed 

The territory surrounding the Great Lakes and tribu- 
tary thereto comprises the largest uniformly productive re- 
gion of the North American Continent. It now supports 
a very large population, and can support many times the 
present number. There Is no doubt that this number will 
be doubled within a very few decades. The products of 
this great inland empire are greatly in excess of the quan- 
tity needed by its inhabitants, and Europe, on account of 
the requirements of its dense population, offers the best and 
closest market for this excess production. 

While Nature provided these great inland seas capable 
of carrying a tremendous tonnage, she could only find one 
route by which their surplus waters could reach the sea. 
Strange as it might seem, this channel (the St. Lawrence 
River) coincides with almost the most direct route from the 
most populous part of the Lake Tegion to England and 
neighboring European countries. Ocean navigators, when- 
ever possible, when sailing from one port to another, fol- 
low the arc of a great circle, as being the shortest distance 
between t lie two ports. Were there nothing but open ocean 
11 Lake Erie points and, say, England, the great 
circle followed by ships trading between them would pass 
through Lake Ontario and closely approximate the present 
course of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf. 

The quantity of water flowing from the Lakes to the 
ocean via the St. Lawrence is so great and so uniform 
throughout the year that it is possible to provide an im- 
proved channel capable of carrying ocean steamers of the 
largest size at regular speed with safety, and at the same 
time develop a quantity of electric energy probably over 
half as great as the total so far hydraulically produced in 
the United States and Canada, from the sale of -which a 
large part, if not all, of the cost of the improvement could 
be defrayed. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 5 



From the foregoing paragraphs the deduction may be 
drawn that within a comparatively short period of time 
the demands of commerce as well as those of industry will 
be so imperative that it will be absolutely necessary to com- 
plete the work that Nature has so well begun. By so do- 
ing, the needs of navigation will in all human probability 
be met for all time, as it seems as though ocean carriers 
had about reached their economic limit of size. It follows 
that any local improvement work undertaken along the 
route to be followed by navigation should be so designed 
and constructed as to form part of one harmonious whole 
capable of meeting all demands, or it would soon be out of 
date and would have to be rebuilt at great expense. 

It will be possible ultimately to so regulate the level 
of Lake Ontario as to give a minimum discharge the year 
around of 225,000 cubic feet per second. On this basis 
the maximum power development at minimum discharge 
will total, between Lake Ontario and Montreal, about 5,- 
050,000 h.p. Of this quantity, about 2,050,000 h.p. can 
be developed in the international river, and about 3,000,- 
000 h.p. between Lake St. Francis and the harbor of 
Montreal. 

Any scheme of improvement to navigation in the St. 
Lawrence River should recognize the necessity of early 
regulation of the flow below Montreal. It should also be 
realized that some time the Ottawa River will be made 
navigable for large vessels, and suitable provision for the 
effect of this work on the St. Lawrence should be made. 
Proposed New Plan 

The writer's proposals for the permanent improvement 
of navigation between Lake St. Peter and Lake Ontario, 
stated briefly, include the following major undertakings: 

(1) Regulating dam, with lock, across the Berthler 
Islands, holding the St. Lawrence at about standard high 
water level. This would do away with all swift currents, 
as well as future dredging operations, in the St. Lawrence 
as far as Montreal harbor, and in the Richelieu as far as 
Chambly Basin. 

(2) Improvement of the Richelieu to Lake Champlain. 

(3) Navigation and power canal from Lake St. Fran- 
cis to Chambly, with connection to Montreal harbor. Power 
can be developed at several locations between Melocheville 
and Laprairie, or, if conditions warrant, the entire avail- 
able power of the four rapids can be developed at a point 
near Laprairie Basin, within ten miles of Montreal, the 
metropolis and chief industrial city of Canada. 

(4) International regulating works near the head 
of the Long Sault Rapids, with navigation and power canal 
on the Canadian side, developing the Canadian share of tho 
power available between the Rapide Plat and Lake St. 
Francis on Canadian soil at Cornwall. 

(5)Removal of the Rapide Plat. 

i 8 I International regulating works a short distance 
above Iroquois Point, with navigation and power canal on 
the Canadian side, developing the Canadian share of the 
power available between Lake Ontario and the Rapide Plat 
on Canadian soil at Iroquois. 

By this plan, each nation would have control of the 
nn Its own aide of the border, subject only to free use 
by the other c,r it-* navigation facili! 

Apart from i 1h> tact that the St. Lawrence River forms 
the International boundary for a certain distance, its only 
international feature Is the fact that Great Britain and Mo- 
Dnited Btatea have agreed by treaty thai its channels shall 

nally free and open to the vessels of both nations 
In this connection it should not be forgotten thai compe- 
tent authorities have held thai tin- <<r any other pro 
of the treaty could be nullified by the legislative branch 
of either government. The St. Lawrence Is by nature a 
one-way stream, as no vessels have yet been designed Which 
can climb Its rapids, and up to the present all users of the 
river for upstream navigation have passed through the 
Canadian channels, which have been equally free to vessels 
of British or American registry. 

The question, however, has now arisen of the adop- 
tion of a comprehensive plan of development of the rlvsr 



to its fullest extent, both for navigation and power. Ref- 
erence has already been made to the impracticability of 
joint participation by Canada and the United States in 
this work where the river flows wholly through Canadian 
territory, and the present inadvisability of Canada engag- 
ing itself to perform it alone as a government project. The 
reason there given of the expense involved does not of 
course apply to so great an extent in the International 
stretch; it does, however, exist in such degree as to warrant 
limiting the work to be done at joint expense and under 
joint control to the smallest amount consistent with the 
full development of navigation and power. We must also 
always remember that disagreements as to policy, etc., are 
as likely to arise between nations as individuals, and the 
uncertain duration of treaties makes it advisable, especially 
in the case of permanent works, to assign as little as pos- 
sible of operation and control to joint supervision, and leave 
each nation as much freedom as possible to carry out its 
own ideas and designs. 

Two-Stage Development Proposed 

Various schemes have been proposed, both for single 
stage and two-stage development of the power or the Inter- 
national river. The writer favors a two-stage development. 
By carrying out the works at the locations he has indi- 
cated there will not only be less interference with existing 
works and less flooding of valuable lands than by other 
schemes, but the only joint construction work needed will 
be the two regulating dams one at the Long Sault and the 
other above Iroquois. The effect of these dams will be, to 
state it bluntly, to split the flow of the river in two equal 
parts, and divert one half to the Canadian side and the 
other to the American side. Each nation can then exercise 
absolute authority over the works required on its own side 
of the river, subject of course to the approval of plans by the 
International Joint Commission. Navigation canals on the 
Canadian side will also act as head-races for the Canadian 
power plants, and undoubtedly locks would be provided in 
connection with the American power developments as well, 
thus doubling the locking capacity and providing against 
congestion and accidents. The two regulating dams of 
course would have to remain under some kind of joint con- 
trol, their only function being to adjust, mechanically, as 
closely as possible, any inequalities in the quantity of water 
passing on each side of them. 

It may seem that the improvement work proposed 
from Lake Ontario to Lake St. Peter, and via the Richelieu 
to Lake Champlain, may be resolved into five principal 
divisions, each of which is a project in itself practically 
independent of the others, and each of which is believed to 
have sufficient earning capacity, through the sale of power, 
to repay the invested capital, with interest, within a reason- 
able time, besides the ordinary expenses of operation and 
maintenance. 

The five main divisions are as follows: 
First Division — Lake St. Peter via the St. Lawrence to 
Montreal Harbor, and via the Richelieu to Chambly Basin, 
with incidental power development. 

Second Division — Chambly Basin to Lake Champlain: 
with Incidental power development 

Third Division — Montreal Harbor to Lake St. Francis, 
connecting with the Richelieu near Chambly; with major 
power development near Montreal. 

Fourth Division Lake st, Francis to Morrlsburg, with 
Canadian power development at Cornwall. 

Fifth Division — Morrlsburg to Lake Ontario. Including 
removal of the Rapide Plat, channel improvements to Lake 
Ontario, and power development at Iroquois. 

When completed as proposed, the least width of navig- 
able channel will bo 600 ft., the least depth 86 ft., and the 
swiftest current less than two miles an hour. Those di- 
mensions will allow the largest vessels to pan it usual 
■peed, without danger to themselves or others 
Pou.-i < nnip.itn'- Plans 

The Great Lakes and Atlantic Canal and Tower Co., Ltd., 
which was organized In 1914 under Dominion of Canada 



January 31, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



charter for the express purpose of financing means of con- 
struction of a deep, speedy, navigable waterway from the 
Great Lakes to the ocean, has adopted the writer's project 
in toto. As the Third Division is by far the largest and in- 
volves the longest time for completion, besides being 
contiguous to Montreal Harbor and for that reason natur- 
ally the next section for development, it is the company's 
intention to begin operations in this division, on which it 
has acquired valuable rights and privileges. Plans are 
already before the Dominion authorities, for their ap- 
proval, of a project owned by the company, which will 
form part of the navigation canal proposed by the writer 
on this division. 

At the same time, it is intended that work shall pro- 
ceed on all the divisions so that they will be completed 
practically simultaneously, for obvious reasons. The con- 
stantly increasing demands for power lead us to believe 
that by the time the works are completed, the market will 
absorb all the power that can be delivered. 

It is not within the scope of this brief exposition of 
the subject of this article, to enter into the maze of tech- 
nical details, nor even to discuss costs, further than to say 
that the writer's investigations have convinced him that 
the work can be completed on the lines as he has recom- 
mended at as low a total cost as any of the less comprehen- 
sive projects thus far advanced, and with much greater 
material benefit to all concerned. 



In the year 1905 the East Jersey Pipe Company intro- 
duced "Lock Bar" steel pipe and since that time this pipe 
has been manufactured by the East Jersey Pipe Company 
at its Paterson, N.J., plant. Recently an agreement has 



been reached between the East Jersey Pipe Company and 
the Riter-Conley Company whereby "Lock Bar" steel pipe 
will hereafter be fabricated in the Pittsburgh district by 
the Riter-Conley Company at its Leetsdale plant. This 
arrangement is a decided step forward and will permit con- 
siderable saving in freight rates as well as economy in manu- 
facturing. "Lock Bar" pipe has enjoyed an ever increas- 
ing demand as a carrier for both water and gas, and in both 
Canada and the United States the entire water supply of 
many a community is dependent upon it. The sale of the 
pipe will continue to be exclusively in the hands of the 
East Jersey Pipe Company. 



Canadian Pacific Railway executives have postponed 
for several months appropriations for improvement and ex- 
tenion of western lines of the road, according to a state- 
ment issued by D. C. Coleman, vice-president in charge of 
western lines. This is due to present commercial condi- 
tions which have imposed a policy of caution with regard 
to large capital expenditures. "Works of urgent character 
only will be started at present, Mr. Coleman stated, the 
most important project being the building of a large ocean 
pier at Vancouver. All extension work on branch lines, 
which usually is planned at this time of year, is held over 
for later consideration until indications of a steady revival 
in railway traffic may 'become more definitely apparent. 



It has been decided to hold the Annual Convention of 
the Canadian Good Roads Association at Victoria, B.C., on 
June 13 tol7 inclusive. The convention is expected to be 
the largest meeting of its kind held so far in Western 
Canada. 



Construction Industries Conference in Hamilton 




TWO hundred general contractors, trade contractors, sup- 
ply dealers and manufacturers met in Hamilton, Ont., 
January 17 to 20, for the fourth annual conference of the 
Association of Canadian Building and Construction Indus- 
tries. A full report of the proceedings at the conference 
was published in last week's issue of "The Canadian Engi- 
neer." The above photograph was taken immediately af- 



ter the presentation of the paper presented by Babson's ex- 
pert on Wednesday morning, January IS. The commodity 
statistician ol the Babson organization had just predicted 
that the year 1922 will probably show 50' Improvement in 
business as compared with the year 1921, which probably 
accounts for the good-natured cheerfulness with which the 
delegates posed for this "flashlight." 



192 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 



SURETJ COMPANIES LND CONTRACTORS' BONDS 



Obligation-. Assumed by Buret] Companies In Issuance of 
Bonds Relieve Contractors of Much Respons ibi lity 

— How Contract and Rid Bonds arc Arranged 



By W. H. HaU 

General Manager, Canadian Surety Co., Toronto. 

THE subject upon which I have been asked to speak, 
namely, that of contractors' bonds is necessarily one 
of interest and importance to every building contractor. 
Because of changed conditions it has become a more com- 
mon practice in recent years to require that the contractor 
furnish to the obligee or proprietor, a guarantee bond to 
insure the performance of his contract or undertaking, in 
accordance with the plans and specifications, and at the 
price tendered for. You will be more interested of course, 
in the practical side o£ this question rather than the techni- 
cal and for this reason I have chosen to deal with the form- 
er aspect of our topic. 

As a preface, however, let us consider what suretyship 
is and also the responsibility of a surety. Suretyship is 
the obligation assumed by one known as a surety or guar- 
antor to answer for the debt or default of another. It is 
older than written history, and suretyship obligations are 
found among the oldest records of antiquity. As far back 
as human history goes we find in civilized countries that 
men in positions of trust, involving the handling of property 
belonging to others, usually in connection with court pro- 
ceedings, were required to file bonds guaranteeing that 
they would honestly perform their duties, and these bouds 
were given by friends, relatives and others. This require- 
ment was later extended to pubHc officials, to contractors 
on public construction work, and in other directions. Al- 
though the friend risked his possessions, he received no 
compensation, and frequently had cause to regret that he 
became surety. At a very early date it became apparent 
that such contracts must be in writing, unless the way was 
to be opened to permit gross frauds. 

Definition of Surety Bond 
What is a surety bond or guarantee bond? A surety 
, bond is a written instrument, except in cases where a recog- 
nizance in open court is required by law. It is a contract 
in which usually three parties are interested. The prin- 
cipal, which is the person, firm or coronation that enters 
upon an undertaking or contract; the surety, is the indi- 
vidual or corporation which guarantees the undertaking or 
contract of the principal, and the obligee, the one who relies 
upon the security of the instrument for faithful performance 
of the principal's undertaking or contract. 

What are the responsibilities of a surety and why do 
individuals rely on the obligations of their friends? Simply 
as a form they say. If they believed that there was even 
a remote probability of being called on to pay they would 
not sign; they would not dare. A debt or an admitted 
probability of a debt of $5,000 or $10,000 to be incurred, 
without consideration, and unexpectedly, would involve so 
great a fluctuation and disturbance in the affairs of most 
men, as to preclude them from the risk; motives of ordinary 
prudence would prevent even the best-natured friend from 
ning surety. Men take those risks because they be- 
lieve them to be nil. In the great majority of ca 
bondsman, If called on. is not able to pay until he rear- 
M his affairs. Most men have their money tied up In 
their business or invested in property; the friendly and 
tten bond is without provision, and sales or cl 

irie to meet It. So Incongruous and so repulsive 
O that a man should be called on to sign a bond, 
lit pay, which may result In a heav.\ 

'h he or his estate at the tinv arltjr be 

unable to respond, that It Is a marvel thfl Custom should 

•rl, and a greater marvel that business men 

and i 'ill be found who BT«f< I of se- 

ie bond of a surety eompanj ,\n Indivldu 
cannot in the very nature of the case, be as good as a cor- 
porate bond. The individual goes right on with his busi- 



ness and his responsibility is subject to all ordinary muta- 
tions. He does not count the bond among his liabilities; 
he has no income from that class of transactions, and 
never expects to pay anything on them. Men do not pre- 
pare for what they do not expect. On the other hand, a 
surety company receives an income from the issuance of 
its bonds sufficient to meet all the claims arising from 
them; it counts each 'bond a liability and is compelled by 
law to make proper provision for it. All its assets are 
held, not for miscellaneous business, merchandising, specu- 
lating, etc., but for the sole purpose of protecting its writ- 
ten obligations. There can be no comparison between the 
individual and corporate bond in point of safety, conveni- 
ence or propriety, and we believe that the day is not far dis- 
tant, if it is not already here, when it will be regarded as 
outre, or out of the common course, to borrow a friend's 
name for surety purposes, as to borrow his shoes or his 
clothes for business uses. 

Before surety companies were organized, as I have 
shown, persons signed 'bonds as sureties for their friends 
gratuitously, and as a matter of friendship and courtesy, 
and in many cases without the thought of ever being called 
upon to pay the obligation. This custom, until the or- 
ganization of surety companies, was more or less obligatory- 
Suretyship Universally Recognized as Necessary 

It is noted with satisfaction that corporate or company 
suretyship is recognized universally as important and ne- 
cessary, and that one of its chief functions is to relieve the 
parties between whom a contract of this nature is made, of 
the obligations incurred as a result of calling upon friends, 
relatives or business acquaintances, with possible embar- 
rassment later. The friend is relieved of a burden that no 
sensible reasoning can admit he should ever be called upon 
to carry. The principal avoids the humiliating position of 
being forced to seek a surety and of placing himself under 
obligation in consequence of which he may later on be called 
upon to pay dearly for the accommodation. The obligee or 
proprietor is more than satisfied with a bond furnished by a 
surety corporation whose financial condition is under the 
constant inspection of the government insurance superin- 
tendent, something entirely lacking in the case of the per- 
sonal surety, who might die or become bankrupt unknown 
to the Obligee, or evade responsibility by transferring his 
property, or endeavor to compromise when called upon to 
meet his obligation. 

There is a peculiarity in the surety business wherein 
it is different from other kinds of insurance business. In 
every other line of insurance the companies engaged in that 
insurance are the only sources from which that insurance 
can be obtained. There is not one of you that can insure 
his life except with a life office, or house against fire any- 
where except in a fire insurance company. None of you 
can procure health or accident insurance except from a 
company engaged in that business, but in suretyship, if any 
of you has to give bond, you can go to your nearest neigh- 
bor and get that bond from him if you want to. and you 
might get it for nothing. Any man with a house and a 
of land, or any man with a piece of land without a 
house can give a bond of suretyship of almost any kind 
whatever. So that the competition which we have is not 
the competition alone with other companies engaged in the 
surety business, but we have the competition of pi 
sureties all over the country. 

Contract Bonds 
Coming now to ti"' matter which is of more dli 
portance and Int ,i " , "' 1 > • ,1,:l ' ' ; nonds - 

let us see Bpeclfloall] how closely related suretyahl 
the class of business In which yon are II you 

build I bridge, or to erect any Kind of public 

tun, von must furnish a bond guaranteeing tl 
or y 01ir SM1 . s,..i fall, «'ii complete the under- 

taking. 

The law require.. | bond 

u have contracted to furnish the government, 
or municipality or public Institutions with supplies of any 



January 31, 1922 



tHfe CANADIAN ENGINEER 



193 



description, you will find that one of the conditions of the 
contract is that you must file a bond guaranteeing that you 
will fulfil it. No matter what your activity in this respect 
may be, whether it means erecting 'buildings, laying side- 
walks, constructing roads underground or underwater work, 
spanning rivers, etc., the community demands that your 
ability, and financial strength, alone, shall not be relied 
upon, but back of all this must be the bond of your surety, 
in case you fail. 

Hazard in Issuance of Contract Bonds 

Experience has shown and proven that there is a very 
serious serious hazard to the surety in the issuance of con- 
tract bonds. Many comtingencies entirely '.unforeseen 
and not calculated against by the contractor may arise in 
connection with construction work, such as, (a) unusual 
constructural problems, (b) physical difficulties relating 
to surrounding property which, if damaged in any degree, 
may bring loss if not ruin upon the contractor, (c) un- 
known or undiscovered difficulties in the work itself, par- 
ticularly in underwater or underground contracts, (d) 
changes and flucuations in prices for materials and lahor, 
etc. 

It is therefore very necessary that the underwriter of 
contract bonds should possess some knowledge of con- 
tracting and engineering; especially is this true in relation 
to the execution of ibid or proposal bonds. When we pass 
upon an application for a contract bond, (please mark the 
distinction between a Ibid or proposal bond and a contract 
bond), we have before us the copy of the contract and 
specifications; we know the applicant's financial ability; the 
experience he has had in similar work; we ascertain the 
amount of other contracts he has on hand to see if he is 
trying to do too much business on his capital (a fault not 
uncommon among some contractors and the cause of most 
of their failures), but we also have for our guidance the 
amounts of the proposals of other bidders for the work, and 
are thus able to see at a glance whether the contractor has 
made any serious mistake in his estimate. 

Then, again, contactors are often required to bid on 
their own specfications and must guarantee certain results; 
here again a knowledge of engineering and contracting is 
essential to serve us in determining the desirability of the 
risk. When a loss arises on a contract bond, the surety 
has the right to finish the work itself, to engage someone 
else to do it on its behalf, or it may abandon the work en- 
tirely and let the obligee finish it and charge up the addi- 
tional cost, if any, against the bond. 

There are many and various aspects to 'be taken into 
account when dealing with a contract bond application and 
among others the following may be cited. 

1. vve must know ana carefully consider the practical 
aJbility or experience of the contractor in the work which 
he has undertaken and proposes to perform. 

2. His financial responsibility is a vital factor com- 
mensurate with the magnitude of the work which he has 
contracted for. 

3. Whether or not he is over-trading is a serious ques- 
tion; that is whether the contractor has too many contracts 
on hand at the one time in proportion to his financial re- 
suroces and practical ability. 

4. How does his price compare with that of the other 
bidders. We have found as a general rule that a contractor 
whose bid is below H)','o of the average of all the other bids 
for work is within the danger line and likely to make a loss 
rather than a profit on his work. 

5. The specifications and contract have to be care- 
fully perused and examined to discover onerous or unfair 
conditions, if any, imposed upon the contractor. Although 
the contractor is a paTty to the contract agreement and must 
execute same he rarely has any say as to its form, hence the 
urgent necessity for careful examination of its terms, in 
order that the interest of the contractor and his Surety 
may not be prejudiced. No contractor should sign a writ- 
ten party agreement, without perusal or examination of it, 
simply because it is called "The Contract." The services 
which, the surety company can render in this regard are 



lurety'tVhii 1 ! 6 C ° ntraCt0r "* ™ WUh ° Ut Char * e * «■■ 

finiJ'fJI the , contract °r should default how can his surety 
finish the contract or the reasonable prospect of employing 
others to do it at a minimum of cost and probably loss 
Bid Bonds and Marked Cheques 

ih.MH Th 1 ge , neral P^ctice in Canada has been to require 
lb dders to deposit marked cheque for a certain percentage 

o good faith t° h f Ul H ir Pr0P0Sa1 ' USUaUy 5% as a guarantee 
of good faith, the cheques of the lowest and second lowest 
bidders are usually being retained until the contrac? has 
'been awarded and signed. 

calling fnT j nstances the municipality, or other body 
calling for tenders, has not only required the bidder to put 
up a marked cheque with his tender but has also required 
£v h^H ° r Ilominate ' nis Proposed surety, that is to 
saj the bidder states in his tender whom he proposes as 

tend J ' ° r {;:t, contract °° n <i •» case he is the succes/u 
tenderer. While it is customary for a contractor to con- 
Milt with his proposed surety before nominating it in 
this manner, it is not absolutely essential for the surety 
signs nothing, and is under neither moral or legal obliga- 
tion to execute the contract bond. 

Again, some municipalities and boards not only re 
quire the giving of a marked cheque but also exact what is 
known as a "Surety's Consent." This is a separate agree- 
ment in the form of tender and calls for execution by the 
surety and by its terms the surety is bound to execute on 
behalf of the tenderer whatever contract bond may be re- 
quired of him if his bid be accepted. 

Due to the fact that there is sometimes quite a delay 
(between the opening of bids for any given work and the 
awarding of the contract, which means that the marked 
cheques of at least two of the bidders, if not more are held 
during this period, resulting in the tying up of the funds 
of the contractors, or in their having to pay interest to 
their banks on their marked cheque, there has been more 
or less agitation of late against the requiring of marked 
cheques and allowing the substitution of bid or proposal 
bond as security for tenders. This practice has obtained 
across the border to a very large extent, it usually being op- 
tional in the United States whether a bidder shall give a 
marked cheque or a bid bond, such being as a definite obli- 
gation in a set sum, usually 5% of the amount of the bid, to 
the effect that if the proposal of the principal on the bond is 
accepted that he will enter into a necessary contract and 
give the necessary contract bond within a certain stated 
period. If he fails to do so the next lowest tender is ac- 
cepted and the difference between the bids is charged up 
against the ibid bond. 

Surety Company Assumes Definite Obligation 

In the two classes above referred to, it is to be noted 
that the surety assumes a definite obligation. As a matter 
of fact the obligation is often a more hazardous one than 
the execution of contract bonds themselves, for the surety 
has not the advantage of the comparative bids in under- 
writing a bid bond which it usually possesses when giving 
consideration, to the execution of the contract 'bond. 

Notwithstanding this, we frequently find contractors 
coming in at the last moment, possibly withiu an hour or 
half an our of the time when bids are to be received, and 
asking that a bid bond or Surety's Consent be executed. In 
ninny cases these contractors may have been working on 
their bids for days if not weeks in advance, yet expect the 
surety company to render its decision in the matter of giv- 
ing a bid bond on a few moments notice. We know the 
work that is to be performed, and what the contractors 
price Is, but unless we have some familiarity with contract- 
ing we will have to depend entirely on his figures, to find, 
perhaps, that he has made some mistake in his estimating 
or omitted to include the cost of some work he is obligated 
to do under the contract, and that we have pledged the 
surety company, that its principal, the contractor will com- 
plete the work at his price, or in the event of his failure 
to do so, that he will pay the municipality or the obligee 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No 



on the bond — whoever it may be — the difference be- 
tween the amount of his estimate, and what it actually 
cost to complete the work. 

The surety company's application form has been ar- 
ranged as a result of long experience in I lie business and 
does not contain any unnecessary query. If the interest 
alike of the contractor and his surety is to be preserved, 
and full anwers given to the questions asked therein, will 
insure a quick decision upon the proposal. If information 
in regard to any question is lacking particularly in con- 
nection with the initial application from a builder or con- 
tractor, delay is thereby occasioned until particulars are 
forthcoming. Succeeding applications from the same con- 
tractor will probably not require that we obtain all the 
information necessary in the first instance. 

It is therefore expedient, and indeed imperative since 
the interest of the contractor and his surety are so closely 
identified, that he should furnish to the surety company. 
without reservation, a full statement of all facts of which 
it requires to be informed, in the same way as he would do 
if making application to his bank for a loan or line of 
credit. The bond of the suoety company is substantially a 
guarantee of a contractor's reputation, personal and prac- 
tical, of his credit and also of his financial responsibility. 

Consequently it is creditable to the contractor to be 
able to furnish a corporate surety bond and it should, and 
very often does, pave the way for preference, to such con- 
tractor in his particular line of work. Address delivered 
at the Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian 
Building and Construction Industries held at Hamilton, 
Ont., Jan. 17-20, 1922. 



TO DRAFT SPECIFICATIONS FOR ALL TYPES OF ROAD 
MATERIALS 



FOLLOWING is the report which was presented last week 
to the annual meeting of the Engineering Institute of 
Canada by the Roads and Pavements Committee, of which 
W. A. McLean, of Toronto, is chairman. 

The year 1921 has been a season of somewhat excep- 
tional activity with respect to road construction and paving 
throughout Canada; so that the chairman of this committee 
experienced some slight difficulty in securing the prompt at- 
tention of members of the committee whose services would 
be most valuable. It is anticipated, however, that with the 
foundation laid during the past year, very satisfactory re- 
sults will accrue during the year 1922 with respect to the 
work carried on by this committee. 

The committee has undertaken the task of preparing 
general specifications for various types of roads and pave- 
ments and has allocated the drafting of these specifications 
to various Individual members as follows: 

A. E. Macallum, block pavements; \V. P. Hrerton, sheet 
asphalt; J. A. Duchastel, macadam; W. P. Near, cement 
concrete; L. C. Charlesworth, gravel; W. A. McLean, bitum- 
inous penetration and bituminous concrete. 

It Is intended that the several specifications will be 
prepared with some degree of uniformity, based on the fol- 
lowing outlines: 

1 — General Description. 

2 — Preparation of Subgrade. (a) Cleaning, (b> Shap- 
ing of grade, (c) Consolidating. 

3 — Foundation, (a) Brief description, (b) Dimen- 
sion!, (c) Materials, (d) Method, (e) Cleaning, 

4 — Binder Course (Cushion), (at Brief description. 
I'imenslons. (c) Materials, (ill Method. 

5 — Top course. (a) Brief description (b) Iffa 
(<-i M.-thod of handling, (d) Finishing, (e) Joints. 

6 — Seal Coat (Groutingi. (a) Brief description, (b) 
Materials, let Method of handling. 

7 — Shoulders, (a) Brief description, (b) Materials, 
1 1 i Method of handling. 

Water-Bound Macadam — General description; pre- 
paration of subgrade; foundation; top course; shoulders. 
Bituminous Macadam, Penetration — General descrip- 



tion: preparation of subgrade; foundation; top course; seal 
coat: shoulders. 

Asphaltic Concrete and Sheet Asphalt — General de- 
scription; preparation of subgrade; water-bound macadam 
or cement concrete; binder course; top course; seal coat; 
shoulders. 

Cement Concrete — General description: preparation 
of subgrade; foundation; top course; shoulders. 

Brick, Stone, Wood, Asphalt Block — General de- 
scription; preparation of subgrade; cement concrete; 
cushion; top course; grouting; shoulders. 



( OMMTTTEES IN CHARGE <>1 CONSTRUCTION CON. 
FERENCE WORK 



MOST of the success of the fourth annual conference of 
Association of Canadian Building and Construction 
Industries", which was held in Hamilton. Ont., January IT 
to 20, was due to the energetic work performed in com- 
mittee meetings. The membership of the various con- 
ference committees was as follows, the chairman being 
named first in each list: 

LABOR COMMITTEE — J. B. Carswell (Toronto); R. 
J. Fuller (Toronto); James Mackie (Winnipeg); William 
Wilson (Regina); J. M. Pigott (Hamilton); J. C. Harris 
(Halifax) ; S. E. Dinsmore (Windsor) ; E. G. M. Cape (Mon- 
treal) ; W. J. Crawford (St. John). 

BUSINESS RELATIONS AND STANDARD PRACTICES 
— Geo. H. Whitlock (Moose Jaw); R. H. New (Hamilton); 
E. S. Mattice (Montreal); H. J. A. Bird (Moose Jaw); A. 
J. Bonnett (Winnipeg); A. A. McDonald (Halifax); J. F. 
Craik (Saskatoon); W. A. Wilson. Regina; John V. Gray 
(Toronto). 

PUBLICITY — E. B. Osborne (Hamilton); F. A. Ma- 
gee (Hamilton). 

FINANCES — J. M. Pigott (Hamilton); E. G. M. Cape 
(Montreal); A. E. Hamilton (Moose Jaw I ; John V. Gray 
(Toronto); A. J. Bonnett (Winnipeg). 

CONFERENCE ARRANGEMENTS — F. A. Magee 
(Hamilton); J. M. Pigott (Hamilton); John Grieve (Mon- 
treal); E. B. Osborne (Hamilton). 

RESOLUTIONS AND NEW BUSINESS — J. P. Anglin 
(.Montreal i ; J. M. Pigott (Hamilton); E. S. Mattice ( Mon- 
treal); John Grieve (Montreal); William Wilson ( Regina); 
Geo. H. Whitlock (Moose Jaw); James Mackie (Winnipeg) : 
J. B. Carswell (Toronto). 



PRESIDENT HARDING ENDORSES ST. LAWRENCE 
SCHEME 



IN an address before the National Agricultural Confer- 
ence at Washington, on Jan. 23, President Warren G. 
Harding spoke in favor of the St. Lawrence Waterway pro- 
ject. "I have spoken." the President said, "of the advan- 
tages which Europe enjoys because of its easy access to the 
sea, the cheapest and surest transportation facility. In our 
own countrj i> presented one ol the world's most attractive 
opportunities for extension of the seaways many hundreds 
of miles inland. The heart of the continent, with its vast 
resources In both agriculture and industry, would be 
brought ill communication With all the ocean routes by the 
execution of the St. Lawrence waterway project. To enable 
going vessels to have access to all the ports of the 
Great Lakes would have a most stimulating effect upon the 
Industrial life of the continent's interior. The feasibility 
of the project is unquestioned, and its cost, compared with 
some other great engineering works would be small.'' 



The tirst 55,000 bone-power generator at the Queen- 

■ton power house went Into full Commercial operation on 

Jan. -i Under the agreement with the companies supply- 
ing buxiliarj power to ths Hydro-Electric Power Commmls- 

slon, a month's notice was to be given of termination of 
the short-term contract. This power will foe discontinued 
on February 1. 



January 31, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Letter to the Editor 



AERIAL, PHOTOGRAPHY 



Sir: In his letter on "Aerial Photography for Engi- 
neers" Canadian Engineer, Dec. 29, Mr. J. C. D. Taylor 
would have been on much safer ground if he had confined 
his remarks to the relation of aerial photographs to his 
own particular Ibusiness. but when he attempts to show by 
comparison the superiority of aero-photography to topo- 
graphic surveying proper, he is floundering out of his 
depth. In common with most exponents of the aero method 
he entirely ignores the simplest principles of cartographic 
projection, and falls into the usual error of confusing a pic- 
ture with a map. They are two entirely different things. 
The maps he has evidently been using are reconnaissance or 
sketch maps which are very often miscalled "topographic" 
— apparently for the same reason that barber shops are 
sometimes entitled "Tonsorial Emporiums." 

A few companies in the United States are making genu- 
ine attempts to use aerial photographs for certain classes 
of maps, but they are moderate in their claims and do not 
advertize their work as being superior to large scale topo- 
graphic maps — on the contrary, they admit that aerial 
photos cannot take the place of accurate ground surveys. 

The complicated and laborious methods of controlling 
an aerial survey cannot be dealt with in a short article, but 
with regard to the actual details, readers of "The Canadian 
Engineer" who are interested can test for themselves the 
topographical value of aerial photographs by procuring the 
best possible ones and examining them carefully for the fol- 
lowing information: 

The natural and artificial features of a country shown 
on a topograhpic map by means of conventional signs. 

Boundaries: Provincial, county, township, parliamen- 
tary, ward, property. 

Names of: Provinces, cities, towns, villages, railways, 
rivers, post offices, public buildings, and all features re- 
quiring names. 

Roads: Sunk or raised, metalled, asphalt, paved, gravel 
or clay. 

Culverts: Stone, cement, wood, pipe, and water level. 

Bridges: Iron, steel, stone, concrete, wood, and eleva- 
tion of floor above water level. 

Railways: Crossings, tracks, embankments, cuttings, 
milestones, tanks, semaphores. 

Buildings, &c: Ground plan of houses, material (stone, 
brick, wood) ; dividing walls in blocks, outside walls, fences, 
palings, hedges, monuments, arched passages, sidewalks, 
hydrants, manholes, telephone and telegraph lines, light 
standards, canal locks, wharves, cranes, mooring posts, 
drainage openings. 

Rivers: Edge of water, high water marks, direction of 
flow, depth, falls, rapids, fords, ferries, wells, springs. 

Pasture land, meadow, orchards, scrub, bush, woods 
heavy or light timber or mixed). 

Marsh, muskeg, bog, sand, reeds, with edges shown. 

Mountains, hills, valleys, plains, rolling country. (By 
means of contours). Bench marks, elevations, trigonome- 
trical stations. 

Anybody having the patience to examine the photo- 
graphs for the foregoing information will be very much 
disappointed at the results. The next list is even more dis- 
heartening because none of the topographical information 
required can be found on the photos. It is an extract from 
instructions to topographers working on the One Inch Topo. 
Map of Canada: 

"It is important that the following be clearly shown": 

Nature of woods; metalled roads; stone, brick or wood 
houses; sidings and railway stations; all post offices; tele- 
graph and telephone lines — offices; all culverts over 3 ft.; 



elevations of road corners, culverts and bridges; material 
of bridges; correct names of lakes and str< 

For those of your readers who have not the time nor 
opportunity to make the above tests, the subject may be 
simplified by giving an example free from technicalities but 
still adhering to the principle of the argument. A certain 
man requires a suit of clothes made to order but is unable 
to see the tailor about the matter, so he writes to the latter 
something like this: 

Dear Sir: I require a suit of clothes by the 26th inst., 
but I cannot leave business at present to see you about it. 
I am sending you, however, a full length photograph of my- 
self from which you will have no difficulty in figuring out 
the measurements, style, quality of material and amount of 
cloth required. Trusting to receive same by the above men- 
tioned date. Yours truly, 

If any person believes that a satisfactory suit of clothes 
can be obtained in this way then they must believe that an 
accurate map can be provided in a similar manner. We 
have sufficient faith in the public intelligence, however, to 
believe that both would be voted into the same category as 
absurdities. 

P. .1. BARRY. 
Winnipeg, Man., Jan. 7, 1922. 



STAFF CHANGES OF WALLACE & TIERNAN OOMPAN1 



WALLACE & Tiernan Company Inc. announce the follow- 
ing changes in staff in connection with their various 
branches. A new office has been opened at 1016 McKnight 
Building, Minneapolis, Minn., in charge of B. M. Conaty, 
formerly of their Chicago office. This new district will 
cover the States of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Montana, and the Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and 
Manitoba. 

R. B. Mowry has recently been appointed representative 
for the company for New Jersey, Delaware. Maryland, (Eas- 
tern Section) Districts of Columbia and Virginia and will 
make his headquarters at the head office at Newark, N.J. 

Wallace & Tiernan, Ltd., was recently organized with 
headquarters at 73 Adelaide St., East, Toronto, this office 
being in charge of J. Van Benschoten. E. M. Lawson, for- 
merly of the San Francisco office has been ■become repre- 
sentative at Kansas City, Mo. His district covers the States 
of Missouri, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming. 

The following additions have recently been made to the 
company's technical force: S. H. Gregg and G. I. Nelson 
who will become attached to the Chicago office; A. LoPrest, 
who will become attached to the San Francisco office: W. 
Van Benschoten who is now temporarily attached to the 
Chicago office; R. M. Finch who will, for the present, make 
the head office at Newark, New Jersey, his headquarters. 
L. H. Goebel has become Manager of Industrial Sales and 
R. V. Donelly manager of Sanitary Sales, both making their 
headquarters at the main office of the company at Newark. 
N.J. 



THE PACIFIC COAST PIPE COMPANY OF VAN- 
COUVER have just issued their general catalogue which 
is a very useful and interesting compilation of facts calcu- 
lated to be of practical value to all those who are concerned 
willi the design, construction and operation of waterworks 
and hydro electric power plants, etc. It places before en- 
gineers, contractors and waterworks men the merits of 
wood pipe in this connection and in addition includes some 
very useful tables together with a great many illustrations 
showing the various uses to which wood stave pipe can be 
successfully put. This history of the uses of wood pipe is in- 
teretingly presented and altogether hydraulic engineers will 
find in this the newest publication of the Pacific Coast I'ipe 
Company a great deal of useful information. II. C, James, 
manager of the company, is to be congratulated upon this 
latest piece of trade literature. The catalogue contains 
fifty 6x9 pages and will be gladly sent to all who apply 
for a copy. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 



The Canadian Engineer 



Established 1893 



1 Weakly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Terms of Subscription, postpaid to any address: 
One Year Six Months Four Months Single Copies 

$3.00 S1.50 $1.00 10r. 

Published every Tuesday by 
The Monetary Times Printing Co. of Canada, Limited 



President and General Manager 
JAMES J. SA'LMOND 



Assistant General Manager 
ALBERT E. JENNINGS 



HEAD OFFICE: 62 CHURCH STREET, TORONTO, ONT. 
Telephone, Main 7404. Cable Address, "Engineer, Toronto." 

Western Canada Office : 1206 McArthur Bide.. Winnipeg G. W. Goodall, Mgr. 



Vol. 4^ 



owcn Bound, January 81, 192i 



No. 5 



PBINt I I'M, CONTENTS 

Hydro Development near Bathurst. N.B 1S1 

Production of Iron and Steel in Canada 18S 

Engineering Institute's Convention at Mont- 
real 186 

Solving Problem of St. Lawrence Navigation 189 
Construction Industries Conference in Hamil 

ton 

Surety Companies and Contractors' Bonds ... 

Letter to the Editor 

Personals 

Construction News 



191 
192 
195 
197 
199 



l:i\ \i. >T LAWRENCE WATERWAY PROJECTS 

N)\V that the report of the International Joint Commis- 
sion on the St. Lawrence waterway has been referred 
to the Interstate Commerce Committee of the United 
States Congress, it is to be expected that a vigorous dis- 
cussion of the whole proposal will shortly occupy the pub- 
lic attention. Ample stimulus for- this will no doubt arise 
from the objections of New York City and State, as well as 
from Montreal and BUCh Eastern interests as fear for their 
existing commercial advantage. 

While most of the discussion will probably concern 
the broad economic features of the situation and the effect 
upon the commerce of the two countries concerned, there 
will no doubt be a good deal of attention given by technical 
men to the engineering features of ths various schemes of 
development proposed. By reason of the great magnitude 
of the undertaking and because private interests have been 
concerned with it chiefly because of the power that would 
be made available, (ewer alternative prop" alt foi develop- 
ment were received by the International Joinl Commission 
than might have been expected. Those laid before the 
trbmitted by, or on behali of, the Hydro- 
immlMlon of Ontario, the New York and 
Co., Hugh l>. Cooper A Co., and B. 3 M 
Another proposal, outlined else- 
m this Issue, has been put forward by the Great 
,i and Power Co . Ltd, 

,.i\ been made in our 

columi ,,r Ml " "> ! ' Com - 

lopmenl of the Inter- 
While several alternative schemi 

appears to be generally regarded 

most interest, possibly through contrast, Is scheme B, 

which provides for a double-stage development giving an 



estimated continuous power output of 1,000,000 h.p. at a 
cost of $96 per h.p. or if provision for navigation be includ- 
ed in the power cost, at a cost of $132 per h.p., including in- 
terest during construction. An advantage of this develop- 
ment, as against a single-stage one such as the Hydro 
scheme A, or that proposed by the government engineers, 
is, as stated by the proposers, a reduction of the area flood- 
ed from 29000 to 6,000 acres. 

Criticism of the Hydro proposals has been made on the 
ground that the estimates of cost are inaccurate, that the 
amount of power available is overstated and that no special 
arrangements have been provided whereby the liability to 
obstruction of the river by ice jams above Cornwall is over- 
come. It is stated that the attempt to maintain open 
water in the reaches between the Galops Rapids and Corn- 
wall might reduce the head at peak in winter from about 
7 ft. to under 5 ft. during the existence of an ice jam. 

While important differences in estimated costs are 
to be expected where quantities are necessarily based on 
preliminary investigations, it is understood that the unit 
prices assumed by the Hydro were the same as used by 
Lhe Engineering Board, except in the case of earth excava- 
tion within cofferdams, which was higher. Differences of 
opinion appear to exist concerning the possibility or desir- 
ability of attempting to maintain an ice cover in the power 
reach above Cornwall. Scheme A of the Hydro would be 
as conducive to the formation of an ice cover as the Woot- 
en-Bowden one, whereas scheme B would be only a little 
less so, or on the basis of relative areas of open water still 
remaining in the pools above the dams and power houses, 
as 11.8 square miles to 9.2. It is doubtful whether with 
the velocities that will exist above the Barnhart Island 
plant according to one of the schemes, the maintenance 
of a very large ice cover is possible, and whether in view 
of the experiences of the Cedar Rapids Power Co. in pre- 
serving an open channel it is desirable to embark on such 
an undertaking. Apparently, a good deal of further study 
is necessary with respect to the matter of obstruction, for 
although the Engineering Board of the International Joint 
Commission counted upon operating under an ice cover in 
the power reach above the Long Sault Rapids, the commis- 
sion in reporting is strongly of the opinion that the ice 
problem should be gone into very thoroughly by the en- 
larged engineering board which it recommends. 

Rather a large disparity seems to exi^t between the 
estimated costs under the Hydro schemes and the scheme 
of the Engineering Board. Counting provision for 25-ft. 
navigation with allowance for 30 ft. in the locks, the cost 
of the Hydro scheme A per h.p. is $132 and the latter $109. 
To render these figures comparable, there should be added 
to the estimate of the Engineering Board about $16 per 
h.p. to allow for interest during construction, bringing it 
up to $125 per h.p. 

The New York and Ontario Power Co, has proposed a 
double development scheme which was described In detail 
in our issue of January 17, with dams at the loot of the 
Rapide Plal and at the Long Sault Rapids. In accordance 
wiih this BCheme, which somewhat resembles the Hydro 
ae B, it Is estimated thai h.p. might be de- 

veloped and provision tor Improved navigation be made at 
a coat of $87 per h.p. Douiu d bj the company 

concerning the Eeaalbllit] of maintaining a stable lot 
under the r [is development scheme >>v th< 

ring Board between the Galops Rapide and Cornwall. 

I upon the experiem a of the company along the river. 
pressed the »iew that it would be better to attempt to 
,,„ an open channel particularly In the lower n 
and iii this Mew it appears to support the Hydro-! 

on, The considerably lower coal per unit 
of power developed la said to (Jrtse In pan from 
what cheaper standard of construction proposed 
bon 

while the above two alternative schemes concern only 
the International section of the river, that put for* 
ji lu . ri has to do with the entire Improve- 

i.akn Ontario to Monti company esti- 

mates that about 1,000,000 h.p. might be developed at Its 



January 31, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



107 



badly-located Cat Island plant at a cost of about $200 per 
h.p. and that 6,625,000 h.p. might be developed along the 
entire 182 miles at a cost of $219 per h.p., including ne- 
cessary provision for deep water navigation. 

The proposals of Mr. Lovelace concern chiefly that 
portion of the river between Montreal and Lake St. Louis. 
Xo comprehensive scheme was put forward by him for the 
undertaking as a whole. 

According to the views put forward tiy Charles P. 
Loveland, President of the Great Lalkes and Atlantic Canal 
and Power Co., Ltd., the development of the international 
section would become chiefly a means of providing cheap 
power for those who have been agitating for hydro-electric 
power from the Long Sault, and if once the government 
committed itself to the improvement of this section, the 
navigation improvements below Lake St. Francis might be 
deferred many years. This company advocates in addition to 
certain works below Montreal, a navigation and power canal 
from Lake St. Francis to Chambly with connection to Mon- 
treal harbor providing for power development at several 
locations between Melocheville and Laprairie. It urges 
that the only joint construction work undertaken by the 
two governments be two regulating dams, one at the Long 
Sault and the other above Iroquois for the purpose of 
dividing the flow of the river into two equal parts, so that 
each nation may then exercise absolute authority over the 
works required on its own side of the river. In this it 
does not appear to be at variance with the International 
Joint Commission, which recommends a very similar pro- 
cedure. 

Some of the views expressed by Mr. Loveland will no 
doubt be challenged by those who favor a development such 
as that proposed by the Engineering Board and by several 
others who have submitted alternative schemes. It can 
scarcely be said that the United States is asked to con- 
tribute to improvement of navigation in Canada any more 
than Canada is being asked to contribute to similar im- 
provements in American waters, nor can the enterprise be 
attacked on the ground that Canada should not enter it, 
since American citizens may secure the major portion o< 
the benefit to be derived for some years to come. The re- 
port of the International Joint Commission clearly recom- 
mends that the expense as far as navigation is concerned, 
be met in proportion to the benefits derived, and that power 
works be built, installed and operated at the expense of 
the country in which they are located. 

In such discussions as occur on the engineering feat- 
ures of this great undertaking, it should be remembered 
that proposals so far put forward have of necessity iieen 
based upon a somewhat hurried study of the situation. The 
twelve months alloted to the Engineering Board made it 
quite impossible to design the required works in detail or 
estimate costs in any other manner than by a block system. 
The same is no doubt true of the estimates made by those 
who submitted alternative proposals. While there is some 
discrepancy in the costs of the work in the international 
section as estimated by the several groups of engineers that 
have studied the development of this section, it appears 
that the work involved would not impose an undue burden 
upon the people of either this country or the United States, 
even assuming it were not revenue producing. When the 
revenue from the sale of power is considered, it is seen 
that at any reasonable cost the development of the water- 
way would be an economically practicable one. 



STRESS DETERMINATION BY POLARIZED LIGHT 



AT THE recent meeting of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science in Toronto, Dr. Paul Hey- 
mans showed in a very striking manner the possibilities of 
secondary stress determination in complicated structures by 
the use of polarized light. Until now it has been necessary to 
attack a problem of this sort with very unwieldy tools, so 
that the detailed analysis of such stresses in complicated 
structures has been a labor to be dreaded by engineers. It 
now appears, however, that by working with models con- 
structed with a transparent substance having satisfactory 



optical properties, the distribution of stresses can be strik- 
ingly shown by the graduations of color recorded on a 
Photographic plate. By purely optical means, the difference 
in principal stresses in the specimen may be determined, 
and the sum of the principal stresses having been found 
by measurement of the lateral strain, it thus becomes pos- 
sible to fix the value of the principal stresses and hence the 
stress in any direction. From certain photographs exhibit- 
ed by Dr. Heymans, it appears that we may look forward 
with some confidence to the determination of secondary 
stresses at rigid joints of a truss by means of polarized light 
studies. So promising is this field, that every encourage- 
ment should be given to research work in it. 



PERSONALS 



J. W. SMART has been elected president of the Mani- 
toba Association of Architects. 

CONTROLLER YV. W. HILTZ, of Toronto, has been ap- 
pointed the representative of the city of Toronto on the 
Town Planning Association. 

BERT DOERR, Kitchener, has been appointed super- 
intendent of the Gait local Hydro Commission and will 
enter upon his duties Feb. 1st. 

C. E. FRASER has been appointed road superintend- 
ent for Scarboro Township. It is understood that the new 
township council is planning extensive road improvements 
during the coming season. 

ALFRED DRYLAND, M. Inst. C.E., County Engineer 
of Middlesex, England, who paid an extended visit to Can- 
ada and the United States last fall wrote recently to "The 
Canadian Engineer" saying that he has over $10,000,000 
of road and bridge work on hand at the present time. 

J. EMILE VANIER, civil engineer, of Montreal, has 
just returned from Europe where he spent two months 
visiting various countries for the purpose of ascertaining 
what European Governments were doing along the line of 
furnishing farmers with limestone dust for fertilizing pur- 
poses. Upon investigation he found that in Europe much 
more interest is taken in this matter than in Canada. Mr. 
Vanier is preparing a report on the subject to submit to the 
Quebec Provincial Government. 

J. B. CARSWELL who was recently elected to the 
Presidency of the Association of the Canadian Building and 
Construction Indus- 
tries received his 
training as civil 
engineer at Glasgow 
(Scotland) Univer- 
sity of which insti- 
tution he is a gradu- 
ate. He came to 
Canada twelve years 
ago and engaged in 
general contracting 
work in Montreal. 
He later changed to 
the engineering stall 
of the Grand Trunk 
Railway, following 
which he represent- 
ed the firm of Ross, 
MacDonald and Co. 
in Ontario for a per- 
iod of five years. 
During this period 
Mr, (arswell had 
under his charge 
the erection of the 
Royal Bank Build- 
ing, the Central Technical School, the now Union Station, 
etc. At the outbreak of war he became chief engineer of 
the Aviation department of the Imperial Munitions Board. 
While with the Board he built all the flying camps in Can- 







THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 5 



ada using his own designing and construction staff. The 
Carswell Construction Company of Toronto of which Mr. 
Carswell is president is well known in all parts of this 
country. 

JOHN" G. SULLIVAN, consulting engineer, Winnipeg, 
Man., was elected president of the Engineering Institute 
.it" ( anada at the annual meeting in Montreal last week. 
Mr. Sullivan was born at Bushnell's Basin, Munroe Co., 
New York, on January 11, 1S63. He was educated at 
Cornell University, graduating 1888. His first railroad 

experience was with the 
Great Northern Rail- 
way, as rodman, later 
becoming assistant en- 
engineer of that road. 
In 1893 he became as- 
sistant engineer of the 
Alberta Railway & Coal 
Co.; 'locating engineer 
of the Butte Anaconda 
and Pacific Ry. 1894; 
principal engineer Kal- 
so and Slocan Ry. in 
1895; reconaissance en- 
gineer Columbia & 
Western Ry. in 1896,, 
and in 1S98 was ap- 
pointed assistant engi- 
neer of this road. In 
1899 Mr. Sullivan joined 
the enginering staff of Canadian Pacific Railway, being ap- 
pointed divisional engineer of construction, which position 
he held until 1905 when he became assistant chief engi- 
neer of the Panama Canal. In 1907 Mr. Sullivan returned 
to the C.P.R. as manager of construction, Eastern lines and 
in 1908 was appointed assistant chief engineer, at Montreal, 
holding this position until 1911, when he became chief 
engineer of Western lines. In 1915 he was appointed 
chief engineer of the C.P.R., which position he held until his 
resignation in 1918. Mr. Sullivan is a prominent member 
of the American Railway Engineering Association. He 
was chairman of Committee No. 16 Economics of Railway 
Location and was president of the Association in 1918. Mr. 
Sullivan is a member of the American Society of Civil En- 
gineers, and has been a member of the Engineering Insti- 
tute of Canada since 1900. 




OHITI AKV 



ANTON BERG, Toronto, who was a well known in- 
ventor of brick making machinery, died last week in his 
66th year. 



Wll.l. HOI. I) lii ELDING TRADES EXHIBITION IN 
MONTREAL 

AT THE animal meeting of the Builders' Exchange held in 
Montreal on J inuarj 28, a plea iraa made tor the ■■•<> 
upport and participation bj member of the Building 
Trades in Montreal, in a Building Trades Exhibition, to be 
held in the Dubrule Building, Phillips Place 1 , on April 1 to 
8, inclusive. 

The purpose of the exhibition is to awaken inn pective 
builders to (hi- fact that the coming months will In- the 
right time to build, and with this end in View the slogan: 
if you are going to build, build now," wa adopted 

public Interest in i be project. Mr. 
Harry Gustln and Lt.-Col. K. C. H Mor I the 

meeting at length on tin' benefits to both 

tin- public to !"• gained by making the exhibition a sn 

About ljo members of the Builders' Exchang* 
■ at the annual meeting dinner which pre 

ceded it Before the commencement of i. BJ Q 

M. ''.I. port of tb" proceedings >i ii" conferenc 

of member! of the Association of Canadian Building :""' 
Construction industries held recently in Hamilton There 
genera] feeling at the c infereo ol Cape, that 

building costs were going no lower. There was a shortage 



of building all over the country, and also a very small sur- 
plus of building materials, and it was believed that any con- 
siderable demand would be likely to keep up the cost of ma- 
terials. 

D. K. Trotter, general secretary, presented the annual 
report ot the secretary-treasurer. This showed total re- 
ceipts of $5,473.60, which included the sum of $299.60 car- 
ried forward from 1920, and disbursements during the past 
year of $5,470.33. This left a net bank balance of $3.27. 

The officers elected for 1922 were: K. D. Church, presi- 
dent; Douglas Bremner, first vice-president; H. Vincent, 
second vice-president; A. T. Alexander third vice-president; 
Alphonse Gratton, fourth vice-president; J. E. Walsh, hon- 
orary treasurer; A. Plomondon, honorary secretary. The 
other directors elected were John Quinlan, E. B. Evans, D. 
A. Bethune, J. W. Graham, A. W. Bremner, J. D. Johnson, 
T. Latourelle and A. Leclaire. 



MANITOBA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITKt TS ANNUAL 
MEETING 



AT the annual meeting of the Manitoba Association of Ar- 
chitects held last week, J. W. Smart was elected Presi- 
den, G. W. Northwood, vice-president, with the following 
members of the Council, C. S. Bridgman, C. C. Chisholm. 
Chivers J. Halley, E. Proin, D. A. Ross and J. M. Semens, 
Secretary-Treasurer, E. Fitz Munn. 

At the meeting it was announced that the Royal Archi- 
tectural Institute of Canada had expressed a desire to hold 
its 1922 convention in Winnipeg and a cordial invitation 
was extended to have them do so. 

A resolution was passed commending the action of 
the Provincial Government in appointing a town planning 
controller and in putting into operation the town planning 
act. 



POWER LINE FROM NIAGARA TO MONTREAL 



AN interesting address was delivered by T. N. Hogg, of 
the engineering staff Ontario Hydro-Electric Com- 
mission on Jan. 27 before the Hamilton Branch of the Engi- 
neering Institute of Canada on "St. Lawrence River Power 
Development." Mr. Hogg predicted that in time a | 
line would loop Lake Ontario from Niagara Falls to Mon- 
treal, the power lines of the St. Lawrence, Trent Valley 
and Niagara Falls being linked in one great trunk line, 
from which secondary lines would be served. Sim. 
by the development of Hydro power, a demand lor half a 
million horsepower had been created. The speaker dwelt 
on the feasibility of the plan and stated that by harnessing 
the St. Lawrence 35 million tons of coal would be saved 
yearly by steam power plants. The speaker illustrated 
his remarks with lantern slides. 



In connection with the much discussed question of the 
electrification of a number of branch railways in Ontario, 
some interesting conclusions an' set [orth in the report of 
the International Joint Commission. The report states that 
in the zone considered from Lake Erie to the Quebec bound- 
ary there are 36,0(Mi mile, of railway on both sides of the 
line. Of these railway lines. 19,000 miles could be elec- 
trified profitably. The report says i lie sum; in coal by 

lectriflcation would be 8,890,800 tons annually. 

I 19,000 miles of railway would cost 1660,000,000, 

1,,, ,,| ,,,, C08tl Of 1919, but the annual saving would bl 

i i ■ per cent "n Hie Investment it n added in 

the 'report that tb it todaj would be nearer $400,000,000 

.noo. Whether Canada ami the United states 

repared to g" ahead with the Immense st. Lav 

. or not. Ill" figures and coinpai i-on - gather", 1 

mi these days "t Government econ- 

h ,,u what coal .'."Is railways in this eonntry. 

only tw,. yeai need I ted In 1919 the Canadian Gov- 
ernment <'\ H lines spent $8,800,888 for coal; In 1980 the 
bin was $8,066,844. in 1818 the average price was $3.66 
a ton, while In 1920 the average price was $7.40 a ton. 



January 31. 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



^IMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIItlllllllllllllltltllllllllMIEIIIIllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltlllllllllllllllllllllllllfllfllllllllllllllMlltltllMIIIIIIMIIIIIllIllllllllMIIII^f 

I CONSTRUCTION NEWS SECTION I 

Readers will confer a great favor by sending in news items from time to time. We are particularly eager 
to get notes regarding engineering work in hand or proposed, contracts awarded, changes in staffs, etc. 

^llllllllllinniUMIIMIUIIIUUIIUllUUIlllIIMlMMIIIIIMIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIllllMIIIMMMIUIUIIIlMllMlMllllinilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllliniinuillllr. 



TENDERS PENDING 



Construction news items, including notes of various 
tenders called, are published on pages 44 to 50 of this issue. 
The following tabulation is presented as a reminder to con- 
tractors in regard to tenders that are still pending, other 
than those reported on the above-mentioned pages. The 
word "Issue" refers to the issue of "The Canadian Engineer" 
in which there appeared a notice giving some details re- 
garding the call for tenders. 

Tenders 
Place of Work Close Issue 

Toronto, Ont., office building, Toronto 

Hydro-Electric System Feb. 1 Jan. 24 

Windsor, Ont., one motor-driven street 

flusher Feb. 7 Jan. 24 

Quebec, Province of. construction of 

gravelling in parish of Ste. Rose du 

Degele Feb. 9 Jan. 24 

Ontario, Province of, Work on Provincial 

highway. Township of Ameliasburg .. Feb. 10 Jan. 17 
Victoria, B.C., fabrication and erection of 

part of the superstructure of John- 
son Street bridge Feb. 13 Jan. 17 

Ontario, Province of, supply of Portland 

cement Feb. 14 Jan. 24 



BRIDGES, ROADS AND STREETS 



Birch Cliff, Ont. — It is understood that Scarboro Town- 
ship Council is planning extensive road improvements, but 
that the year's road program has not yet been mapped out. 
Road Superintendent, C. E. Fraser. 

Brantford, Ont. — The City Council gave the $40,000 
debenture by-law for the completion of St. Paul's Ave. sub- 
way its third reading. 

Brantford, Ont. — Estimates for an expenditure of $62,- 
000 on the subufban section of the Brant County road sys- 
tem will be submitted to the council by the chairman of the 
Suburban Roads Commission. 

Brantford, Ont. — Woodhouse Township, Norfolk 
County, has asked Brant County Council for aid in present- 
ing the claim for a provincial highway from Port Dover to 
Guelph. Brant Chamber of Commerce obtained indorsement 
of the Western Ontario United Boards of Trade at Wood- 
stock recently to a resolution along this line. 

Chatham, Out. — Judging by the way deputations have 
been appearing before the Kent County Council this session, 
the good roads movement is still a popular one. On Jan. 26 
no fewer than three waited on the Council from various 
parts of the county urging the construction of permanent 
roads. 

Gait, Ont. — At a recent meeting of the Suburban 
Road Commission estimates amounting to 122,500 were 
prepared for this year's work. This money will be expended 
in construction work on: No. 12, Blair road; No. 31, Rose- 
ville road; No. 33, Sprague's road; No. 35, East River road; 
No. 37, Toll Gate east; No. 76, Hespeler, Provincial-County 
between North Dumfries and Waterloo; with a sum for coat- 
ing some parts of the system with tarvia. 

Kingston, Ont. — The Frontenac County Council has de- 
cided that during this year the sum of $109,700 would be 
expended on its roads. Besides this amount $16,000 will 
be expended upon the Kingston suburban area, of which 
the city of Kingston pays one-half. 

Montreal, Que. — Five tenders were received by the 
Executive Committee for the furnishing of 40,000 ft. of 



straight limestone prepared for curbing, and of 5,000 tt. 
of circular. The highest tender for the former was receiv- 
ed from Joseph Brien, at $1.90 per ft., and the lowest from 
Georges Labelle, at 95c per ft. For the circular stone, 
Joseph Brien was again ihe highest tenderer at $2.15 per 
ft. and G. Labelle the lowest at $1.10. Two tenders were 
received for granite, Joseph Brunet being prepared to 

Eupply 20, > tt. of 3traight and 5,000 of circular al 

and $3.00 respectively, while the Morrison Quarry Co 
supply the same lor $2.00 and $2.75, respectively. 

Ottawa, Ont. — The Board of Control decided to pro- 
ceed with the grading of Byron, Java Iona, Faraday. 6< 
and Clarendon Streets, at a cost of approximately $12,000. 

Ottawa, Ont. — The Suburban Road Commission plans 
the following work for this year: The rebuilding of the 
Russell Road Tor several miles, the extension of the Rich- 
mond Road, and some work on the Metcalfe Road. Chair- 
man. John Bingham. 

Paris, Ont. — The final plans for the proposed new high- 
way are nearly completed. Clerk. C. B. Barker. 

Paris, Ont. — Final plans for the construction o 8 
highway through Paris are under way and work will start 
in the near future. About 150 men will be employed. 

Peterboro, Ont. — City Engineer R. H. Parsons was 
instructed by the Board of Works to olbtain prices on road 
oil. 

Quebec, Province of, — Hon. J. L. Perron, Minister of 
Highways, informed a delegation from Lotbiniere that 
work would be resumed in the spring on the Lotbiniere sec- 
tion of the Levis-St. Lambert highway. The work in this 
section will cover 30 miles. 

Quebec, Que. — Hon. .1. L. Perron, Minister of Roads, 
has announced that $5,000,000 will be expended on new road 
construction this year, and $2,500.00 for repairs and main- 
tenance. A new road will be constructed from St. Lamb- 
ert of St. Hyacinthe, via the Cote Noire Road to the Sala- 
berry monument at Chambly Basin. 

Sai-nia, Out. — At the request of the ratepayers of Som- 
bra Township, the County Council has decided to build one 
and three-quarter miles of permanent concrete toad on the 
16th sideroad to link up With a permanent highway in Kent 
County. 

Todmorden, Ont. — The proposed Todmorden-Leaside 
bridge was discussed at a recent meeting of the ratepayers. 
Frank Barber, Engineer, submitted estimates and told how 
the cost would be met. A committee was formed to inter- 
view Leaside ratepayers and the Danforth Business Men's 
Association with a view to getting their co-operation. 

Toronto, Out. — The City Council referred back for 
further consideration the proposed widening of Yonj 
from Lawton Ave. to the C.P R. tracks. 

Toronto, out. — The city council gave two readings to 

the by-law for the extension o. Dnndas St. ai 

St. to a point just e.,st of Victoria St. 

Toronto. Out. — Mount Pleasant Ratepayers' 
tion passed a resolution that deputation should wait on the 
Board of Control to ask that the Avoca Vale bridge in Moore 
Pari he built at once. 

Toronto, Ont. — The City Council intends to construct 

asphalt pavements on Avenue Road, Gloucester st . Orange 
Road. John St., Pembroke St . and St, Clair Ave., at an 
estimated cost "i $227,206. Also a concrete sidewalk on 
Windermere Ave., at a cost of $305. 

Toronto, out. — The proposition of a brid 
from the head of Pape Ave to make connection with the 
town of Leaside. came before the York County Council at a 
recent meeting, and the matter was referred to the Warden 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 5 



and commissioners for report at the June session of the 
Council. 

Toronto, Out. — Works Commissioner R. C. Harris re- 
ported to the Board of Control that he had received a com- 
munication from Chief Engineer F. A. Gaby, of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario, directing attention 
to the possibility of the construction of a subway for street 
cars at Bay St. in the near future. 

Toronto, Ont, — Reeve William Keith and J. M. Guard- 
house, members of the Toronto and York Roads Commis- 
sion, submitted to the York County Council a program of 
road construction involving an expenditure of over $800.- 
000, including the following: Paving Yonge St. through 
Richmond Hill after the tracks are moved to the centre of 
the roadway. $16,500; widening 'bridges in Aurora, $7,000: 
widening and resurfacing Kennedy road at Unionville, $58,- 
000; two miles waterbound macadam pavement on Ken- 
nedy road north from Cashel, $33,000; %-mile water- 
bound macadam east of Stouffville, $12,000; diversion 
through Ballantrae swamp, $11,000; grading and gravelling 
8th concession, Witchurch. $4,000; Dundas street cul- 
(800; widening and resurfacing Vaughan road in 
York township, $31,900; extending waterbound macadam 
on Vaughan road in Vaughan, $38,000; paving stretch of 
Weston road after tracks moved to centre of street, 
through Mount Dennis, $23,000; waterbound macadam 
from Kleinburg north on Weston road, $38,000: widening 
and resurfacing Don Mills road from Pape avenue to Tay- 
lor's Hill, $19,400; extending waterbound macadam on 
Don Mills road, $24,000; two miles waterbound macadam. 
Malton road, $48,000; Malton road. Eagle street to the 
Humber. $8,500; Kins mad. %-mile north from King City, 
waterbound macadam, $10,960; 3 V 2 miles of concrete pave- 
ment on Sutton road from Keswick, $120,000; waterbound 
macadam two miles north from Sharon, $42,000; Mount 
Albert bridge, $8,000; Lloydtown road, west of Aurora, two 
miles waterbound macadam, $38,000; two miles gravel 
from Kettleby west, $8,000; Vandorf road, Wellington 
street widening and surfacing, $23,000; York 

road Lansing to Oriole, concrete base, hot top, $40,000; 
O'Sullivans corners, one mile west, waterbound macadam, 
$22 000- bridge east of Agincourt, $10,000; Brown's road 
two miles waterbound macadam, $42,000; Scarlett road, St. 
Clair avenue, north y 2 -mile, $15,000. 

Winnipeg, Man.— The City Council intends to extend 
Wolever Ave., from Erin St. to Clifton St., at a cost of 
$2,27.";. City Clerk, C. J. Brown. 

WATER, SEWAGE AND REFUSE 



Brantford, <>nt.— The Board of Works recommended 
that the offer Of Canada Lock-Joint Pipe, Ltd.. for the sup- 
ply of reinforced concrete pipe to be used in the construc- 
tion of the Mohawk St. outfall sewer, be accepted at the 
following pi l^e. $4 per ft.; 42-in. ptpe, $4., 5 

, , M „.„ om>— The Town Council Intends to construct 

a sewer on the Montreal Road, Dora St., Main St.. King St., 
and John St., at an estimated cost of $70,500. Town Clerk. 

I , u,m: on,.-Th, City Council will consider 

" construction of a sewer to serve the 

proposed Wayland school. •'"■ D '; rmn "® n ' 

wort call, tor an expenditure of »26. and tbj other 

;:,;,,. no,,. -,■„, $2,000. city k... 

hare I n completed for the 

to ,,e installed 1 by he 
II commence early in the 

, by the City 

; "'\: 

™ con. ' r ^, 8y LZ T 

i 3 in. high. Th. I ttj 
Tic considered the advisability of Installing a concrete 



tank, but after going into the matter carefully, decided on 
a steel tank as being the best installation. 

Midland, Ont. — The Town Council is considering the 
construction of a sewer on Dominion Ave. at a cost of $1,- 
600. Clerk, C. E. Smith. 

Oil City, Ont. — The Canadian Oil Companies, Ltd., are 
planning to erect a filtering plant at a cost of $25,000. The 
contract for the supply of brick has already been let to Fred 
Howlett & Sons. 

Port Credit, Ont. — Preliminary work for the new water 
works system will be rushed through in order that active 
work may be commenced in the early spring. The whole 
system is estimated to cost $110,000 — $60,000 for the cen- 
tral plant and $50,000 for the distribution system. 

Prince Rupert, B.C. — The City Council plans the con- 
struction of an incinerator early this year. Estimated cost, 
$15,000. City Engineer, F. G. Whittaker. 

Smith's Falls, Ont. — The Provincial Board of Health 
has served notice on the town that it must reach a del 
decision before February 1 regarding the installation of 
a filtration plant for its water supply, or suffer the penalty 
imposed by law. The water supply is now secured from 
the Rideau river. 

Todmorden, Ont. — The proposed improvement of sew- 
ers was discussed at a recent meeting of the ratepayers. 
R. O. Wynne-Roberts, Engineer, outlined a scheme which 
would cost approximately $900,000, but stated that for pres- 
ent needs only a small portion of the system, costing about 
$90,000, would be necessary. 

Toronto, Ont. — City Council referred back a motion by 
Aid. Baker that the East Toronto water works plant, which 
is used as a steam reserve, be electrified. 

Toronto, Ont. — Works Commissioner Harris will 
shortly present to the Works Committee a general plan for 
the construction of a sewage system for the whole of North 
Toronto. 

Toronto, Ont. — The City Council intends to construct 
water mains on Bedford 1' ; i r k Ave., Brookdale Ave., Cran- 
brook Ave., Deloraiue Ave, Indian Grove, and Lawrence 
Ave. West, at a cost of $18,469.41. 

Toronto, Out. — Works Commissioner Harris has recom- 
mended the construction of water mains on the following 
streets: Melrose Ave.. Sin;, 11 St., Willard Ave., and AVood- 
bine Ave. Total estimated cost, $5,870.78. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Chartered Trust Co. applied to the 
Board of Control for a sewerage system for the new sub- 
division in t he Leslie Nurseries property on Queen St Bast, 
at a cost of $84,000. The Board recommended that the 
system be installed. 

Weston, Out. — Plans for repairing and extending the 
water system were presented to the icfl l>y mem- 

bers of the Water, power and Light Commission. The 
commission proposes to line the reservoirs with concrete, 
and generally bring the system up to date. The cost is 
estimated at $17,000. 

Windsor, Ont. — The Kssex Border Utilities will make 
another attempt to meel the Windsor Watt Board and the 
Walkerville Water Co. The plan, it was explained at a 
meetitm of the Commission, will not interfere with 
the distribution plants a1 Windsor and Walkerrille, 
Each of the Interested municipalities will have sole control 
trtbution, with the Commission in charge of delivery 

from the tilt ration Btal 

Winnipeg, Man. — The CitJ Council intends to construet 

a sewer in Beach Ave . from the C.P.R. to Ksml Bt., at s 
cost of $1,627. City Clerk, C. J. Brown. 

fork 'i>.. iini. — The contract for the construction of 
watermalns on a-ileen Ave . Connor Ave , Dot 

\!,. and H ai Ive, has been let to Cordon Thompson, 

, | Howard Park Ue . Toronto. 



LIGHT, HEAT nn row i i: 



iiiaiittoiii, out. — 0. K Klrkby, luperlntendent of the 
Brantford township Hydro system, announced that work 

011 th ,. ; hi* Hydro line win start Immediate!] 

i ..iiitrlglit, out.— On February 6 a by-law will be voted 



January 31, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



201 



on by the ratepayers to authorize the borrowing o£ $11,500 
for the purchase and installation o£ Hydro-electric equip- 
ment. Clerk, R. G. Stewart. 

Sturgeon Falls, Ont. — The Northern Ontario Light 
and Power Co. is considering the purchase of the power 
rights held by the Mclntyre-Porcupine Mines on the Sturg- 
eon Falls, Mattagami River. If the deal goes through 
and Mclntyre assigns its power license at Sturgeon Falls 
to the power company, there will be available for develop- 
ment and for supply to the Porcupine mining district, an 
additional 7,000 h.p. 

Toronto, Ont. — City Architect Price submitted three 
separate propositions to the Board of Control for the heat- 
ing of the Live Stock Arena at the Exhibition Grounds. 
Two of them were elaborate, involving expenditures of from 
$100,000 to $130,000. The other, and probably the one 
that will be adopted, provides for an addition to the pres- 
ent temporary heating plant at a cost of $7,000. Action 
was deferred. 

Winnipeg, Man. — The contract for the supply of 2,- 
000 ft. of 13,000-volt and 2,000 ft. of 2,300-volt cambric 
insulated fireproof braided cable, has been let to the Ca- 
nadian General Electric Co., Ltd., at $3,795, f.o.b. Winni- 
peg. 



RAILWAYS 



Birch Cliff, Ont. — The Toronto and Eastern radial by- 
law was given its third reading by the Scarboro Township 
Council. Scarboro's share of the bonds for its construction 
will be given to the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario with authority to proceed with the construction of 
the road, either with or without the consent of the Govern- 
ment. 

Brantford, Ont. — The City Council approved the $80,- 
000 by-law for the extension of the street railway. 

Guelph, Ont. — The Grand Trunk Railway Co. plans 
track alterations in this city. 

Kitchener, Ont. — At a public meeting held in the City 
Hall a committee headed by Geo Lippert, was appointed to 
work in conjunction with the Railway Committee of the 
City Council to consider protection of all railway cross- 
ings, including a sulbway at King St. 

London, Ont. — The London & Port Stanley Railway 
Commission has empowered Sir Adam Beck, the chairman, 
to enter into negotiations with the Grand Trunk Railway 
for the taking over 'by the L. & P. S. R. of a building owned 
by the Grand Trunk Railway, at the northeast corner of 
Richmond and Bathurst Streets for the purpose of con- 
verting it into a depot for the city's railway, at a cost of 
$20,000. 

Usborne Tp., Ont. — Henry Strang, of Hensall, Ont. : 
Township Clerk, has been instructed by the Township 
Council to ascertain from the Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario the steps necessary to insure a hydro 
radial from St. Mary's via Kirkton and Exeter to link up 
with the proposed electrified Huron and Bruce Railway, 
ultimately extending to Grand Bend via Dashwood. 

Toronto, Ont. — The City Council gave third reading to 
the Toronto Surburban Railway purchase by-law. 



FACTORIES AND LARGE BUILDINGS 



Bridgebm-g, Ont. — At a recent public meeting of School 
Section No. G of the adjacent township of Bertie, it was de- 
cided to co-operate with School Sections Nos. 2, 4 and 10 
in order to secure for the township immediately surround- 
ing Bridgeburg and Fort Erie a consolidated school. 

Chatham, Ont. — The Separate School Board have de- 
cided to proceed at once with the construction of a new 
separate school in North Chatham. Some time ago the Hal- 
liday property on Victoria Avenue was purchased tor 
$12,000. 

Copper Cliff, Ont. — The public school which was 
valued at $100,000 was recently destroyed by fire. The 
school will be rebuilt at once. Secretary of School Board. 
Mr. Gallagher. 



Gredlton, Ont. — The members of the Methodist 
Church have decided to rebuild at once the church re- 
cently destroyed by fire. Plans will be prepared by Archi- 
tect J. Vicar Munro. of London. 

Clover Bar, Alta. — A movement is on foot here for the 
erection of a church. Address R. P. Ottewell. 

East Toronto, Out. — The Y.M.C.A. plan the erection 
of a new building on Gerrard St. next summer. 

East Toronto, Ont. — The Grand Trunk Railway plan 
the erection of a Railway Y.M.C.A. building on a site near 
Kimberley Ave. The work will be commenced in the 
spring; also the erection of a new freight shed and railway 
passenger station. 

Glanworth, Ont. — Plana for a library building have 
been prepared by William Murray, Architect, London, Ont. 

Kitchener, Out. — Fire damaged the Weber Chambers 
to the extent of $15,000. 

Kingston, Ont. — The Provincial Department of Agri- 
culture is being urged to rebuild at once the Eastern On- 
tario Dairy School, recently destroyed by fire. 

London, Ont^— Hyatt Bros, have the contract for re- 
building the cigar factory of William Ward & Sons. Ltd., 
which was recently damaged by fire to the extent of $40,- 
000. 

London, Ont. — This city plans to spend about four 
million dollars on schools this year, according to the ex- 
tensive program of building outlined by the Board of Edu- 
cation. An addition to the London Technical and Arts 
Schools is estimated at $1,000,000, while the program pro- 
vides for erection of new buildings to cost $400,000, in- 
cluding a new 14-roomed school in West London, and the 
first unit of a 17-roomed school in East London. 

Lunenburg, N.S. — Fire destroyed the storehouse of 
Adams & Knickle. 

Melbourne, Ont. — The Public and Continuation School 
was destroyed by fire. 

Mitchell, Ont. — A one-storey addition is to be erected 
in the rear of the main factory of the Wettlaufer foundry. 

Montreal, Que. — The Vimy and Harvard Apartments. 
5618-26 Sherbrooke St., valued at $250,000, were destroyed 
by fire. 

Montreal, Que. — The construction of an ice arena on 
the corner of St. Luke and Atwater Streets will commence 
early in April. Estimated cost, $400,000. 

Newmarket, Ont. — The Agricultural Society plans the 
erection of a new poultry ibuilding. President, W. H. Eves. 

Ottawa, Ont. — A movement is on foot for the erection 
of a Community Hall. 

Ottawa, Ont. — The Butterworth Building. 197 Sparks 
St., was damaged by fire to the extent of $12,800. 

Paris, Ont. — A three-storey building will shortly be 
erected on Grand River St. by Daniel McTavish. 

Port Arthur, Ont. — Work on the erection of their new 
paper mills will be commenced here shortly by the Provin- 
cial paper Mills. I. til. The building will be 900 ft. long and 
will cost with the equipment about $1,000,000. 

Port Credit, Ont. — The School Board authorized the 
preparation of Plana for an addition to the Forest Avenue 
School. Chairman. .Mr. Maybee. 

Quebec, Que. — The sub-committee of the Catholic 
School Commission decided to ask for plans for I 
construction of the Sacred Heart School on Grant St.. which 
was destroyed by tire. Estimated cost. $40,000. 

Regina, Sask. — Plana for the construction of a public 
comforl Station have been prepared by Storey and Van 
ul. architects. Estimated cost. (25,000. Tenders 
will probably be called for about March 1. 

Sarnia, Ont. — West Lambton Fair Hoard will consider 
l lie erection of a poultry and horticultural building. Presi- 
dent, C. A. McArthur. 

Sllverthorne, out. — The trustees of s. s. No. •'••"• will 
ask the ratepayers to ratify the proposition to raise $161,- 
000 for a new school, together with the site. The > 
the school when completed would be about $20" 

Thorold, Ont. — A committee of the Board of Trade 
has been formed to negotiate with the Government for a 
new post office. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 5 



Toronto, Ont. — A. Stolberg plans to erect a factory on 
the north-east corner of Keating St. and Carlaw Ave. 

Toronto, Ont. — The members of Hillcrest Church of 
Christ plan the erection of a new church at a cost of $50 - 
000. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Chartered Trust Co. proposes to 
start work at once on 50 of 200 houses which they propose 
to 'build on Queen St. East. 

Toronto, Ont. — The members of Oakwood Presbyterian 
Church are considering the erection of a new church. 
Pastor, Rev. Dr. T. Wardlaw-Taylor. 

Toronto, Ont. — Mount Pleasant Ratepayers' Associa- 
tion decided to ask the city to provide funds for the build- 
ing of a branch library in North Toronto. 

Toronto, Ont. — Plans for the new Jarvis St. Collegi- 
ate of 32 rooms were adopted by the school property com- 
mittee. The building is estimated to cost $450,000. 

Toronto, Ont, — At the annual meeting of Bloor Street 
Baptist Church a committee of members was appointed to 
inaugurate a campaign for the erection of a new church. 

Torono, Out. — The members of the Church of the 
Resurrection i Anglican) plan the erection of a new church 
at Milverton Blvd. and Woodbine Ave., at a cost of $32,000. 

Toronto, Ont. — A recommendation was forwarded by 
the Board of Control to the City Council favoring the pass- 
ing of a by-law authorizing the issue of debentures for $2,- 
500,000 to enable the Board of Education to proceed with 
its building program. 

Toronto, Out. — The erection of buildings in a number 
of parks, including a new bathing station at Hanlan's Point, 
have been recommended by the Parks Department, anil a- 
mounts to cover the cost of these will be included in the 
estimates of the current year. 

Victoria, B.C. — Tenders addressed to the City Clerk. 
for the purchase of an existing railway swing span bridge, 
will be received until noon, March 6. (See official adv. ). 

\\ ellington, Ont. — The contract for the construction 
of a Consolidated School has been awarded to the Norman 
MacLeod Co., Ltd., Kent Bldg., Toronto. 

Windsor, <>nt. — Aid. Samuel Keyser plans to build a 
large apartment house at a cost of $150,000. 

Winnipeg, Man. — Tin 1 Woolworth Building was de- 
stroyed by fire. 

Winnipeg, Man. — Fire damaged the Woods Building to 
the extent of between $25,000 and $40,000. 

Vabk, B.C. — The Provincial Department of Public 
Works awarded the contract for the construction of a 
school here to J. MacLeod, of Cranbrook, B.C. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Blenfait, Sa.sk. — A provincial charter has been granted 
to the Lignite Coal Mines. Ltd. Capitalization, $200,000. 

4 )>:• ii \ in. Alia. — A provi m ia 1 charter has been granted 
to the Kirby Construction Co., Ltd. Capitalization, $20,- 
000. 

i ..iiiH.ni. >ii. Mia. — A provincial charter bus been 
granted to the Barry Sheet Metal Co., Ltd., Edmonton, 
Capitalisation, $2o,< 

Georgetown, Out. — The offices of the Georgetown 
Foundry Co ued by fire to the extent ol $10,000, 

Kingston, Ont, — The City Council decided to call for 
tenders for annual supplies Clerk, W. W. Bands, M.D. 

Lethbrldge, Alia. — Tenden addressed to the Irrigation 

Council "f Alberta. i,et iiin 1dge, Alia., will be received until 

nary 24, foi aal Mason r) i See ol 

■ ■ I V I . 

i.i. mil. ii, <>ni. — The approval of the Board ol Health 
has i,. i by the Public Utilities Commission tor 

the expenditure of $250,000 on waterworks and elei 

opmenl In • ncll will now in- 

to take the. i have the question placed be- 

fore the Ontario Railway Board for sanction. A by-law 

will Ol *lth this end In view at the next meeting 

of the Council 

Minn.... <>nt. — The Town Council decided upon the 
following expenditures for local improvements: Sewers and 



waterworks. $30,000; roads, $45,000; and sidewalks, $5,- 
000. Town Clerk, J. A. Telfer. 

Ottawa, Ont. — Works Commissioner A. F. Macallum 
will malke a report to the Board of Control on the proposed 
improvements to the shore of the Rideau river, east of 
Bank St. 

Ottawa, Onl. — Application will be made to the Legis- 
lative Assembly by the Municipal Corporation of the City 
of Ottawa for authority to execute and complete the follow- 
ing works and to raise upon debentures the sums of money 
mentioned for same: The construction of a sewer to serve 
the Lady Grey Hospital at a cost of $85,000; completion 
of the Pinard St. sewer, $18,000; construction of an asphalt 
or asphalt and wood-block pavement on Nicholas St., be- 
tween Rideau St. and Laurier Ave.; completion of the St. 
Patrick St. bridge. $85,000; permanent repairs and addi- 
tions to the Civic Garage, $10,000; construction of a viaduct 
over the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific Railway tracks 
on Wellington St., $150,000 (Corporation's share); con- 
struction of a bridge over the Rideau Canal at Somerset 
St., $100,000 (Corporation's share); construction of water 
main extensions and services, $100,000; and the purchase 
and installation of water meters, $30,000. 

St. Catharines, Ont. — The local Chamber of Commerce 
has been assured by Hon. \V. C. Kennedy. Minister of Rail- 
ways and Canals, that engineers of the Department 'have 
been instructed to report on the feasibility of constructing 
a turning basin and docking facilities on the Welland canal 
here. 

Sapperton, B.C. — Fire caused a half million dollars' 
damage to the Brunette saw mills. The saw and planing 
mils are destroyed. 

Toronto, Ont. — Works Commissioner R. C. Harris will 
report to the Works Committee on the paving of St. Clair 
Ave., from Cobalt St. to Runnymede Road. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Works Committee adopted a sup- 
plementary report from Works Commissioner for authority 
to proceed with the construction of a new bridge on Ger- 
rard St. over the Don. at a cost of $832,000. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Works Committee passed the esti- 
mate of Works Commissioner Harris for the construction 
this year of a pure water reservoir at the Island at a cost 
of $750.0(10. Estimates amounting to $S94,486 for water 
main eptensions were also passed by the Committee. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Works Committee passed the esti- 
mate of Works Commissioner Harris for the construction 
this year of a bridge on St. Clair Ave. east, over Reservoir 
Ravine, at a cost of $712,000. The proposed new bridges 
across the ravine at North and South Glen Road and the 
Spadina road bridge were struck out of the estimates by the 
Committee. 

Toronto, Onl. — Estimates of the Works Department 
for 1922, prepared by Works Commissioner R. C. Harris, 
call for a total expenditure of (10,426,101. Under the head- 
ing "Capital Expenditures," for which 17,766,970 is asked, 
$2,021,904 is for sewers, the largest item of which is $552.- 
000 for a relief sewer down Uosedale ravine, from Vonge St. 

to the Don. There is another Item of $210,000 tor a relief 

from BlOOr St., via Charles. Church and Park Road. 
to Knsedale relief sewer; 1'arkdale district relief 
(461,000; Roncesvalles district relief sewer. $160,000; 
Jours Ave. and tlerrnrd St. relief sewer. $186, 1" 

the railway and bridge Bectlon the north and south Glen 

Road bridges are reinserted at an estimated cost of $1,- 

060,000; replacement of Spadina Road : 1,000; 

\|..,., .- Pari 12,000. In the water suppl 

,i,,„ $1,060, alls tor the following: Additional pump- 
ing Station and steam plant at Kiverdale. $200,000; 10,. 

gallon reservoir at the island. $760,000; addi- 

tional high pros are pump, $100,000. For water mains the 

, inl nip: "' ; - "'" « lli ' 1 ' l'M.080 is for 

,., ,,,,,,11 from Froni St. to Dupont si . $4 18,694 for 

mains from the main pumping station to Front St.. $976,. 

saalon to the high pressure system, which was 
immended by the commissioner last year. $221,000 for 

an improved supplv at the Ull 

\\ .ilkerton, Onl. — The Town Council has started the 




TL7U 



A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



New Road Bridge Opened Over Sixteen Mile Creek 

Provides Alternate Route From Toronto to Hamilton — Longest Bridge Yet 
Constructed on Provincial Highways — Eliminates Last of Heavy Grades 
on Dundas Road — Details of Design and Erection Methods Described 

BY T. D. MYLREA 
Engineer, Norman McLeod, Ltd., Toronto 



WITH the formal opening on December 20, 1921. of the 
new bridge over Sixteen Mile Creek, on the Dundas 
Road, five miles northwest of Oakville, Ont., the second and 
last heavy grade on this Toronto to Hamilton route was 
removed. It has long been recognized that owing to the 
heavy traffic on the Toronto-Hamilton Highway another 
thoroughfare was desirable, and the old road opened by 
General Simcoe offered a direct route equally as short as 



to make a straight line passage by the cut and fill method, 
beginning operations on the west bank. Excavating by 
means of shovels and wheelbarrows they succeeded in mak- 
ing a cut about thirty feet deep, but the excavated material 
was washed away as soon as thrown over the bank, so 
that the efforts of these courageous men led to nothing. 

Consequently, the only remaining means of getting 
across the valley was taken. A ramp-like slope was cut 




BRIDGE OVER SIXTEEN-MILE CREEK. NEAR OAKVTT.T.E. OXT. 



the Highway. It had the additional advantage of affording 
a much more direct route, over the Hamilton-Guelph road, 
to Guelph, Kitchener and other large towns lying between 
the<e points. While a section of the road is still unpaved, 
the Provincial Highways Department is actively at work, 
and it is anticipated that before long this work will he 
complete. 

Old Time Method of Crossing Ravine 

The Sixteen Mile Creek ravine has long been a bugbear 
to traffic. Years ;igo a group of nearby residents attempted 



down each bank with sharp turns at top and bottom, and 
the creek was bridged with an 85-ft. steel truss span having 
a 16-ft. road way. The soil being of shaley clay, these 
16M>% grades were very dangerous, particularly in wet 
weather. A glimpse of one of the grades may be seen over 
the old truss span, between the two right hand piers on the 
photograph. 

Principal Dimensions of Bridge 

The bridging of the Twelve Mile Creek near Tansley 
on the same road was recently carried out so successfully 
that the same design and method of construction was adopt- 





SEOOXD SPAN READY TO BE l.nur 
STILL IX PLACE 



FIFTH SPAN READY FOR THE PILOT TRUSSES 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 6 




REFUGE KAYS ARE PROVIDED OVER EACH PIER 

ed in bridging the Sixteen Mile Creek, and with equal suc- 
aKhough the Sixteen Mile Creek Bridge is a much 
bigger structure. The super-structure of the new bridge 
consists of a concrete floor carried upon eight spans of 
lattice trusses of 108 ft. 6 in. span, spaced 13 ft. 6 in. center 
to center, with 65 ft. span at the west end. These girders 
were formerly in use on the Intercolonial Railway, and had 
been replaced because of the heavier traffic. With new 
cross frames and laterals, analysis showed them to be en- 
tirely inadequate for their new usuage. The spacing of the 
piers was therefore predetermined. The 65 ft. span, which 
is at the right hand end of the photograph cannot be seen 
owing to the fact that it extends up the gully excavated so 
long ago. 

The distance from face to face of the ballast walls is 
934 ft. which with the 30 ft. splayed wing walls of the abut- 
gives an extreme length of 993 ft. The height from 
Moor is 117ft. The clear distance 
between handrails is 20 ft., and allowing for B fi in. curb on 
each side, a 1!' ft roadway is provided. There are no side- 
walks, but over each pier on both sides of the bridge are 
refuge bays 12 ft. 9 in. long ami 3 ft. wide, with Uncus Hush 
wild the top of the curbs. The. roadway is crowned 3 In. 
a) 20 ft. centers on each side are 'train holes, a projecting 
up ,,„ u„. bottom ■■ b hole prevent! water from 

trickling over the structural steel. 

Altogether there were 370 tons of structural 
145 tons of reinforcing steel and 8,800 cu, yds. oi cor 

i are. 

Tin' Count; "f Hal ton, which carried Into execution t im 
action "f the undertook the wort 

„f building the sixteen Mile Creel Bridge The Du 

however, was at thii time taken over by the Provincial 

Department of Highways, and the work i comple- 

tion under its direction Tin- new bridge, M well 
Tansb |U safely carry the heaviest class of load- 

ing prescribed by the Department of Highways. 



In the design of the bridge simplicity and economy 
were kept foremost in mind, as far as possible consistent 
with appearance, no elaborate ornament being used any 
where in the structure. The upper 50 ft. of all piers i> 
identical and consists of a pair of twin columns braced with 
struts 3 ft. x 4 ft. 6in. reinforced to resist wind stresses. 
These columns are each 6 ft. x 12 ft. at the bottom and are 
battered toward the top. The only difference in the vari- 
ous piers is in the height of the lower portion, except that 
the three piers closest to the creek are provided with ice 
breakers to resist the rush of ice in the spring break-up. 
The lower shafts were made hollow, resulting in a saving 
of more than 1,000 yards of concrete. 

Before deciding on the type of floor construction 
various designs were made. The comparative cost of steel 
and concrete floor beams was found, with the result that 
concrete floor beams at 5 ft. centres, coming over the panel 
points, were used. The additional cost of sidewalks and 
of refuge bays was computed and owing to the fact that the 
distance from any town precluded any large pedestrian 
traffic, sidewalks were abandoned, but the refuge bays men- 
tioned above were provided. 

The handrail is formed of precast panels set in grooves 
in the curb. These panels were made as nearly alike as 
possible, slight variations resulting in the refuge bays and 
larger posts. They were cast on the flat, the openings 
being formed by strips of wood of proper shape tacked to 
the forms. By making all openings the same size and tak- 
ing up variations in panel length by slightly varying the 
width of the spindles, the same moulds were used for all 
panels. The upper rail and intermediate posts were poured 
after setting the panels in place. 

One end of each girder is fixed and the other end rest 
upon a nest of rollers. However, to provide against the 
possibility of the movement of the rollers being hindered by 
accumulated dirt, each pier is designed to resist the bending 
set up by temperature changes in the trusses. The resul- 
tant stresses and soil pressures in all cases are quite low. 
In the design of the fixed shoes and also in the sole plates 
under the roller rests, the deflection of the trusses under the 
heavy dead load was considered. As may be seen in the de 
tail, a strip of metal 4 in. long and the full width of the 
shoe projects downward from its lower surface. These 
strips bore directly on the piers, and after the full dead 
load was in place and full deflection had occurred, the re- 
maining space under the shoes was filled with a strong 
mortar. Thus all danger of the shoe riding on its forward 
edge with the consequent possibility of spalling off the pier 
copings was obviated. 

Expansion joints are provided in the bridge deck, in the 
floors of the refuge bays and in the handrail directly over 
each pier. In the floors and decks plates fastened to one 
slab are free to slide upon the adjoining one In the hand- 
rail, pins fixed to the end of one rail slide loosely in pipes 
embedded In the end of the next one. 

Oablevway Deed in Construction "i Bridge 

The construction of the bridge was carried out entirely 

by means of a cable way composed of a 2-in. steel cable, 

bj LOO ft. wooden towers 1,200 ft. apart, and 




.'i.osi; 11' VIKW OF HAND RAIL AND REFUGE BAY 



February 7, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



205 



was capable of lifting a load of 5 tous. Owing to the fact 
that this cable way could be used for only one operation at 
a time a large number of men was not required. The 
trusses were brought from Oakville to the east bank of the 
valley, where they were assembled and launched; and all 
operations were therefore started at the east end and carried 
on toward the west. All other material was brought to 
the west bank since the quarries, mills, etc., were closest 
to this side. The construction plant, consisting of a der- 
rick, with a clam shell bucket for rehandling the materials, 
measuring hoppers, concrete mixer and cable way driving 
mechanism, was also located on the west bank. Advantage 
was taken of the small gulley, previously mentioned, in the 
location of the mixing plant. The measuring bins were on 
the ground level, on the edge of the gulley and the concrete 
mixer was located part way down its side. Thus in hand- 
ling the materials from the stock piles to the measuring 
bins no great lift was required, and the materials were 
chuted from the bins to the mixer by gravity. A small 
pumping station, located on the edge of the creek, supplied 
water lor the various purposes required. 

As all foundations were in a soil composed of shale 
and practically impervious clay, no water troubles were en- 
countered even in those piers nearest to the creek. 

One set of forms sufficed for all the piers. As may be 
seen in the photograph they were built up in independent 
sections and 14 ft. high, and as the concreting progressed 
upwards in one pier the forms from the lower portions were 
removed and used in the next one. The reinforcing rods 
were ordered in lengths just enough longer than the height 
of the corresponding form section to provide a proper bond 
to the next section above. Thus in pouring the concrete 
there was no trouble in getting the cable way bucket close 
to the spot where the concrete was to be dumped. A for- 
est of rods projecting a long distance upward would have 
made this an exceedingly difficult matter. Each form sec- 
tion was assembled on the ground, and all the reinforcing 
rods in that section were securely wired in position, and 
form section and bars were hoisted into place as a unit. 
This did away with the difficulty of building forms and plac- 
ing steel high in the air. In the removal of the side panels 
of the upper section of these pier forms, the cable way was 
at a slight disadvantage. The panelling in the outer face 
of the twin columns made it impossible to remove the forms 
by direct lift, and it was necessary to resort to a tag line 
carried up the valley to give the required lateral movement. 

Unique Method of Erecting Trusses 

Owing to the height of the piers, the cost of falsework 
for the erection of the trusses would have been prohibitive, 
and a unique method of launching was devised by the con- 
tractor. Each pair of trusses, with the lateral bracing 
riveted in place, was pulled forward on greased rail until 
it projected nearly half its length over the truss previously 
placed. The back end was temporarily lashed down and a 
pair of triangular pilot trusses, 60 ft. long, extended just 
over the next pier. The projecting ends rested on rollers 
carried on blocking on top of the pier. Girders and pilot 



/-7 


* 


/ 


V 


| 0\ } K ;; C 


) ij o V O ;0 | fl 



He 




n n 



L 



J u 



f 



- Masonru plate under rollers to keor only on ■4" face until span 
receives its full dead load, thus permitting the shoe to adjust itself to the 
deflection of the span. Masonry plate then to be tvedqed up at the free 
ends and aroufed under for full beanna 

DETAIL OF SHOE 




VIEW FROM BELOW SHOW RELATFrE HETOHT OF OLD 
AND NEW STRUCTURES 



trusses were both moved forward by a block and tackle ar- 
rangement operated by the cable way. The pilot trusses 
were removed, and the girders lowered into their proper 
position by jacks. Before launching, the tension web mem- 
bers of each truss were all temporarily reinforced to insure 
their proper action while the trusses were in a cantilevered 
position. As soon as the last girder had passed over the 
first span the work of concreting began and followed close 
behind the advancing trusses to completion. 

The Sixteen Mile Creek Bridge was designed and con- 
structed by Norman McLeod, Ltd., Engineers and Contrac- 
tors, of Toronto, under the direction of the Provincial De- 
partment of Highways, and under the immediate supervision 
of Jas. A. Bell, consulting engineer, St. Thomas. 



An important order has been awarded to Vickers* Ltd., 
London, England, for material for the electrification of 
South African railways. The total value of the contract is 
between £750,000 and £1,000,000, and was secured in the 
face of keen, foreign competition. 



At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Mont- 
real City Council, it was suggested that a drainage board 
be formed along the lines of the present water-board. It 
was believed that such a board or commission would insure 
better co-ordination in plans of sewers now being built or 
contemplated. In the course of the discussion, instances 
were cited where the insufficiency of sewers was the cause 
of frequent floodings by the fact that the sewers were too 
small for the localities, or where a large sewer emptied 
into a small one, or where a large trunk sewer had been 
built at th cost of $800,000 and had never been utilized. 



20S 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 42, No. 6 



PREPARING BITUMINOUS GRAVEL AND SAND ROADS 



Practice for Repairing Roads Followed in Massachusetts — 

Author Discusses Bituminous Treatments and Gives 

Interesting Figures on Road Trartie. 



By W. D. Sohier 

Formerly Chairman, Massachusetts Highway Commission. 

IT is prerequisite to having any road at all, even the dirt 
road, (1) that the road shall be adequately drained 
with not only side ditches but all necessary culverts to carry 
the water away from the road and the sub-base; (2) that 
/or any poor soil such as silt, clay, loam, or other fibrous or 
soft material, an adequate foundation be provided. Fre- 
quently 12 in. of gravel or good sand will prove to be fully 
as good a foundation as 8 in. of field stone or Telford. 

Under the topic bituminous treatments, surface treat- 
ments as well as bituminous construction will be discussed. 
To have any success at all, the road surface to be treated 
or coated must be absolutely well compacted, firm, and true 
to crown and grade with no dust pockets or soft material. 
The macadam should be brushed clean and the gravel road 
well shaped and free from surplus loose dust. 

A bituminous top on a road is waterproof and it must not 
be put on any road that is rough or rutted, because if it is, 
it will hold water in the depression, and every passing 
automobile or truck will throw the water out and take 
pieces of the road with it, so that in a short time you have 
very large holes all over your road. 

Bituminous Surface Treatments 

We find in Massachusetts, where we have very much 
more motor traffic than you are likely to have here, and 
whenever a road has an average of more than 150 motor 
cars a day, that it is impossible to maintain, either a gravel 
road or a waterbound macadam, without some bituminous 
surface on the top. This can be either of tar or asphaltic 
oil, never use any oils that have a parafine base. Parafine 
is a lubricant, and you want to use something that has a 
gum stickum and sticks your road together. 

You can always tell whether the material you are go- 
ing to use will produce good results or not, by putting some 
on your finger and thumb and rubbing them together. If 
they stick together and you cannot rub it off the finger 
without the use of pumice stone or your penknife they will 
stick to the road. If it will wipe off with a newspaper and 
merely leave your finger greasy and dirty like the grease 
from your automobile, then it will be no good on the road. 

In preparing to apply a bituminous surface treatment 
always get out your covering and spread it on the road side 
before you start to apply the bitumen. It requires about 10 
pounds of gravel or sand covering for every square yard of 
road surface, when you are using the lighter cold tars or 
oils and the heavier grades will require from 15 to 2n 
pounds to the square yard. If possible always spray on 
your bituminous material with a pressure distributing 
machine. 

Apply about a sixth of a gallon to the square yard, and 

apply it to only one half of the width of the road at a time, 

<>ur men who are to spread the covering follow 

<long and spread it quickly and as evenly as possible. 

Have them go back and be sure that the whole road 
red and kept covered so that it does not bleed, at any 
rate for the first week. It costs money to buy bitumen 
and whenever It Is carried off the road It lea 
spot ( hat will ultimately cause a hole in a wry short time 
in wit weather, and thereby ruin your road. 

The only remedy is to patch the hole at oni 
painting it with the same material used with a whisk broom, 
ami then be sure you cover this patch with BUfflclenl ma- 
■■> prevent it picking up the second Lime. 

Iiiliiniimms Material-. I 

Now in regard to tfhi we have got mo ' 

eellent result.-' with cold tar and material like Tarvia It cm 
both well shaped gravel and macadam roads, but be sure 
the surface Is very firm or hard. The tars set up almost 



immediately are brittle, do not heal themselves and while 
they make a most excellent road surface, they should not 
be used upon any loose or uncompacted road surface. They 
tend to break and go into pot holes and if these are not 
immediately patched your road very soon disintegrates and 
goes to pieces. 

The proper way is to renew the surface film, immedi- 
ately the underneath part of the road surface is uncovered, 
otherwise, a spot starts the size of a dollar which will soon 
become larger if there is considerable traffic. 

Asphaltic Oils 

The asphaltic oils, on the other hand, can be applied to 
softer and looser road surfaces, particularly gravel. You 
can use the asphaltic oils that can be applied cold contain- 
ing about 45 to 50 per cent of asphalt. 

Apply about a third of a gallon to the square yard of 
road surface and cover it, in the manner described above. 
This treatment can be repeated, and when asphalt is used 
you will find that you can shape your road hack in the 
Spring and apply your second surface treatment, and you 
will have a considerable quantity of the asphalt left, so 
that the results during the second year are much better and 
more permanent than they were the first. After two or 
three applications, unless your traffic is extremely heavy, 
you will find that you have a road surface that may go for 
a year or two years, without another treatment, always 
provided you keep it properly patched. 

Suggestions for Patching Roads 

Always patch before you get a hole and keep the sur- 
face intact. When patching, make the sides of your hole 
with a little shoulder, to hold the material in place, use 
some patching material either the asphaltic oil used on the 
road, or K. P. which is a material made of tar that can be 
used cold, or something like Headly oil which is a fluxed 
asphalt that can be used cold. Grade your material, using 
either gravel bank or broken stone with sizes that are at 
least a half the depth of the hole for the larger sizes and 
graded down to the very finest sand, say a sand that will 
pass a 200 mesh. Be sure it is thoroughly mixed and 
coated before it is put into the hole. Tamp it in and re- 
member that it expands a little with water so leave your 
hole possibly one quarter of an inch below the surrounding 
surface of the road or you will find a bump will develop 
later. 

After the patch is made, cover it before you leave it 
with dry sand, or if necessary, dirt from the road side to 
keep it from being picked up by passing vehicles. You 
want to keep your bituminous surfaces on the road and to 
do this, they must stick to the road firmly. 

Bituminous Gravel 

\Ve have had most excellent results in Massachusetts 
in building what might be called gravel asphalt roads. We 
have built them since 1912 and they are all in excellent 
condition to-day. As we have gone along, we haw 
stantly built them better and stronger because of the in- 
crease in heavy motor truck traffic. 

Originally, we merely made a sub-base carefully com- 
pacted to a true crown and grade, mixed the gravel and 
asphalt in a pit, hauled it to the road, spread it evenly over 
the surface is to 21 ft. in width, about 3 in. In depth loose 
so that when it was rolled it compacted to two inches. 

All our later roads have had about 4 in. of broken 
stone of wi> eoarae gravel underneath in the sub-base and 
very carefully shaped rolled and compw teil and t 
phaltic gravel has In I D spread upon that. 

The mixture must be very evenly spread, so that it 
will Compact smoothl] and Without any rolls or bumps. 

To do this, it i- absolute!) neceaearj that it should be dump- 
ed on u dumping board preferably of sheet iron and 
elled from this board H ewnly as , to the road 

and then very carefully spread upon the road rith rakes, 
so as to secure uniofrm spreading and density. I will give 
at the end of this paper the specification, so that 1 need nut 
to too much Into details just now. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



As soon as possible, the mixture should be rolled with 
a light Poller, a tandem roller is best, but a horse roller can 
be used if necessary. Roll it not only length ways but 
cross ways and diagonally, so as to avoid any wavy surface. 

Never let the roller stand on any of the soft material 
or even stop on it, because it will make a depression, until 
it is thoroughly cool and compacted, run the roller onto the 
hard surface beyond to a stop. It is hard to give a rule 
for the proper time to roll; the mixture must be cool 
enough but not too cool. 

In building these roads, the gravel has to be heated 
and uniformly heated to 250 to 300 degrees Fah. and 
the asphalt must be heated In kettles to 300 to 500 degrees. 
The two should then be mixed in some mechanical mixer, 
preferably a hot mixer, from this it is dumped into the 
cart and carried to the road and spread. 

It is ready to roll, and should be rolled while it is still 
soft enough to compact thoroughly; this means the tem- 
perature of the mixture should be from 90 to 120 degrees 
Fah. This part of the work is occasionally troublesome, 
particularly when the mornings and evenings are cool, be- 
cause the bottom on the ground and on the top exposed 
to the air will cool more rapidly than the middle. You 
cannot roll while the middle is too soft or too hot. because 
it will then squeeze out ahead of the roller and make waves, 
so you must wait until you can roll it without having it 
push out much ahead of the roller. 

We have built a good many miles of road in Massa- 
chusetts of bituminous gravel and we think very highly 
of them, even for a very great volume of traffic, including 
quite a number of heavy trucks. "We have also resurfaced 
and widened a great many miles of road, by this I mean 
75 to 100 miles, where, we used the old waterbound maca- 
dam road as a foundation, when there were 2 or 3 in. of it 
still left. 

Where the traffic was heavy and we were building a 
bituminous gravel road, we have of course put in a founda- 
tion of gravel or field stone where the sub-soil was not 
good. We have then usually put a crusher into the gravel 
pit and crushed the larger stone, and perhaps field stone as 
well, and have laid the foundation of broken stone about 4 
in. I hick, well shaped and thoroughly rolled. On this, we 
have spread the mixed gravel and oil, so that it would be 
about 2 ',2 in. thick, after rolling with a steam roller. Even 
with good soil conditions, where the roads had heavy traf- 
fic, we have used either broken stone or gravel in the sub- 
'base, so that when watered and thoroughly rolled by the 
steam roller, it would be 4 or 5 in. in thickness. 

The top course or wearing surface is just a mixture of 
asphaltic oil of from 90 to 120 penetration, thoroughly 
mixed with the heated gravel, and spread evenly so that it 
would be about 2 l -> in. thick after tolling. A tandem roller 
seems to be the best for rolling this material, as it can be 
used while it is hotter without producing depressions. This 
mixture usually requires about from 20 to 22 gallons of oil 
to the cubic yard of loose gravel, the oil being measured hot. 
The best results are obtained by the use of a gravel, using 
no size above 1 V* in., but containing the other sizes down 
to the very finest material. It is advisable sometimes, if 
you have not enough fine sand in the gravel, to use stone 
dust or secure some fine sand from elsewhere, as the fewer 
the voids and the denser the mixture, the better the results. 
You do not need to infringe the Warren patent specifica- 
tions. Here again, the finer the material, the greater the 
quantity of asphaltic oil that must be used per cubic yard 
and the stiffer the asphalt that should be used. Roads built 
of these surfaces have withstood very heavy traffic where 
the foundations are good from 8 to 9 years already, and are 
still in good condition. 

Minimum Width of Road 

These roads should be built at least IS it. In width, 
even with good material in the shoulders; with poor ma- 
terial, they should be 19 or 20 ft. In width to prevent hav- 
ing the sides cut off. A V* in. crown to the foot is better 
than a Ms in. crown. We now have a practice of banking 
all the corners and curves where it is physically possible 



and giving them a grade from the outside to the inside of 
:; , in. to the foot of width. When we Brsl began 
the work, we used California asphaltic oil with good re- 
sult, and since then we have used Texas, Mexican and 
other asphaltic oils with very good n 

Orignally, these roads cost no more, and usually a 
little less, than waterbound macadam, and they were much 
more economical to maintain and withstood automobile 
traffic and motor traffic much better. 

They originally cost about 60 cents per square yard, 
including the broken stone or gravel bottom, but not in- 
cluding grading, foundation or drainage. Last year the 
cost for the surface ran up to $1.25 to $1.50 per square 
yard, materials, teams and labor having advanced in price. 

Traffic Roads Will Withstand 

It is hard to predict just what traffic, sand and oil 
roads will withstand. They have now stood for 12 years 
in reasonably good condition on roads that had GOO to 800 
automobiles a day. 47 to 70 2-horse teams a day, and an 
average of about 38 trucks a day. They have had go over 
them without any noticeable damage quite a few motor 
trucks carrying oil or gasoline that would weigh up to 14 
tons including truck and load. 

The gravel and oil mixed roads, and those that have 
been resurfaced with gravel and oil, have stood satisfac- 
torily for 6 to 8 years with much heavier traffic than this, 
especially in trucks. I have in mind one section in par- 
ticular that was constructed and opened up to traffic lead- 
ing directly to Camp Devens, where, as you perhaps know, 
they had a cantonment for about 30,000 soldiers, built 
during the war. It had some days as many as 700 trucks 
going to that cantonment, and when they built a very large 
hospital there, they moved from 30 to 40 lumber trucks, 
weighing 12 to 13 tons including the load, over that road 
every day. This made very heavy traffic indeed for the two 
years that the road has been built. I think I am safe in 
saying that this road has never shown any signs of weak- 
ness or needed any patching whatever. 

A blanket coat of hot oil on macadam will carry a 
much larger number of teams if there is a ratio of two to 
three automobiles on pneumatic tires to each team to keep 
the bituminous surface constantly rolled down when the 
horses and teams pick it up. But note that a very few 
teams on narrow tires, or a few very heavy teams every 
day, will destroy the surface if the load is heavy to shear 
down entirely through the surface to the si 

If this process is repeated once or twice a day. a rut 
soon develops and the mad becomes muddy and the bitu- 
minous surface is rapidly disintegrated. Light oil or cold 
tar will then lie more serviceable, laying dusl while the 
stone takes the wear. 

We have maintained a few miles el road in reasonably 
satisfactory condition with annual applications of a cold 
tar or water gas tar. Thej have required one-half gallon 
per square yard annually, and the results have been about 
the same and certainly no better than where we have ap- 
plied two quarter gallon coats per square yard of light 
asphaltic oil the first year and one quarter gallon per 
square yard each succeeding year. The cost for the .old 
tar has been more. 

Invariably we .lean and patch the road first and cover 

the bituminous material sufficiently to prevent its picking 

up. We have sometimes tried dispensing with the cleaning 
and covering but shall not repeat that expensive experi- 
ment. We can usually have the light asphaltic oil sprayed 
onto the roads by motor trucks tor 1.2 to 1..". cents per sq. 
yard, usin- one-fifth to one-quarter gallon per square yard. 
The .leaning, patching and covering costs about the 
same. You must use some bitumen on the surface of 
either a gravel or a waterbound macadam road, if there are 
any motor vehicles using the road every day. say over 100. 

Economical Road BnrCai es 

It can be stated in several ways: When your road costs 
you more than 10 to 15 cents per square yard a year, to 
maintain it always in proper condition, it is cheaper to 
substitute some more expensive and more permanent road 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2, No. 6 



surface or road, and pay the yearly interest and sinking 
fund requirements to extinguish the cost of the road in a 
series of not more than from 15 to 20 years. No road 
should be bonded for any longer period. 

Another way of stating it, would be that taking a 
waterbound macadam road or even a gravel road that 
whenever it wore out, more than half an inch per year un- 
der the traffic and certainly beyond any question, when it 
wore out an inch a year, because of the traffic, you are 
absolutely driven to a stronger and more expensive type of 
pavement. This, not only because of the cost of the yearly 
maintenance which is far in excess of the cost of interest 
and sinking fund, but also because when any road wears 
out more than half an inch a year, it never does so evenly, 
and no matter how much money you spend, you can never 
keep that road surface in any proper or satisfactory con- 
dition. 

If the average, is say. one inch, that means that 
the road wears, say an average from a quarter to half an 
inch in some places but three of four inches in others, and 
is therefore, full of large holes and depressions. 

It really is not then a question of resurfacing proper 
but the only way to get the road back into condition is to 
spike it up, reshape it, add new material to it, an average 
of an inch the whole length of the road and reroll it. This 
really comes very close to reconstruction, and when this 
time arrives, it seems to me, it is not a question of argu- 
ment, but of demonstrated fact, that a stronger road crust 
should be provided at this time, with at least as good as a 
bituminous gravel, or bituminous macadam built by either 
the mixed or penetration method, at any rate, for the top 
two inches, using a proper grade of either asphalt or tar. 
The yearly maintenance would immediately be reduced to 
practically nothing on the road surface of a properly built 
road for the first two or three years and should not exceed 
a very few dollars per mile for patching the few holes that 
might develop during the next ten or twelve years. 

I may say, that in our experience, we have found that 
the tar roads generally require a light surface treatment 
every two or three years, whereas, the asphalt roads will 
heal themselves and go much longer without any surface 
treatment, if a proper grade of asphalt is used. 

In many places it has been found that one half gallon 
to the square yard spread onto a tar road of one of the 
good asphalts and properly covered will last a considerable 
number of years. 

This experience, not confined to Massachusetts but is 
the experience of a number of other States, where tar has 
been used, notably Rhode Island, where ten years ago 
they had their entire trunk road system constructed mostly 
of tar, and it went to pieces within five or six years be- 
cause they were not given the money that was necessary 
to provide either for the patching or surface treatment, 
necessary to preserve the road. 

They have got to rebuild and they are doing it, but on 
a few sections, where they used an asphalt surface the tar 
road has stood up to the present time in perfectly good 
order. 

Approximate Cost of Road Materials 

Prices are very hard to compare in different places. 
It may, however, Berve as some indication for you if I give 
you a short statement of what the present prices are in tbe 
State of Massachusetts. 

Our bids for surface asphaltic oils or for surface cold 
tar treatments for 1/3 of a gallon to a square yard covered, 
are from 9 to 10 cents to a square yard, 

our labor coil la about 13.00 per da; of eight hours. 

The asphaltic oil el ' 9 cents par ''. S. gal. 

spread upon tio- road This would be done bj to 
company by conti 

In old times our bituminous gravel or asphaltic gravel 
were frequently built from 86 cents to 50 cents per 
square yard for the surface In place, complete. This does 
not include any foundation, gradin preparing Its 

macadam bottom, that we usually used. The asphalt used 
at that time cost about 12 % cents to IB cents per gallon. 



The bids to-day for this surface for either bituminous 
sand or bituminous gravel are from 95 cents to $1.15 per 
square yard for the surface alone, complete. 

We used to build the roads complete, except for 
drainage, foundation and base but including the 4 in. maca- 
dam bottom for from 85 cents to $1.00 per square yard. 
To-day it costs from $1.50 to $1.70 per square yard. 

The asphalt used in this work was about the same as 
to-day, 12% cents per gal. and it requires from 2 to 2 V* 
gal. for each square yd. of road surface complete. It re- 
quires from 20 to 24 gal. of hot asphalt for each cubic yard 
of gravel. The oil expands in heating about 1/7 for 350 
degrees Fan. I am speaking entirely of the American gal- 
lon: the Imperial gallon is considerably larger. — Paper 
read at the Annual Convention of the Canadian Good Roads 
Association. Halifax, N.S. 



MANY LARGE FIRES IMCIRRKD IX 1021 



FIKK losses in Canada during the past year are estimated 
by "The Monetary Times" at $29,987,610, against 
$27,371,574 in 1920. This is the highest loss on record. 
with the exception of 1918, when the total of $31,315,844 
was reached. It is a per capita loss of $3.33. There was 
an exceptionally large number of large fires during the 
year, though none of them amounted to a conflagration. 
The results may be summarized as follows: 

1919 1920 1921 

Average monthly loss — 

$1,933,970 $2,280,964 $2,498,959 

Loss per capita — 

$2.90 $3.12 $3.33 

Fire with damage of $10,000 or over — 

238 301 377 

The Monetary Times' record for the past three years 

shows the following monthly losses: 

Month 1919 1920 1921 

January $3,915,290 $2,637,850 $2,237,900 

February 1,091,831 1,859.675 2.735,500 

March 2,154,095 1,795,200 2.112,200 

April 1,080,070 3,229,500 2,510,700 

May 1.785,130 2.001,819 3.811.350 

June 3,337,530 1,424,310 2.30.1,400 

July 1.118,377 1,420,850 2,860,250 

August 1,374,495 1.S57.800 3,014.860 

September 1.940.272 2,480,186 2.410.300 

October 1,023,288 2.467,901 8,189,790 

November 2,839,870 8,769,800 1,818,760 

December 2,047.49ti 3.386,476 i, 962, 600 

Total $23,207,647 $27.::7 1 .5 7 t $29,987,610 



SASKATCHEWAN <;ooi> ROADS \ssi mixtion 



FIRST BtepS towards the formation <<< a provincial good 
roads association for Saskatchewan were taken at a 
conference bit with members of the government, repre- 
sentatives of the associations of urban and rural munici- 
palities, associated boards of trade and officers of the Do- 
minion <; i Roads association held in Regina recentl) 

The conference was held in tbe office of the Hon B M 
Hamilton, Minister of. Highways, and was presided over 
by Hon. B. .i Latta, president ol the nonunion Good Roads 

lation Uter being in session for about three 
the members attending the conference decided to organise 
lation which would be made 

„p ,,f repr« ol the leading organizations in the 

provhi, i in this work To this end a small 

committee consisting of Hon. s. J. Latta, B. <:. Bingley, L. 

A. Thornton and \V. ED. Pennison was appointed to go into 
the whole question and report at a later conference con- 
crete proposals regarding the basis of organization. 



February 7, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



REVIEW OF INVESTIGATION INTO DETERIORATION 

OF CONCRETE IN ALKALI SOILS 



Dr. Thorvaldson Appointed to Take Charge of Research 

Work at University of Saskatchewan — Experiments 

Being Conducted — Details of Field Tests 



AT THE annual meeting of the Engineering Institute of 
Canada held in Montreal, the following report 
was received from Prof. G. M. Williams, of the University 
of Saskatchewan, secretary of the Committee on Deteriora- 
tion of Concrete in Alkali Soils: 

An organization meeting of the committee as origin- 
ally constituted was held at the University of Saskatche- 
wan Saskatoon, April 23, 1921. A general discussion of 
the problem by the committee members, all of whom have 
been familiar with the effect of alkali on concrete for sev- 
eral years, indicated that there was complete agreement as 
to the course which should be pursued in the investigation. 
Since previous investigations have established the fact that 
the best of Portland cement concrete may not prove per- 
manent under certain known exposure conditions, it was 
agreed that the main effort should be directed towards the 
chemical problems involved, including the constitution of 
cement and the chemical reactions the soluble salts and 
the constituents of the cement. There is at present little 
to be gained by an extensive series of exposure tests of con- 
crete to field conditions and it was decided to limit this 
phase of the investigation to a limited number of concrete 
specimens which would later serve as a basis of comparison 
with future field work which might be planned as a result 
of the findings of the chemical laboratory. 

It was further agreed that a physical chemist having 
the highest qualifications be obtained to direct and super- 
vise the chemical research and steps were taken to survey 
the field of available men in that line of work. In order 
that the committee might have the benefit of the advice 
and experience of a number of chemists of the Prairie Pro- 
vinces who are familiar with the alkali-concrete problem, 
the following were appointed to full membership on the 
committee: 

Dr. J. W. Shipley, professor of chemistry, University 
of Manitoba; Dr. T. Thorvaldson, professor of chemistry, 
University of Saskatchewan: F. C. Field, city analyst, Cal- 
gary; A. G. Blackie, city analyst. Winnipeg; and J. A. 
Kelso, provincial analyst, Edmonton. 

The above have since taken an active part in the 
work of the committee. 

A second series of meetings of the committee was held 
in Saskatoon, August 10 to 12, 1921. After thorough con- 
sideration of the names of available chemists it was decided 
to ask Dr. Thorvaldson, a committee member, to take 
charge of this chemical research, which he accepted sub- 
ject to the approval of Dr. Murray, president of the Uni- 
versity of Saskatchewan. Dr. Thorvaldson has been direct- 
ing the work of several assistants during the past year in 
connection with certain phases of the alkali-concrete prob- 
lem and it was felt that he would be in a position to take 
active charge with a minimum of delay. The University 
of Saskatchewan has since agreed to this arrangement and 
in addition to offering all of its available facilities to ad- 
vance the progress of the investigation, has freed Dr. 
Thorvaldson from all class work, so that beginning with 
January, 1922, he will devote all of his time to the re- 
search. 

Field Tests 

Following the intention of the Committee that a 
limited amount of field investigation be started during the 
summer of 1921, concrete block specimens for exposure 
tests were molded in the Concrete Laboratory of the 
University of Saskatchewan for exposure to alkali soil 
waters at points in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. 

These specimens are cylindrical in shape, 7 in. in 
diameter and 21 in. long, molded in sheet metal forms. 
Two qualities of concretes were employed, having strengths 
ot approximately 1,200 and 2,500 lb. per sq. in. at 28 days. 



Canada and Super brands of Portland cement were used. 
Three different aggregates were used for each of the above 
cements and qualities of concrete, gravel used in commer- 
cial work in the vicinity of Winnipeg Saskatoon and Strath- 
more, Alta. 

After preliminary tests of the cements and aggregates, 
batches of concrete were carefully proportioned and mixed 
by hand and test specimens were cured in moist air for 27 
days after 24 hours of hardening in the forms. From each 
batch of concrete prepared, there were molded not less than 
six large exposure cylinders, three 6 by 12-in. compression 
test cylinders, and two slabs, for permeability tests of the 
concrete. All obtainable data, such as characteristics of 
cement and aggregate and weights of each used, were noted 
for further study. 

In addition to plain concretes listed above, other 
batches were prepared using various waterproofing and 
alkali-proofing compounds suggested by the committee 
members and different manufacturers, as well as "Commer- 
cial" cement, a natural cement manufactured near Winni- 
peg. Some waterproofings are of the integral type while 
others are liquids or bituminous coatings applied to the 
surface after curing is completed. Each batch of concrete 
molded was given a series number. In all. 28 series or 
batches were prepared. Before shipment all specimens 
were wrapped in heavy paper and crated separately for 
protection. 

Shipments of 56 test cylinders (28 series) were made 
to the following points early in September for exposure to 
alkali conditions: 

Cassils, Alta, — One group was placed iu a heavy alka- 
lied tract of land near Cassils, Alta., in a locality which has 
been used for several years by the Department of Natural 
Resources, C. P. Railway, for similar experiments. 

Grandora, Sask. — One group was placed along the 
shore line of a sulphate lake near Grandora, Sask., about 
14 miles west of Saskatoon. 

Winnipeg, Man.- — A group was placed along the aque- 
duct of the Greater Winnipeg Water District at a spot 
where analyses showed the ground water concentration to 
be highest. 

At f'assils, Alta.. the ground water table is only slight- 
ly below the ground surface and the blocks were embedded 
with about 6 in. projecting. At Grandora, Sask.. the same 
scheme was employed. At Winnipeg the water table was 
found about 8 ft. below the surface, which necessitated the 
excavation of the soil to a depth of 8 ft. in an area about 
50 ft. square. 

A systematic method of securing samples of the alkali 
waters during the period that the ground remains unfrozen 
has been adopted, and the inspection of the condition of 
the individual blocks will be made at least twice yearly, m 
the spring and in the fall. 

The Portland Cement Association is at present con- 
ducting extensive field experiments in the United States and 
is co-operating with the work of our committee by furnish- 
ing groups of S2 blocks each for exposure at the above 
three points. These have been installed alongside our own 
blocks and will be given the safe inspection. Super Ce- 
ment (America) Ltd. has also furnished a number of small 
test pieces made in their laboratory, which have been placed 
with the large blocks. 

Chemical Research 

Since September three graduate students holding bur- 
saries from the Honorary Advisory Council for Scientific 
and Industrial Research have been working on certain 
phases of the problem. The laboratory work so far done 
is of a preliminary nature concerned mainly with the ac- 
tion of the various salts under consideration on some ol the 
simpler substances in cement and concrete. A consider- 
able quantity of equipment specially adapted to (bis in- 
vestigation has been ordered and is now being delivered. 

In September Dr. Thorvaldson made a trip to Wash- 
ington, D.C., and conferred with the members of the Ce- 
ment Division of the Bureau of Standards and the research 
workers in the Geographical Laboratory of the Carnegie 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. Xo 6 



Institution on questions relating to this investigation. The 
bulk of the advances so far made in America as to the con- 
stitution of cement has been accomplished at these two 
laboratories and it was therefore considered important to 
ascertain what work on this subject they proposed to con- 
tinue and correlate our work with theirs. We look for- 
ward to a cordial co-operation with these institutions. 

To date difficulty has been encountered in obtaining 
a trained assistant for the petro-graphical work. This 
phase should be carried on along with physical, chemical 
and collodial examinations of the disintegration of con- 
crete. In addition to the foregoing and the graduate stu- 
dents whose services will continue, additional assistance 
will be required and is now being arranged for, and the 
force of trained research workers will be increased aa 
rapidly as the different phases of the investigation unfold 
during the next few months. As stated above, Dr. Thor- 
valdson is now devoting his full time to conducting and 
carrying on the chemical investigation. 



INSTITUTE BIUSCH SECRETARIES MEET 



A MEETING of the branch secretaries of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada was held at the headquarters on 
.Mansfield street, Montreal, on Jan. 26, lasting all day, for a 
general discussion of affairs. J. L. Busfield, secretary of 
the Montreal branch, presided, and there was a large at- 
tendance of secretaries of branches from Sault Ste. Marie, 
to Halifax and St. John. 

Arrangements were discussed for greater co-operation 
between the various branches, plans for facilitating inter- 
change of speakers at branch meetings, the standardiza- 
tion of branch "by-laws, and ways and means by which the 
branch secretaries could give better personal service to 
the members of the various branches of the institute, there- 
by assisting in the promotion of the interests of the insti- 
tute, its members and the profession generally. 

The party was entertained at luncheon at the Engi- 
neers' Club, by J. A. Duchastel, and J. D. Farmer, chairman 
and vice-chairman, respectively, of the Montreal branch. 

Those present included Messrs. K. G. Cameron, Syd- 
ney. X.S.; D. S. Cox, Halifax; H. F. Bennett, St. John, N.B.; 
M. J. Murphy, Moncton, N.B.; D. F. McLaren, Peterboro, 
Ont.; F. B. Goedike, Toronto; W. G. Wright, London, Onl.; 
Rex Johnson, Niagara Falls; J. C. Keith, Windsor, Ont.; J. 
Barnhill, Sault Ste. Marie, and Fraser S. Keith, general 
secretary of the Engineering Institute of Canada. 



i \ii < i DEM nns FOB i:o\i> or \m-- 



GROWTH of the use of motor vehicles in Canada is lead- 
ing to a demand for increase of the Federal highways 
grant, and it is likely that deputations from many sour.. 
will in tie Government for lucres 

that grant, before the expiration of the present agreement 

in 1818 the federal Government set aside $20,000,- 
000 to be expended on highways construction during the 
next five years, this amount to be alotted to the va 
provinces on a basis of 4 per cent of the cost of approved 
highway projects. So far all the provinces except Alberta 
have taken advantage of the grants, and the Federal <:..\ 
ernment's share of the estimated cost of projects under 
agreement to the end of last year was $11,699,066, well 
over half of the entire sum set aside for five years. 

The provision of a Federal grant has had the effect of 
stimulating highway 001 In all nf the provinces 

and It is felt In many i|u 1 no further fund 

provided there would be at least a temporary ball In tie- 
provincial roads construction plans. 

Motor vehicle registration throughout the Dominion 
is stated to have Increased almost 500 per cent from 1914 
1 and this year, it Is expected the Increase of the last 
few years will be borne out by the new statistics which are 
in the process of collection. It is because of this growth 
of motor traffic that tho demand for better highways 
throughout all the provinces has increased, and automobile 



associations in various parts of the- Dominion have urged 
that the Federal Government should take steps before the 
present legislation expires, to provide for either a continu- 
ance of a smilar grant or an increase. 



LARGE TURBINE DESCRIBED 



AT THE afternoon session of the Engineering Institute 
of Canada convention at Montreal on January 25, 
Julian C. Smith, vice-pesident and general manager of the 
Shawinigan Water & Power Co., gave an interesting paper 
on the design and construction of the new 41,000 h.p. tur- 
bine unit, which the delegates had inspected in the morn- 
ing at the plant of the Dominion Engineering Works, Bock- 
field. 

Mr. Smith's paper was illustrated by lantern slides, and 
was of a technical character. He stated that this unit had 
by far the greatest capacity of any single-runner unit in- 
stalled in the province of Quebec, and was second only in 
power output to the new units now commencing to be oper- 
ated at the Queenston-Chippawa plant of the Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario. Mr. Smith gave a complete 
description of the new unit. 

The chair was taken by John T. Farmer, vice-chairman 
of the Montreal Branch, and a vote of thanks was passed 
to Mr. Smith for his paper. 



HALIFAX ENGINEERS APPOINT OFFICERS 



THE second annual meeting of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Nova Scotia met in the Green 
Lantern. Halifax, N.S., on Thursday evening, Jan. 19. It 
took the form of a supper meeting, with business after- 
wards. 

This Association was incorporated by Provincial Stat- 
ute on May 26, 1920, and now includes a membership of 
24 3 engineers, representing every branch of the engi- 
neering profession, such as civil, electrical, mechanical, 
mining, etc. 

In addition to other Important business, the following 
officers were elected to fill the vacancies in the Council for 
the year 1922: Pres., C. E. Dodwell, district engineer, De- 
partment ol Works, Halifax; vice-pres., George D. Mac- 
Dougall. chief engineer. British Empire steel Corporation, 
New Glasgow. 

Councillors f. R. Faulkner, Professor of Civil Engi- 
neering, N.S. Technical College; K. H. Smith, chief engl 
neer. Hydro-Electric Commission Province of Neva Scotia, 
D. H. McDougall, vice-president British Empire Steel Corp 
.nation, New Glasgow; C, H. Wright, manager. Canadian 

,1 Electric Co., Halifax; ,\. F Dyer, chief engineer. 

N ,S, Con. tin. lion CO . Halifax. 



\i in,. Wetland Hotel, SI Catharines, Ont., tbe Niagara 
Peninsula brancb of the Engineering institute of Ca 

held a n ting and dinner. A feature of the evening was 

an Illustrated lecture on "Rural Power Distribution In 
Ontario" delivered by J. W. Purcell ol the Ontario Hydro 
Electric Power Commission, 



The members of the Chatham City Council, tbe Count] 

Council and the directors of the Corn Fair WOTS the 
Bj a noonday luncheon given on Jan, 16 at Chatham. Out.. 
,.■ directors Of the Chamber Of Commerce for the pur 

roada si.ee, bet were delivered bj 
County Clern Fletcher, w Q McGeorge, Kent) County 

Engineer, and R ' >. \\ > iine-Uolierts. of Frank Bat 

..wing the Importance ol an 

A Improvement In 

. i pointed eut thai Ken) 

Counl 1670,000 on good roads in the county last 

year. I. ui the ] pie must become educated to the fact that 

a great deal more money is BMHItr) to be spent before 
tho roads of Kent are in good shape. 



February 7, 1922 • 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



NKW DKVKLOPMHXTS IN ELECTRIC TOW Kit 



Long Distance Transmission Has Now Become Piacticablt 

— International Relations As AllVci mg Power — 

— Broader Market for Power in Future 



JN an interesting article in the "Monetary Times An- 
nual" for 1922, Mr. Andrew T. Drummond deals with 
the new developments in electrical [tower in Canada: 
The newer developments in the electrical transmission 
of power, under which there is a strong probability that 
industrial centres five hundred and perhaps even one thous- 
and miles distant from a greait waterfall will, with relatively 
moderate loss in efficiency, be able to utilize the power from 
this fall, must now convince our governments and industrial 
leaders that in its numerous power sites Canada posesses 
facilities for developing its varied resources which should 
carry it to the forefront of manufacturing countries. These 
powers are by no means limited to the two millions and 
more horse power, it is expected, will be possible on the 
Canadian side of the St. Lawrence River, when the United 
States and Canada unite in developing the ocean highway 
between Montreal and Lake Ontario; and to the probably 
one million two hundred thousand horse power which is 
being, or can still be, developed within Canadian waters at 
Niagara Falls without lessening the scenic beauty of the 
surroundings. Millions of further horse power are avail- 
able within our country. 

Not every water fall or rapid is adapted for the de- 
velopment of energy. The head obtainable may be sufficient, 
but the natural conditions of the surrounding land may pre- 
sent a direct barrier, or be such that the cost of the work 
would not be compensated by the power obtained. The vol- 
ume of water obtainable may be uncertain during the dry 
midsummer months, and there may be no facilities for form- 
ing reservoirs to hold back the spring floods and heavy rains, 
and let the surplus waters down, from time to time, to 
equalize the flow. Steam power derived from coal is the 
only present competitor of importance, but the existing 
high prices of coal, the cost of its transportation, and the 
expense and deterioration consequent on the necessary stor- 
age of huge quantities in order to provide for the winter 
months, all militate against coal, in comparison with the 
more convenient, clean and instantaneous electric energy, 
when delivered direct to the factory, or to the municipal 
distributing station within the city or town. 

Power Resources 

The United States claims, among nations, to have the 
largest amount of potential and developed water power, but 
when the important rivers of Canada falling into the Pacific 
ocean, the Arctic Sea, Hudson Bay, the North Atlantic 
Ocean, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence have been explored, 
and their falls and rapids have, in their height, volume and 
flow, been measured, there is no reason to doubt that the 
United States must easily yield the place to Canada. Much 
of the Dominion, in its far northern and north-eastern areas, 
including Labrador, and the entire country north of the 
Transcontinental Railway and the Saskatchewan River, is 
still unknown, except in, what might be termed, unconfirmed 
outline. Within these extensive limits of probably three 
thousand miles by twelve hundred miles, there are at least 
fifty rivers which are in magnitude from two hundred miles 
in length, onward to that great artery, the Mackenzie River, 
which, as it expands in its downward course, into a system 
of large lakes and connecting rivers, covers probably one 
thousand eight hundred miles. A few of these rivers, espe- 
cially in Alberta, north of the railways, where, in the shadow 
of >the Rocky Mountains, they, like the Athabasca, take their 
rise, have been recently surveyed in a general way, and 
their numerous rapids, and ample, but occasionally fluctuat- 
ing, water supply taken note of. Others of these rivers are 
not only unsurveyed, but have been little known, except in 
a general way, to Hudson Bay, however, pass through coun- 
try, the altitude of which above the sea is from 750 ft. to 
2,000 ft. and upwards, these altitudes strongly suggesting 
that, in the reaches of these rivers lower down, power will 
be available. 



Thus- — to illustrate generally these northern rivers — 
where the Transcontinental Railway crosses Ontario and 
Quebec, and beyond the height of land, from which, among 
other streams, the following rivers flow northward to Hud- 
son Bay, the altitude above the sea of the Nottaway River 
is 775 ft.; the Missinaibi, 717 ft.; the Kenogami, 756 ft.; 
and the Albany, 1,177 ft., and these rivers, whilst having 
ample volume, are, excepting the Albany, of relatively only 
moderate length. In Alberta, the Athabasca River, where 
it is crossed by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, is 3,311 
ft. above the sea level, at Lesser Slave Lake it is 1,899 ft., at 
Athabasca Landing 1.550 ft., and at Fort McMurray, after 
in the last eighty miles developing about twenty rapids, 
it is $17 ft. and the Athabasca and its lake expansion form 
part of the great Mackenzie system. 

The Yukon, again, is a large river, taking its rise under 
other names in Canadian territory, where, at the confluence 
of the Lewis and Pelly Rivers, it is 2,965 ft. above the sea, 
and at Dawson City on the main stream, is still 1,200 ft. 
As another illustration, Wollaston Lake, on the height of 
land to the westward of Hudson Bay, is 1,300 ft. above the 
sea, and, apparently, at the source of Seal River, which 
through perhaps 25 miles, courses its way to that bay. 
Explorers have from time to time referred to falls and 
rapids on some of these streams, but excepting possibly, 
in the case of the Athabasca and Nelson Rivers, on the 
latter of which it is claimed that three of the rapids will 
develop over 3,500,000 horse power, the estimates, where 
any have been made, have been, in perhaps all cases, very 
roughly formed, and generally from information supplied 
by other parties, and with no impression of value being at- 
tached to them for power purposes. Nevertheless, all the 
known facts enable us to take it for granted that on these 
rivers, so many of which flow into the Arctic Sea and Hud- 
son Bay, will be found a huge amount of potential energy, 
amounting to some millions of horse power, most of which, 
by reasons of distance and climate, must, for the present, 
remain undeveloped. 

Long Distance Transmission 

There is however, a future, and perhaps even an early 
future, for some of these powers, and long distance trans- 
mission will be an important factor in securing this. There 
are large deposits of iron, copper, coal, and other minerals, 
not explored in detail, but known to exist, in our north 
land, the mining of which, and all the chemical and metal- 
lurgical industries associated with this mining, will neces- 
sarily require inexpensive power. It is also suggestive that 
with the great cost of transporting coal to the central sec- 
tions of the Transcontinental Railway in Northern Ontario 
and Quebec, and the nearness of important water powers 
there, it is worth investigating whether hydro-electric power 
would be any advantage. And we might even look further 
into the future. In this age of wonderful discoveries we 
must be prepared for the accomplishment of what may, at 
first sight, seem absolutely beyond the capacity of the human 
mind to grasp. The hopeful thought may just now rest 
in the imagination, but if, by some happy discovery, which 
may yet come, heat on a large scale can economically re- 
sult from electric power, for use in our homes to replace 
coal and wood, the vast energy of our northern rivers which 
are distributed so lavishly over half a continent, may, with 
its varied resulting conveniences, ultimately prove to be 
another providential plan of the Creator which would help 
to lessen the rigors of the long winter months and make this 
north land a shade more habitable. Apart from these pos- 
sibilities, there is the suggestion that industries requiring 
large amounts of power, like the production of nitrogen 
from the air, and of wood pulp, where the mills can still be 
conveniently close to the spruce forests, might also, through 
long distance transmission, utilize some of these northern 
powers. 

i.i. mi M.uk.i For I'uncT 

Canada, as a manufacturing country, has attained a 
new status. There is no longer a reason why our govern- 
ments should regard it as, primarily, an agricultural coun- 
try, and why it should give encouragement only to the lm- 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2, No. G 



migrant who will settle oil the land. It is quite true that 
the western prairies as well as our eastern farms need many 
more men of that class, but our manufacuring industries 
now produce more value in output than the entire agricul- 
tural production of the country. With vast, and in many 
cases, untouched resources, supplemented by magnificent 
water powers which which to work them into exportable 
products, and by ample transportation facilities, we want 
direct encouragement to be given to men of initiative, enter- 
prise and capital from Great Britain and the United States 
to co-operate with Canadians in developing these resources. 
We also want the skilled workmen to man the manufactories 
that must follow. 

To export the raw material, and thus furnish work 
for scores of thousands of skilled men in other countries, 
instead of having manufactories to build up our own, has 
been one of Canada's serious mistakes in the past. Even 
the hydro power itself at Cedar Rapids on the St. Lawrence, 
and at Niagara Falls, and on the Rainy River, was per- 
mitted by the Dominion to be exported, like a raw material, 
to the United States, instead of the government compelling 
the American manufacturers — when such an opportunity 
presented itself — to locate on the Canadian side of the rivers 
and make their establishments the centre of busy industrial 
towns here. Even if the market for their manufactured 
goods was claimed by Americans to be chietly in the United 
States, the much less expensive power, and the otherwise 
lower average cost of. at that time, producing such goods in 
this country, would have enabled these manufacturers to, 
perhaps entirely, pay the American duties, whilst, ill addi- 
tion, they could export from this side more cheaply thau 
through United States ports. Conditions during, and since 
the war, have become greatly changed here both as to the 
home and export trade, and with large preferences now 
conceded throughout the Empire to Dominion products, 
there is a clear advantage to United States industrial works 
to establish branches in Canada. About six hundred of 
these are already located in, especially, Ontario cities and 
towns, and more are coming. In the face of this fact, 
there are still people in our country who have such limited 
vision and enterprise as to approve of the further export 
of power to the United States. It will be greatly to our 
discredit if we fail to take advantage of this special means 
of building up our country. 

General Electric's Discovery 

Two hundred and fifty miles are the extreme distance 
to which hydro-electric power has been thus far profitably 
transmitted. The recent discovery at the General Electric 
Company's laboratories at Schenectady, New York State, 
that one million volts are possible, will, it is there believed, 
enable the power current to be sent to distances double, 
and perhaps quadruple, the present maximum. The effect 
of this in our prairie provinces, for instance, would be re- 
markable, wherever the raw material could be laid down 
at low cost, and a sufficiently large market for the products 
could be found, and provided cheap coal did not interfere. 
The possible 104 ft. fall at Grand Rapids, where the Sas- 
katchewan River falls into Lake Winnipeg would have with- 
in economical range, in the distribution of its power, such 
cities and towns as Regina, Saskatoon, Battleford, Prince 
Albert and scores of smaller places between Grand Rapids 
and the United States boundary line, whilst following the 
lead of Ontario, the advantages of power and light could 
be within the reach of thousands of farmers for use In 
farming operations. Similarly, Alberta, down to the United 
boundary line, could be reached by the energy of the 
Athabasca River, should Calgary require, as is probable, for 
its own use the whole of the Bow River power. 

i re em RaUmqri 
Blectrlc power, as applied to railways, appears, thus 
far, to have Its limitations. The steam roads which have 
• en experimenting with it on their Inns. 
have confined its use, as a rule, to special work, as In tun- 
nels, on grades through the mountains, and on work at ter- 
minals. On the other hand, the electric roads, with a 
quarter of a century of experience behind them, have only 



given a limited attention to freight, which on the steam 
roads is the larger and much more profitable part of the 
traffic. With few exceptions, both in the United States and 
Canada, interurban electric roads have not proved profit- 
able enterprises, They appear to be best adapted to pas- 
senger transport through very populous districts immedi- 
ately surrounding large cities, or from city to city where 
these are very close to each other, and where, in each case, 
a very frequent .service can be given with a certainty of 
large advantage being taken of it. 

Hydro-electric power has, during recent years, been of 
assistance, but nothing can overcome the result to the rail- 
way of a limited population. The most attractive problem 
still to be solved in Canada is whether, with abundant, elec- 
trically-transmitted water power, it would be profitable to 
the railways and assist business, to electrify sections of the 
older steam roads, where, as in parts of Ontario, they pass 
through fine, productive districts possessing fair sized cities 
and towns in proximity to each other, the electric trains to 
take both freight and passengers. This is quite a different 
question from the building of new electric roads. The rail- 
way has been in operation for probably half of a century, 
a large business has been gradually developed, and it is 
only a case of further advantage being gained by the rela- 
tively light added cost of electrifying. From the steam 
road point of view the proposal is practicable, and, under 
certain conditions, would appear to be applicable to one or 
two branch lines of the Grand Trunk Railway in Ontario. 
The experience gained there would be of value in consid- 
ering the electrifying of other sections. Should the Do- 
minion Government assume, as it certainly should, its right- 
ful control over all the international and navigable water- 
ways of the country, including in this the whole St. Law- 
rence system from Lake Superior to the sea, the govern- 
ment railways will have ample opportunities of obtaining 
the necessary hydro-electric power. 

Government Jurisdiction 

The clear intention uuder the Imperial British North 
America Act of IS (17 was that the Dominion should have 
the control of all international aud navigable waters 
throughout Canada, and of the water powers developed 
upon them. For reasons difficult to understand, the Ca- 
nadian Government has hitherto failed to realize the direct 
bearing upon trade and commerce which these water powers 
have. Especially has this been the case since transmission 
to great distances has become effective in helping to cheap- 
en the cost of production among manufacturers, and to 
greatly expand trade, particularly by inducing manufactur- 
ers in the United States and Great Britain to establish 
branches of their works in this country. Further, at the pres- 
ent tic, when new sources of revenue are so important, there 
could be obtained, without directly taxing the people, a 
large annual return, amounting to many millions of dollars 
from a reasonable charge for each horse power developed. 
The writer lias repeatedly brought the subject of the Do- 
minion rights, and the possible revenues from them, before 
different departments of the government. 

What is wanted is a definite policy in regard to all 
water powers upon international and navigable rivers, uu- 
der Which thej would be controlled by the Dominion In the 
interests of navigation, industries, railways and civic and 
domestic convenience, and would only be leased and at a 
fair annual rental, payable to the government, for each 
horse power of possible development. Finding no 

il rights by the Dominion Government, the On- 
tario Govern at has actually assumed control of the power 

I Francis on the Kainy Itiver, at Sault Ste. Marie on 
Mary's River, and at Niagara Kails, and has made 
claims to the undeveloped power of the St. Lawrence River 
below PreSCOtt, It has further endeavored to fortify by 
acts of its own legislature much ol what it has done. All 
this is of recent date, the tirst actual development of power 
under authority Iron tt, materialising onl] in 190S, 

Mail the Dominion i im ei n inent established a National 
Park at Niagara Falls, as It should have done, aud was in- 
vited In 1SS0 by the Ontario Legislature to do, instead of 



February 7, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



allowing, by its neglect, the Ontario Government in 1885 to 
undertake the work, simply as a park, and with no thought 
of water power development, there is no question that we 
should never have heard of Ontario's rights in water powers. 
The forthcoming report of the International Waterways 
Commission on the deepening of the St. Lawrence with a 
view to an ocean highway, and the action which the United 
States Congress and our Parliament at Ottawa take in re- 
gard to it, must necessarily bring to the front all questions 
as to Dominion and Provincal rights in both international 
and navigable waters. Thel Ontario Government may, 
however, rest assured that the heavy indebtedness which it 
has incurred in connection with Niagara Falls develop- 
ments will, under any circumstances, be carefully guarded 
in the interest of the bondholders. 



GOOD YEAR EXPECTED IN BUILDING TRADE 



AN optimistic outlook for the building industry during 
1922 was reflected in the proceedings of the annual 
meeting of the Builders' Exchange, Toronto. That the 
contractors are looking forward to a season of prosperity 
during the coming months was indicated in the various re- 
ports, especially that of Secretary George Gander, and the 
views expressed by different members. 

The general attitude was that the only thing now need- 
ed to bring about a marked revival of activity in building in 
Toronto was a reduction of wages paid to the building 
trades to conform with the lowered costs of materials and 
contractors' profits. In this connection it Was decided to 
launch a publicity campaign to place before the public the 
builders' views respecting the questions of wages and 
agreements which have restrictions regarded as a detri- 
ment to the building industry. 

A resolution was passed also strongly protesting a- 
gainst the payment by the City Council of the 00 cents an 
h >ur rate to unskilled labor on the ground that such a wage 
was extreme. 

In reviewing the conditions under which the builders 
of Toronto start the New Year, Secretary Gander stated: 

"I feel safe in saying that prices are as near rock bot- 
tom as possible. We have the latest report of an institu- 
tion which is continuously building, that their costs during 
one year have dropped 35 per cent. You then should have 
no hesitation in convincing the architect and owner to put 
their plans on the table at once and receive a pleasant sur- 
prise with estimates that are moderate in the extreme. 

"Many expensive building propositions have been laid 
aside during 1919 and 1920 and office and house building 
is far behind the needs of to-day. It would be far better 
that these people start at once for we reasonably feel that 
a rush later on would only result in delay in delivery of 
materials." 

The report points out that during 1921 no building 
proposition was abandoned because of prices being too high, 
each job being inside the architect's estimate. 

In dealing with various matters affecting the building 
industry Mr. Gander says: "We do not agree with the Pro- 
vincial Government in appointing a Labor man as vice- 
chairman of the Compensation Board. This office should 
have been filled by a non-interested party; as it is now, 
labor has representation and employers none, which is class 
legislation in every sense of the word." 

Attitude of Labor 

In the annual report of retiring president J. M. Scott, 
reference is made to the dealings with labor during the 
past year, special mention being made of the conferences of 
the various parties interested held in Ottawa last May and 
in Toronto in July, "solely for the purpose of trying to 
bring about a general reduction in building costs in order 
to help to stimulate the trade." 

"As you are aware," the report comments, "labor re- 
jected every proposition, even in the fact of the Minister 
of Labor's address wherein he warned them that the time 
had come for serious consideration of the question, yet they 
turned a deaf ear to all his suggestions. During the year 



the wages of stonecutters, carpenters, lathers and laborers 
have been reduced. The other trades are still very high, 
but we trust will be so settled as to make the public or 
the investor feel satisfied that they will receive a fair re- 
turn for their investment. 

"The public cannot see eye to eye with the unions' one 
dollar per hour mark. This is to them like a red flag to a 
bull and a change from the dollar sign would be an ease- 
ment to their feelings. We might just as well acknowledge 
the fact that for 1922 'The Public' will be the sole arbiter 
of extreme prices in the building trade, and lower prices 
are the only kind of an olive branch they will accept. 

"I say truthfully that so far as contractors are concerned 
their competition of the present day keeps them from being 
blamed for high prices." 

The report states that costs of materials have decreas- 
ed considerably during the latter part of 1921, and re- 
marks that had wages and materials been more moderate 
earlier in the season more work would have been gone on 
with. 

Officers elected for 1922 were: President, \V. H. Pain- 
ter: First vice-president, W. Carmichael; Second vice- 
president, John V. Gray; Directors, James J. Brown, Ed- 
ward Teagle, C. F. Till, Charles Bulley and J. M. Scott. 



ENGINEERING INSTITUTE ELECTIONS 



AT a meeting of the Council of the Engineering Institute 
of Canada, held recently in Montreal, the following 
elections and transfers were announced: 

Members — J. F. Bell, Toronto; E. V. Buchanan, Lon- 
don; C. F. Draper, Montreal; F. W. Farncomb, London; 
D. E. Grant, Montreal; Thomas Montgomery, Sarnia. 

Associate Members — R. De B. Austin, Toronto; C. W. 
Brown, St. John; R. E. Butt, Hamilton; H. B. Fisk, Drum- 
mondville, Que.; N. F. Harrison, St. Boniface; J. A. Laniel, 
London; T. E. McGrail, Ottawa; W. A. Robinson, Winnipeg; 
W. G. Scott, Montreal West; Sidney Snell, Toronto; T. L. 
Tait, St. Lambert, Que.; James Weir, Montreal; S. R. Wes- 
ton, St. John. 

Associates — W. C. Franz, Sault Ste. Marie; D. L. Mc- 
Keand, Ottawa; D. M. McLean, Sherbrooke. 

Juniors — A. D. Bishop, Windsor; J. B. Garneau, Que- 
bec; W. C. Goodwin, St. John; C. A. Grupp, Waterdown, 
Out.; F. S. Hartle, Winnipeg; T. H. Henry, St. Catharines; 
F. J. Igoe, Peterborough; G. D. Maxwell, Toronto; W. C. E. 
Robinson, Coldwater, Out.; Keltie Wilson, St. John; K. M. 
Winslow, Winnipeg. 

Transferred, Associate Members to Members — E. G. 
Home, Montreal; P. O. G. Janes, Toronto; Ibbotson Leon- 
ard, London; C. J. H. Townsend, Toronto; L. W. Klingner, 
Bagdad, Mesopotamia. 

Transferred, Juniors to Associate Members — A. A. An- 
derson, London; H. G. Angel, Bassano, Alta. ; C. M. Barnes, 
Buffalo, N.Y. ; B. C. Berry, Toronto; P. R. Boese, Ely, 
Nevada; Fitzjames Bridges, London; B. M. P. John, Mon- 
treal; L. W. Deslauriers, Montreal; S. D. Fawcett, Ottawa; 
C. E. Fraser, Toronto; M. C. Garroni, Winnipeg; Walter 
Griesbach, Montreal; G. A. Jenkins, Portland, Oregon; S. 
R. Keemle, Chatham; A. J. Kelly, Montreal; H. F. Morrisey, 
St. John; C. B. Shaw, Iroquois Falls, Ont. ; O. H. Shenstone, 
Toronto; R. 11. Stenhouse, Ottawa; H. H. Vroom, St. Lam- 
bert, Que. 

Transferred, Students to Associate Members — C. W. 
Boast, Richmond, Que.; E. C. Cowan, Winnipeg; C. H. Don- 
nelly, Niagara Falls, Ont.; H. I. Dowling, Toronto; Alan 
Ferrier, Montreal; L. F. Mackay, Montreal; D. K. McLeod, 
Toronto; W. M. Miller, Mansfield Park, lYkiield, Sussex, 
England; Rosenorn Paul Emil Mathias, Montreal; F. E. 
Weir. Beamsville, Ont. 

Transferred, Students to Juniors — W. H. Bennet, 
Kenora; E. J. Buckingham, Winnipeg; J. C. Elder, Mon 
treal; L. E. C. Frith, Winnipeg; P. G. Gauthier, Montreal; 
T. S. Glover, Toronto; D. J. Ludgate, Pakesley, Ont.; A. E. 
Macdonald, Halifax; B. H. T. Mackenzie; James O'Halloran, 
Iroquois Falls, Ont.: B. C. Salamis, Montreal: R. D. Stile*, 
Plctou, N.S.; J. L. Lnderhill, Sydney Mines, N.S. 



T II K CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 12. No. 6 



II \I'1N«. PROBJLEMS NOW FACING CANADIAN CON. 
STKKTKl.X INDUSTRIES 



Good Work Accomplished by Executive Committee — Sub- 
ject- Dtscoaaed Included Apprenticeship, Code of Prac- 
tice, Contract Documents, Purchasing Orders, Etc. 



By J. Clark ReiUy 

Executive Secretary, Association of Canadian Building and 

Construction Industries 

THE hard work o£ the pioneers in the formation of the 
Association of Canadian Building and Construction 
Industries is beginning to bear fruit. Following our Win- 
nipeg Conference in January, 1921, the men in Manitoba. 
Saskatchewan and Alberta got together and formed a Wes- 
tern Branch, which will meet again in March. In the 
Province of Quebec a Provincial Association has been form- 
ed, fathered by D. K. Church and F. G. Brousseau. Branch 
associations have been formed at Port Arthur. Fort William 
and at Prince Albert. 

The Executive Committee has carried the burden of 
the work during the year, and has accomplished a great 
deal. Too much credit cannot be given to the members 
for the unselfish manner in which they have travelled to 
the meetings and conducted the association's affairs. It 
should be made public that, with one exception, the mem- 
bers paid their own expenses, both railroad and hotel, not 
only when attending Executive Committee meetings but 
also at meetings of the Joint Conference Board. 

The following meetings of the Executive were held: 
March 2, at Ottawa; March 15, at Toronto; April 28, at 
Montreal; May 11, at Toronto; June 21, at Toronto; Sep- 
tember 15, at Montreal; November 2, at Hamilton; and 
December 13, at Toronto. Messrs. Anglin, Carsweli and 
Grieve attended eight meetings, Mr. Piggot seven, Mr. Mat- 
tice four, and Mr. Whitlock one. The western members of 
the Executive have been kept constantly in touch with the 
work done, and have rendered valuable assistance by sug- 
gestions through correspondence. 

At the conference in Winnipeg a number of questions 
-ent forward to the Executive for action, and these 
have been dealt with, so far as was possible under condi- 
tions existing in the industry during the year. 

It was not found practicable to employ an associate 
secretary to devote his time to the interests of the manu- 
facturing and supply section, and the trade contractors' 
section, owing to the lack of the required funds. Steno- 
graphic assistance was given to the secretary, however, and 
a separate office obtained and suitably furnished. 

The question of housing, acted on by resolution at 
Winnipeg, has been carried forward by the Executive to 
the Government, but the difficulty of financing such a 

e proved to be the stumbling-block in the wa> c 
success. The need still exists. 

The National Joint Conference Board, of which last 
year's Conference approved, has held five meetings, a 
lows: The first in Ottawa, March 2 and 3; second, third 
fourth during the Joint Conference in May; fifth In Ottawa, 
ed meeting from December, held January 10. The 
recommendation regarding financing this Board 
yet been acted upon, our member* continuing to paj their 
own expenses. 

a Joint Conference In the building and 
try of Canada ivas held at Ottawa, May '■'• to 6, on the 
ion of the Minister of Labor, who acted al thi 
K estioi. loinl Conference Board. Borne 

thirty-two emplo tea from all pan 

niniar number of representatives of organised labor. 

Apprentices] on which but little 

l in the working out or the 

National and Local Councils, and 

■ tor the trades In ths 

Industry. The foundai been laid, however, and 

when conditloni improi ,n '"' 

than ever. 

The resolutions ol ' COBU 



mittee were sent out to branch organizations throughout 
the country, and have been discussed and acted upon in 
some places. There does not seem to have been any very 
special enthusiasm over establishing rigid Codes of Prac- 
tices, and yet difficulties constantly arise in the relations 
of general contractor and sub-contractor, and of both to 
the supply-man. 

Representations were made to the Dominion and Pro- 
vincial Governments in regard to the re-imbursement of 
contractors who had suffered loss owing to war conditions, 
and also in reference to the resumption of public works to 
relieve unemployment. 

Joint consideration, with the Executive Committee of 
the Ontario Provincial Association, was given to the ques- 
tion of the Ontario Lien Law, and other legislation affect- 
ing our industry coming before the provincial legislature. 

The standard contract documents approved at last con- 
ference have bgeen placed before the Royal Architectural 
Institute of Canada and the Engineering Institute of Can- 
ada, for their approval, but these bodies apparently do not 
wish to take action at present. Copies have been type- 
written and distributed on request, and the General Condi- 
tions and Straight Contract have been used on some large 
contracts, and found practical and satisfactory. 

It has also been suggested that we might consider some 
standard form of bulk purchasing order, this being in the 
nature of a contract form. 

The association was represented by the president at 
the annual meeting of the Employment Service Council of 
Canada, at which the question of unemployment was the 
principal subject under discussion. The Dominion Gov- 
ernment, in conjunction with the provincial governments 
and municipal authorities, is carrying out some of the sug- 
gested plans of the board. There is still a great measure 
of unemployment in the large centres of Canada, and as an 
association we should give the most careful consideration 
to this very pressing problem. 

The question of freight rates is still with us. Some 
relief has been given to conditions by the reduction allow- 
ed by the Board of Railway Commissioners, but there re- 
mains much to be said and done in regard to the rates on 
heavy commodities, in which the construction industry is 
so directly concerned. 

The time of the secretary during the year has been very 
fully occupied in carrying out the work laid down by the 
Winnipeg Conference, the Executive Committee, and the 
new matters which seem to keep constantly arising. Every 
effort has been made to keep expenses as low as possible, 
and this has been a difficult matter in view of the high 
costs of printing, stationery and other necessary materials. 
In addition, there has been a great deal of further work 
arising from the sessions of the National Joint Conference 
Board and the Joint Conference in May last, and this lias 
been done by the secretary. 

Conditions have not permitted any extensive travelling 
for organization purposes, the trips taken by the secretary 
being those necessary for attendance at meetings of the 
executive committee, and two others In regard to renewals 

Ol memberships In Montreal and Toronto. 

It is to be noted that the branch organizations arc 

making Increasing use of the secretary in Ottawa !•■ secure 
Information from various offices of the Government, and 

also the case with Individual members of thi 
loclatlon. The Becretarj has tried to Keep in touch with 
matters which have come dp, affecting the Interests ol the 
association, botb In the I ol tii" lions., and In the 

resulting application of the legislation. 

(Mo- of the needs felt by the Executive and the secre- 

the obtaining of statistics dealing with various ques- 

Uon which hi a .and for which we have not the faculties. 

There is -nil the neceesltj tor the uniformity of legis- 
latlon io the various provinces of Canada, Tins is specially 
true of the Workmen'! Compensation and the Lien Acts. 

Speaking generally, the year 19S1 lias I n a very 

notable one for building and construction in one respect at 
least. The uttentlou of the various government*, the press, 



February 7, 19 22 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



2ir. 



the pulpit and the public has been directed very intensely 
towards the industry, both in the United States and Can- 
ada. This has been due in a large extent, to the wide- 
spread publicity given to three outstanding reports, viz., 
the Lockwood Inquiry in New York City, the Report of 
Judge Landis in Chicago, and what is known as the Hoover 
Report on the Elimination of Waste. 

Through these reports, and the resulting discussion 
and other more direct and practical effects, public interest 
has been aroused in practically all of the great questions 
which we have had before us. The causes for the high 
cost of labor and materials, the shortage of housing, the 
seasonal character of the industry, the tightness of money, 
the attitude of labor organizations, the results of agree- 
ments between employers and organized labor, the causes of 
waste, and the need for greater stability and standardiza- 
tion have all been under discussion. 

The Hoover Report contains some clauses which are 
very striking ,and whcih may be found applicable to Ca- 
nadian Conditions: 

"Waste, it is said, is causing huge losses in building, 
which, including all trades and labor incidental to it, ranks 
second among the industries." 

The chief sources of waste in the building industry 
are irregular employment, inefficient management and 
wastful labor conditions. Customs or conditions prevailing 
throughout the industry and poorly designed equipment 
are given as secondary causes." 

"A striking fact about the building industry is that 
inasmuch as small buildings require so little capital and 
credit, and apparently so little technical ability, the field is 
full of small contractors, many of whom operate for a few 
years, and then fail." 

"Wasteful labor regulations, according to the report, 
consist of requiring skilled men to do work whch could be 
done by unskilled, restricting individual incentive through 
requiring uniform wages, limiting the number of appren- 
tices, excessive reduction of working hours, restricting 
output by prohibiting the use of labor-saving devices, and 
jurisdictional regulations." 

The responsibility in which we share is well empha- 
sized by the following clause in the general manager's ad- 
dress ,at the recent annual meeting of the Canadian Bank 
of Commerce: 

"The excessive cost of building operations has made it 
impossible up to the present time to embark on an opera- 
tion of such magnitude as is necessary to meet our require- 
ments. In this connection it may be pointed out that in 
all parts of Canada there is a large program of building in 
prospect, the carrying out of which only awaits more stable 
conditions in the form of lower prices for material and labor 
and a return to efficiency." 

The past year has been a time of difficulty and uncer- 
tainty, but it is our business to face the future with con- 
fidence, and do our utmost to solve the problems, and bring 
about a return of those conditions which will mean a re- 
vival of activity in our industry. — From annual report pre- 
sented January 17 at the Conference of the Association in 
Hamilton, Ont. 



GEORGIAN BAY CANAL ADVOCATE!) 



WHILE the project to provide a great international chan- 
nel for ocean-going ships by improving the St. Lawr- 
ence river to the Great Lakes is being studied by the gov- 
ernment of Canada and the U. S., proponents of an alterna- 
tive plan, the proposed Ottawa and Georgian Hay canal; 
are seeking to enlist support for their all-Canadian 
waterway. 

Advantages claimed for this route over the St. Lawr- 
ence ship canal include its position entirely within Cana- 
dian territory, its immunity from the storm hazards of the 
lakes and the savings it offers in mileage. 

According to reports of Canadian government engi- 
neers who have made an exhaustive study of the project, 
the Ottawa and Georgian Bay cauul scheme is practicable. 



As surveyed, the canal would follow the St. Lawrence from 
Montreal to the junction of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence 
rivers; there the Ottawa would be followed to Mattawa and 
Lake Nipissing and the French river would provide outlet 
from the Ottawa river to Lake Huron. 

The length of the canal would be 440 miles with a 
lockage of 758 feet, the number of locks being 27 with 
lifts ranging from five to 50 feet. The size of the locks 
would be uniformly 650 feet in length, 65 feet clear width 
and 22 feet depth. Twenty-two feet would be the maxi- 
mum depth on the entire length of the waterway. This 
waterway would consist of 28 miles of canal proper, 66 
miles of improved river navigation and 34 6 miles of river 
and lake varying in width from 300 feet to half a mile. 

As in the case of the proposed St. Lawrence-Great 
Lakes scheme, power development is planned. Govern- 
ment engineers have estimated that on the Ottawa and 
French rivers it will be possible to develop 1,000,000 
horsepower. The power developed at the famous Chaudiere 
falls at Ottawa, already the centre of large industrial oper- 
ations, would be doubled. 

Under the Ottawa and Georgian Bay scheme, vessels of 
twenty-foot draft, or 15,000 tons displacement, would ply 
between Montreal and Lake Superior ports. Advocates of 
the plan argue that this would make for increased inter- 
provincial trade, as Nova Scotia colliers might take their 
cargoes 1,000 miles into the interior from Montreal and 
load cargoes of grain and other interior products for the 
return voyage. 



INCINERATORS DISCUSSED BEFORE THE TORONTO 
BRANCH, E.I.C. 



AT THE meeting of the Toronto branch of the Engineer 
-t* ing Institute of Canada, January 26, R R Knight 
of Francis Hankin & Co. addressed the branch on "Inciner- 
ation," or the practice of destruction of garbage by heat 
A large number of lantern slides were shown to explain 
the various types of equipment used. 

The desirability of utilizing the fuel value of garbage 
to bring about its own destruction was stressed by the 
speaker. An average of about one-fifth of a ton of garbage 
per capita per annum may be expected from a large com- 
munity, and since one pound of garbage may be considered 
as capable of evaporating one pound of water in addition to 
the three-quarters of a pound present in the garbage, the 
heat value of this material is evident. The speaker stated 
that it possessed about one-quarter of the calorific value 
of poor coal. 

Mr. Knight expressed the opinion that reduction of 
garbage for the utilization of various constituents thereof 
was impracticable for cities of less than 500,000 population. 
The destruction of garbage by incineration was also re- 
garded as impracticable, without the use of added fuel, for 
cities of less than 15,000 population. 

According to the speaker, there should be no nuisance 
experienced from well-managed incineration planus, 
especially in a city of appropriate size. Frequently these are 
placed alongside a public building, such as a hospital, and 
the heat derived from the combustion is used for the genera- 
tion of power. At least 4 tons of garbage per ten hours 
should lie available in order to make power development 
incut icable. 

Mr. Knight staled that an incinerator plant for a city 
of about 20,000 people would cost about $ 30,000. 



Complete statistics available show that during the 
fiscal year the Federal Department of Public Works spent 
$20,970,674.31, of which $ 1.217, S92. 07 is charged to de- 
mobilization. As compared with the total for the previous 
ran with a reduction in the war expenditure of over 
$3,000,000, there is an increase of $15,214.46, due prin- 
cipal^ ti> the ex] Itturea made on harbor and river works 

at Courtney Bay, St. John, N.B., Toronto, Fort William and 
Fort Arthur, aud Esquimau, B.C. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 12, No. G 



HEAVE TRUSSES USED IX NEW YOKK STOCK 
EXCHANGE EXTEXSIOX 



Interior of Twenty-four Storey Building Carried on Four 

Trusses Weighing One Hundred and Fifty Tons Each 

— Ingenious Method of Erection 



AVERY difficult piece of engineering was successfully 
carried out recently in the addition to the New York 
Stock Exchange. The new building is twenty-four storeys 
high and situated north of the present eight storey struc- 
ture. When designing the extension the architects imposed 
unusually severe demands on the structural engineer by 
suppressing an entire storey of interior supports and asking 
him to carry more than twenty storeys over a large hall. 
This was accomplished by using four very heavy trasses 
weighing about one hundred and fifty tons each. 

Due to the importance of the lower floors it was found 
necessary to raise the trusses upto the space between the 
fifth and sixth floors; the third floor and fourth, or mezza- 
nine floor, being hung from the lower chord of the truss. 
The sixth floor frames into the top chord and the fifth into 
the bottom chord of the truss making a distance of 15 ft. 
10 in. between centres ot chords. The size of the support- 
ing columns and the spread of the foundations made it ne- 
cessary to keep these columns further back from the wall 
than the upper exterior columns. To do this the end posts 
of the trusses were inclined outward, the end panels thus 
forming a cantilever on which are carried the upper wall 
columns. 

The columns and the main truss members are similar 
in design. They are made up of a 14 in. 287% lb. Bethle- 
hem H-section, being the web of the member, with three 24 
x % in. plates on each side. Where heavier members were 
required 8 x 6 x % in. angles and filler plates were added. 
The heaviest member was composed of 1-14 in. H <iv 2S7.5 
lbs., four a ngles 8_ x 3% X % in., eight angles S s li x 1 in., 
two plates 8 x % in., two plates 41 x % in., four plates 
34 x % in. and two plates 34 x % in. The main truss mem- 
bers were made with 1% in. rivets and other minor con- 
nections with 1 in. rivets. 

The erection of these heavy trusses at such a height 
was a very difficult task but it was ingeniously accomplished 
by using the steel work for the upper part of the building. 
Beams and columns designed for the upper stories, were 
used up to the ceiling of the large hall and above this point 
the hangers for the third and fourth floors were erected and 
used as columns to support the bottom chord which was 
erected in its permanent position. The floor framing was 
then put in and used as a platform to erect the rest of the 
truss after which the temporary steel below the third floor 
level was removed. The heaviest unit to be handled was 
th>- main section of the top chord which weighed 53 tons. 
The total weight of structural steel used was about 5,660 
tons and the trusses are prdbably the largest ever used in 
office building construction. 



WOULD nOREASE MVERSIOH m NIAGARA FALLS 

BY way of explanation of a recent statement that an 
plication by American Interests was befoi 
to have 100,000 cubic second feel of water diverted from 
the Niagara river above Hi" fall . Bit \d.im Be 

i .■ni Canada, bj i aMI led to 86, I cubic 

i. .■! p.T second. : States la pei tnltted ti 

10,000 cubic feel per second. The total d Jaj I 

cubic feel lecond The proposal now being made 

: <■ th<- dlverliOI tO 100,0 nine i 

an increase of 14,000 c.f.s. < » r tin 

000 c.f.s., and the United States lili.OOO c.f.s." 

Hitherto the Americans have talked „< mat 
equal division of ail water taken from the tall 
the Increased diversion, ami this Cans I prepared in 

fight strenuously, as the existing division of water ts 
this country was due to the United States gettl 
quantity of water from the I 



drainage canal. Were the equal basis followed, Canada 
would get only 14,i>nu c.f.s. of the increased diversion and 
the United States 30,000 c.f.s. 

Canada's share of 22,000 c.f.s. of the increased diver- 
sion would produce more than 600,000 horsepower of elec- 
tricity, the maximum capacity of the Chippawa Canal if 
carried through the canal to Queenston. Canada is still 
wasting about 4.000 c.f.s. of its present allotment and with 
that water and a new interpretation of the treaty, sufficient 
water to operate the Chippawa Canal to maximum capacity 
could be obtained without the proposed new diversion, 
Canada's consent to the increased_ diversion has u> 
cured. 



TESTING EEFECT OF ALKALI ON CONCRETE 



IN AN address al the annual convention of the Saskatche- 
wan Agricultural Societies Association Walter C. Mur- 
ray, president of the University of Saskatchewan drew atten- 
tion to the research being conducted at the University of 
value to the farmer. There were for instance, experiments 
being conducted in the matter of the effect of alkali on con- 
crete, which were being carried out by the members 
of the science faculty. If a solution were found to the 
problem of the destruction of concrete by alkali it would 
mean the saving of millions of dollars annually in the west. 
.Much progress had already been made and it had already 
been discovered that the question was one of chemical, not 
of physical, effect. Numerous experiments had already 
brought out the fact thai the quality of concrete was not 

an element in the question. 



PHONE COMPANIES PLAN YEARS AHEAD 



TELEPHONE company engineers plan from fifteen to 
twenty years ahead in installing equipment, with the 

result that it is .seldom necessary to dig up a conduit to 
increase its capacity. This was one of the interesting 
Statements made to members of the Montreal Branch of the 
Engineering Institute of Canada by N. M. I. ash. chief engi- 
neer of l he Bell Telephone Co.. in an address at a meeting 
held recently in Montreal. 

Because telephone systems grow the cost per unit of 
giving service does not decrease, the speaker said. As 
more subscribers are added more intricate and expensive 
equipment is required and costs go up. He dealt with the 

subject of the long-distance telephone system, stating that 
the open wire will soon be replaced by wires In cable to 
care tor neavj demads. The actual productive' talking 
time On long distance was alflO di-cussed. and it is said 
that the lime is constantly being increased as a measure of 
economy and operating efficiency Improved, but each ad- 
vance along these lines called tor bigger expenditure on 
new equipment. 



The annual meeting of the Ontario Hood Road 
atlon will be held In Toronto. March 1. 2 and :: . 



The Illinois section of the American Waterworks \- 

sooiatlon, of which <; C Habermeyer la secretary, will hold 

Itl 1 llh. annual meeting at I'rbaua. III., on March !':! anil 
2 I, 



We desire to Call our readers' attention to an error 

which ippeared In the Januarj 11 issue of "The Canadian 
Engineer." In the report of the Canadian Building and 
Construction Industries Convention al Hamilton, on page 
reference was made to several reals of Industrial films 
exhibited by the Austin Mfg. Co This should have read 

the Austin Machinerv Corporation ot Chicago, make 

the Well known Austin CUDS mixers and road building m.c 

chlner) We mlghl add thai this line of machinery > made 

in Canada b\ t he Canadian Austin Machinery Co., at vVood- 

..luck, Out. 



February 7, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



LUMBER PRICES ARE INCREASING 



THROUGHOUT the year 1921, although the general ten- 
dency of the wholesale lumber market was downward, 
the principal construction woods — yellow pine, North 
Carolina pine and Douglas fir — -held fairly firm and the 
prices in eastern market centres today are virtually on the 
same level as they were at the beginning of 1921, according 
to A. R. Kriechbaum, vice-president of Lumber, Who at- 
tended the convention of the Canadian Lumbermen's As- 
sociation, at Toronto. 

In reviewing the year's market, Mr. Kriechbaum point- 
ed out that the market was on a downward trend when the 
year opened and this decline continued, almost without in- 
terruption, until about October 15. Then buying was re- 
sumed on a fairly large scale and prices 'began to climb 
slowly, coninued upward until December 1st, when they 
struck an even keel, and have remained about that level 
ever since. In the hardwood department, however, the 
advance did not begin until late in November, and hard- 
wood prices today are still rising. 

Heavier Demand and Higher Pi-ices 

While the contemplated demand during the spring and 
summer will undoubtedly result in the stiffening of prices, 
the advance is notexpected to be very rapid, and certainly 
prices will not even approach the peak level of 1920. To 
again reach such an abnormal level would not be to the 
best interests of the lumber industry or the public at large, 
and the lumber producers and wholesalers themselves full 
realize this. 

Competition for business will be keener in 1922 in 
the lumber business as it will in all other lines of industry 
and this will tend to hold values to a reasonable level. It 
should be remembered, however, that for more than a year 
the lumber producers have been selling their products at 
very little profit and in numerous instances below cost of 
production. The volume of business for 1921, taken as a 
whole, was small and many mills have been closed down 
for months. To resume operation and re-enter the market, 
these mills must be assured a reasonable price for their 
lumber. Otherwise they will remain shut down. 

The conclusion which at present seems definite, there- 
fore, is that the wholesale price of lumber in the east today 
is considerably lower than it will be sixty and ninety days 
hence. The construction lumber market is bound to ad- 
vance above its present level, and the hardwood market is 
already advancing. 



the drydock at Skinners Cove, Esquimau, at a cost of $4,- 
300,000. This dock will, when finished, increase the im- 
portance to shipping on the Pacific Coast of this port. 



VICTORIA HARBOR ASSOCIATION ISSUES REPORT 



THE annual report of the Inner Harbor Association of 
Victoria, B.C., which has just been issued, gives some 
interesting information regarding the improvements which 
have been carried out and which are still being made. It 
states that about 3,000,000 cubic yards of rock, hard pan, 
mud and gravel have, so far, been removed from the navi- 
gation channel, at a cost of $1,500,000. The work of deep- 
ening the turning basin, involving the removal of approxi- 
mately 100,000 yards of clay and rock is now in progress, 
as well as the removal of shoal spots in the fairway west of 
Songhees Point, so as to maintain the harbor grade to 
twenty feet below low water mark. 

The old tortuous entrance to the Inner Harbor has been 
straightened and widened from Hospital Point westward, 
forming a channel with a minimum width of about six 
hundred feet, and twenty feet deep at zero low water. 
This great work of development is now being followed up 
by continuing the removal of Hospital Rock, which has al- 
ways fouled a large area of water on the east side of Song- 
hees Point. 

The southerly approach to the new Johnson Street bridge 
has recently been improved by the removal of the easterly 
portion of Discovery Rock, which abutted into the chan- 
nel, and the approach at this point has been made clear. 

The Dominion Government has built and completed the 
breakwater and docks at Ogden Point, and is now building 



NEW BRUNSWICK ENGINEERS ELECT OFFICERS 



T11K annual meeting of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of New Brunswick was held on Jan. 27 in 
the Board of Trade rooms, St. John. N.B. Reports were 
received from the various officers. The council report 
showed that the association has a members-hip of 17S 
C. Kirby, retiring president, gave an interesting address. 
The election of officers was held and resulted as follows: 
President. S. B. Wass, Moncton; vice-president, C. C. Kirby, 
St. John; secretary, J. A. Waring, St. John; Councillors, 
St. John District, F. P. Vaughan and H. F. Bennett; Monc- 
ton District. .1 1). McBeath, Moncton. and K. S. Pickard. 
Sackville; Fredericton District, 15. M. Hill; Chatham Dis- 
trict, R. J. Sly. 



\i;\\ YORK COMMISSION OPPOSES ST. I-AWRI \« I 
PROJECT 



A COMMISSION appointed by Governor Miller of New 
York to oppose the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River 
waterway project has filed with the Legislature its 
second report. This was divided into two parts. First, a 
memorandum of the commission based on the report of the 
engineers, and, second, the address of Governor Miller be- 
fore the Atlantic deeper waterways convention at Atlanta. 
Ga., last November. 

In its memorandum the commission opposes the St. 
Lawrence project on the grounds that: 

Plans and estimates of engineers for the St. Lawrence 
improvement from Montreal to Lake Ontario are pre- 
liminary only, and that the data submitted is not sufficient 
to indicate that the work can be done for the amount stated. 

New York State will not voluntarily surrender its 
vested rights in the water power along the St. Lawrence. 

Whatever water power is available belongs to the 
State of New York and the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, 
and that neither the Dominion of Canada nor the United 
States Government can lawfully appropriate them without 
compensation to the owners. 

In order to produce 4,100,000 horsepower and a 25- 
foot channel, the United States and Canadian Governments 
will have to spend more than $4SS,000,000; for a 30-foot 
channel, with the same amount of horsepower developed, 
the cost will exceed $506,000,000. 

Operation of the waterway will be hampered by ice 
and flood conditions. 

It is unwise for the two Governments to tie up their 
natural resources in such a project. 

New York State protests against the use of the potenial 
property interest of the state in the undeveloped St. Law- 
rence River waterpower for the financing of the plan under 
consideration. 

The expenditure by the United States of the money ne- 
cessary to make the St. Lawrence River navigable for 
ocean-going vessels of 25 or 30-foot draft is not justifiable. 



An outstanding improvement in the operation of Ca- 
nadian railways was registered in October, 1921, when, in 
spite of decreased freight and passenger business trans- 
portation, expenses were cut $4,896,904, or 21 per cent. 
over the previous month, according to information issued 
recently by the transportation branch of the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics. The Canadian Northern, Canadian 
Government and Grand Trunk Pacific Railways all showed 
marked improvements in their operating ratios, and for the 
first time in two years, instead of expending from one to two 
dollars in operating expenses alone in order to earn one dol- 
lar, these roads expended 90.6, 92.7 and 94.4 cents re- 
spectively, for each dollar earned. The C.P.R. showed the 
lowest operating ratio this year, namely, 69.56 per cent, as 
against 69.46 per cent, tor October, 1920. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 12, N'o. G 



The Canadian Engineer 

Established 1893 
.4 Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



Terms of Subscription, postpaid to any address: 
One Year Six Months Four Months Single Copies 

$3.00 $1.50 $1.00 in.. 



Published every Tuesday by 
The Monetary Times Printing Co. of Canada, Limited 



President and General Manager 
JAMES J SALMOND 



Assistant General Manager 
ALBERT E. JEl^INGS 



HEAD OFFICE: 62 CHL'RCH STREET. TORONTO, ONT. 
Telephone, Main 7404. Cable Address, "Engineer, Toronto." 

Western Canada Office : 1206 McArthur Bldg.. Winnipeg G. W. Goodall. Mgr. 



Vol. 42 



Owen Sound, February 7, 1032 



No. 6 



PRINCIPAL CONTEXTS 

New Road Bridge Opened Over Sixteen Mile 

Creek 203 

Preparing Bituminous Gravel and Sand Roads 206 

Review of Investigation and Deterioration of 

Concrete in Alkali Soils 209 

New Developments in Electric Power 211 

Leading Problems Now- Facing Canadian 

Construction Industries 214 

Personals, Obituaries and New Publications 219 

Construction News 220 



LAKE OF THK Woods CONTROL CONTROVERSY 
GROUNDLESS 



IN A recent issue announcement was made of the promul- 
gation in the Canada Gazette of regulations covering 
the mode under which the Lake of the Woods Control 
Board must regulate the levels of the Lake of the Woods 
pursuant to the Lake of the Woods Regulation Act passed 
at the last session of Dominion Parliament. The question 
of adequate provision for the best use of the Lake of the 
Woods waters to meet the needs of all interests on both 
sides of the international boundary, which a few months ago 
tended to become a violent political controversy, would ap- 
pear now happily to be in a fair way to satisfactory and 
permanent settlement. 

So far as the physical or engineering problems Involved 
In the whole question are concerned, and they have been 
i.ngly complex and have taxed the ability ol leading 
engineers In both countries, there n.-iei I .1 dif- 

ficulty in reaching a solution which would meel the prac 
unanimous approval of all the engineers concerned 
When, however, attempts were made to pnl Into actual 
en.-, i the provisions for the carrying out oi the ol 
agreed to as feasible and advisable from an engineering 
standpoint, legal Impediments Incident to conflicting Inter 
national, federal, provincial and state rights bees 
pronounced thai those In moat Intimate touch with the 
issues have despaired of ever reaching S conclusion which 
could be mads acceptable to the governments of Canada and 
the United Stales as the basis for a treaty settling per 
inanenlly all the matters arising from the I. ike of the 

Woods reference Especiall] i when an anne 

cessary conflict of old ni" reen the Dominion goi 

eminent and the Ontario government .1- to Che modus oper- 
andi (or furnishing the control of the levels and the out 



flow of the Lake of the Woods within the limits of the 
range recommended by the International Joint Commission, 
and which was conceded to be a matter entirely for appro- 
priate action by competent Canadian authority. 

Strange to say. both the governments at Ottawa and 
Toronto were in complete accord as to the main purpose and 
even the general method of securing such control, but 
largely because of the resistance of certain interests at the 
outlet of the Lake of the Woods, the Ontario Government 
was forced to recede from the scheme agreed to with the 
Dominion government to provide by joint and concurrent 
legislation for a Lake of the Woods Control Board. Upon 
the failure of the co-operative scheme, the Dominion gov- 
ernment decided, largely upon the urge of the government 
of Manitoba, to bring down the Lake of the Woods Regu- 
lation Act, which, by invoking the "general advantage" 
clause of the British North America Act. furnished the re- 
quisite authority for providing precisely that species of 
control contemplated by the previously agreed to concur- 
rent and conjoint legislation of Parliament and Legislature. 
It has been publicly stated that the Dominion legisla- 
tion went further than was absolutely necessary, when the 
"general advantage" clause was applied to the control of 
the levels and outflow of Lac Seul, an important body of 
navigable water which is not international, and therefore 
in an entirely different category from the Lake of the 
Woods. There would, however, appear to be justifiable 
reason for the inclusion of Lac Seul under similar control 
to that of the Lake of the Woods. It certainly has a very 
direct and under conceivable circumstances, a dominant 
bearing on the regulation of the waters of the Winnipeg 
river. Indeed it would be very easy for an unsympathetic 
or antagonistic private purpose plant to be set up on the 
English river involving control of the outflow of Lac Seul 
waters in such a way as to destroy entirely the beneficial 
effect of the dependable flow furnished from the I ake of 
the Woods. 

In such case, power developments on the Winnipeg 
river in Manitoba would be menaced to a degree which 
would react to the permanent disadvantage of a vast and 
important key industry for the whole province of Manitoba. 
Plants of the city of Winnipeg, the Winnipeg Electric 
Railway Co. and the project now uuder way of the Manitoba 
Power Co., involving capital expenditures of nearly $20,- 
000,000, and many times that amount of directly dependent 
capital outlays, would be placed in an impossible position 
and their proprietors might be forced to pay unjust toll to 
the private purpose plant controlling the outflow of the 
English river. No government either of the Dominion of 
Ol the provinces of Ontario or Manitoba could, under any- 
conceivable Circumstance, permit such a condition of af- 
fairs. Therefore, it would appear that it was a justifiable 
and timely move on i he part of the Dominion government 
to Include Lac Seul within the purview of the Lake of the 

Woods Regulation AiOt. As Ibis Ac I provides B means for 
ils withdrawal upon the passing by Ontario of its joint con. 

current legislation, there is a very definite and simple 
means Of solving the whole control problem. 

11 is understood that shortly after Royal assent was 

to the Lake of the woods Regulation Act. the 
Melghen government re-appointed thereunder the original 

it the Wood- Control Hoard, which was constituted 
bj Older iii Council on L'lst January. I'l*. by - 11 " 1 * r,tn ""' 

- ol the Ontario Government. 'The Canadian Engl 

1 1 is informed that this Board is now functioning 

ractorll) and thai the regulations recently promulgated 
were prepared for and recommended to the Dominion 

,. inn,, Mil bj II The hoard should now he in S position to 
that regulation which representatives of the gov- 

ernments of the Dominion and of the Provinces of Ontario 
and Manitoba were ^ • 1 one time In unanimous agreement 
abonl Bo far as the International aspect ol the whole 
problem is concerned, we are advised that the recommendav- 
ot the International Join! Commission have been 
epted by the governments or Canada and of the 
United states in a general way. but thai certain minor 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



219 



amendments made necessary by investigations since the 

Commission's findings were completed in 191S are now the 
subject of international negotiations. It is confidently ex- 
pected that in the near future these negotiations will reach 
a stage where it will be possible for a complete agreement 
to be reached upon which a treaty or convention can be 
based. It would therefore appear that the report and 
recommendations of the International Joint Commission on 
the Lake of the Woods reference matter, will in due course 
be given effect to in a permanent way by the governments 
of Canada and the United States. An active international 
controversy of long standing and fruitful of real trouble to 
both countries will then have been composed by the good 
offices of the Commission. 



PERSONALS 



F. J. Ure. C. E., town engineer of Woodstock, Out., 
has been appointed engineer and surveyor for East Zorra 
Township. 

W. H. FERRIS, Reeve of Harrow, Ont., has been ap- 
pointed chairman of the highway committee of the Essex 
County Council. 

DR. W. H. SUTHERLAND. MP. P.. in the provincial 

legislature has been appointed Minister of Public Works 
for British Columbia. 

S. L. SQUIRE, chairman of the executive of the Ca- 
nadian Good Roads Association has returned to Toronto 
from Victoria. B.C.. where he has been making arrange- 
ments for the annual convention of the association to be 
held in Victoria on June 13-16. 

W. O'BRIEN, of the Canadian Bridge Co., Walkerville, 
Ont., has arrived in Victoria, B.C.. and will direct opera- 
tions on the construction of the highway section of the 
Johnson St. Bridge. Mr. O.Brien, who is a well-known bridge 
engineer, was superintendent of construction of the south 
end of the Quebec bridge. 

FRED J. WOLFE, who at the annual meeting of the 
Imperial Oil Company held a few weeks ago was elected to 
the directorate has been a member of that organization for 
more than twenty years, having begun his business career 
as junior clerk in the office of the tjueen City Oil Co. in 
Toronto, 1901. In 1904 Mr. Wolfe was placed on the sales 

staff and his abil- 
ity and energy 
were soon recog- 
nized and he was 
made city acpin 
for London, Ont. 
In 19t)5 he mov- 
ed back to To- 
ronto to occupy 
the position of 
assistant to J P. 
Rogers who was 
at that time man- 
ager of the lubri- 
cating branch of 
the Queen City 
Oil Co. In 1914 
Mr. Wolfe he- 
came assist a D t 
sales mana g e r 
for Ontario and 
in HIS was 
made sales man- 
ager of .the Wes- 
tern Ontario Dis- 
trict. He rei 
ed there until 
1920 when he was transferred to Montreal and took charge 
of the sales of the province of Quebec. In 1921 he was ap- 
pointed general sales manager in the Toronto office of Im- 
perial Oil Co., Ltd. 




A K DOUCET, director of public works, city of Mon- 
treal, lias written a letter to the executive committee ask- 
ing that his resignation be accepted, to take effect, Feb. 1. 
Mr Doucel was appointed to the position of Director of 
Public Works .luring the late administrative commission's 
regime During his term of office many improvements in 
civic service were inaugurated. 



OIJITI •ARIES 



C. HOWARD ELLIS, of Ellis & Ellis, architects, To- 
ronto, died in that city on January 27, aged 37. 

HEXRY H. MARSH, contractor of Grimsby, Ont.. died 
in Hamilton on January 27. Mr. Marsh was born at Win- 
ona. Ont., 63 years ago. 

GEORGE EDWARDS. SO years of age and said to be 
the oldest living science graduate of McGill University, was 
accidentally killed recently at Cold Lake. Alta.. where he 
was engaged in the lumbering business 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 



REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF PUBLIC WORKS 
for the Province of British Columbia year 1920-1921. The 
report contains one hundred and eighty pages of detailed 
information regarding the public works carried on by that 
department together with a number of interesting plates 
illustrating the various works. 



IROQUOIS ASPHALT PAVING MACHINERY. This 
brochure contains interesting descriptions together with 
illustrations of the various machines produced by the Iro- 
quois Department of the Barber Asphalt Company including 
asphalt mixing plants of the semi-portable and stationary 
types, melting kettles, road rollers. The brochure is very 
nicely illustrated and .printed on heavy coated stock. 



CONCRETE WORK, Vol. 2 — By William Kendrick 
Hatt, Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, La- 
fayette. Inc., and Walter C. Yoss. head of the department of 

Architectural Construction. Wentworth Institute. Boston. 
Mass. Published by John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York: 
Chapman & Hall. Ltd.. London. 2(16 pp; 5 X A by 7 % in.; 
37 figures; cloth: $2.25 postpaid. Reviewed by H. S. Van 
Scov.ii. Manager Of Publicity, Canada Cement Co. Ltd., 
Montreal. This hook is a companion publication to Vol 1 
by the same authors reviewed in these columns May 5, 1921. 

The two volumes are inter-dependent, Vol. 1 being a refer- 
ence booh for Vol. II. They are a unique contribution to 
the literature of concrete in that they include much of the 
information usually sought for in a handbook, much de- 
tailed information usTiallv associated with a reference book. 
and a very definite treatment of practical problems arising 
in actual concrete building construction. 

They do not replace the text books used in engineering 
Schools but will he of great assistance in the secondary 
schools giving instruction in concrete work in their manual 
braining departments. They will be of greater value to the 

ambitious employees ... contracting firms who are interested 
not only in what they are doing but also in the principles 
underlying the methods that are followed. 

The material included is really the outgrowth of the 

instruction given concrete workers in the vocational de- 
tachments of the United States Army at Purdue University 
during 1917-1918. It has had an intensive trying out and 
brings into an unusually compact form the accepted methods 
for testing the materials entering into concrete work, the 
Construction of forms, methods for mixing and placing con- 
crete, some basic problems in reinforced concrete design 
and detailed methods for the actual construction of side- 
walks, concrete products and the simpler building units. 
Prof. Hatt has taken full advantage of his close association 
with the various technical and trade societies interested in 
concrete work and the books reflect the very latest informa- 
tion available on the subjects discussed. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2, No. 6 



->_i>aiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii imiiiiiiitiiitif iiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiu 

| CONSTRUCTION NEWS SECTION j 

5 Readers will confer a great favor by sending in news items from time to time. We are particularly eager 

to get notes regarding engineering work in hand or proposed, contracts awarded, changes in staffs, etc. 

^iiiiinnHniiiiinMiiiiiiiiiiiiMuiiiiiniiiMiiiiiiiiMiininiMMiiiinniiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiMiiMiiiMMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiinuiiiMiMiniiiiiMiiiir 



TKXDERS PENDING 



Construction news items, including notes of various 
tenders called, are published on pages 44 to 50 of this issue. 
The following tabulation is presented as a reminder to con- 
tractors in regard to tenders that are still pending, other 
than those reported on the above-mentioned pages. The 
word "Issue" refers to the issue of "The Canadian Engineer" 
in which there appeared a notice giving some details re- 
garding the call for tenders. 

Tenders 
Place of Work Close Issue 

Edmunston, N.B., construction of a school 

building Feb. S Jan. 31 

Toronto. Ont.. miscellaneous work on 

several schools Feb. S Jan. 31 

Ontario, Province of. Work on Provincial 

highway. Township of Ameliasburg .. Feb. 10 Jan. 17 
Victoria. B.C., fabrication and erection of 
part of the superstructure of John- 
son Street bridge Feb. 13 Jan. 17 

Ontario, Province of. supply of Portland 

nI Feb. 11 Jan. 21 

Cap de la Madeleine Que. .supply of pump- 
ing equipment Feb. 13 Jan, 31 

Kitchener, Ont., purchase and removal of 

brick buildings Feb. 13 Jan. 3 1 

ler, Ont., erection of a public library 

building Feb. 21 Jan. 31 

Ontario, Province of, expansion joint 

material Feb. 21 Jan. 31 

Huntsville. Out . construction of pavement Mar. 1 Jan 31 
Ontario, Province of, construction of pave- 
ment-. culvert8, grading, etc Mar. 6 Jan 3 1 



i:i:iix.i:s, ROADS AMI STREETS 



\ii. i it... Province of, — Premiei Greenfield told a dele 
gaiimi rnni the Canadian Good Roads' Association, which 
waited on the cabinet recently, thai the Uberta Govern- 
menl would make ••mtv effort to take advantage of bhe 

Federal grant of $ I •" ,000 for the building of highways In 

the province. 

Brantford, Ont. — The estimated expenditure on roads 

in Print county this year has been scl b> the County Coun 

iil at $275, R i Superintendent, A. m Jackson, Brant- 
ford. 

Calgary, .\li«. — Plans and specifications are being pre- 
pared for the construction of a bridge over the C.P.R 
irrigation ditch on Seventeenth Ave. east City Engineer, 
W, Craig. 

Chatham, Out, — A tentative promise to pave seven 

miles Of Provincial Highway in Kent County this year was 

made by Hon F C Biggs, Minister ol Public Works and 
High way i to a deputation from bere recently, 

Gait, Ont, — The estimate of Wateri It 

this year for road oonstructlon li $800,000. Road ■ 
Intendent, L B Llchty, Welleslej , Ont 

i 1 1*. Ont. — The City Council intends to con trucl 

I be i • ■ J Metcalfe 

Alice and 1 1 '■'•''.■ ■• ! ■■" City 

ii i B Leadlay. 

ii. million, Ont. — The city Council passed the by-law 

for thl Of the Mountain roadway in Jane 

■ it icii i tepayers recently City Engi- 

neer, E ii. G 



Kingston, Ont. — The City Council has decided to open 
Mack St. to Regent St. City Engineer. Howard S. Dick. 

Kingston, Out. — Frontenac County Council plans to ex- 
pend $109,700 on roads this year. Road Superintendent. 
R. H. Fair. R. R. No. 5, Kingston. 

Lindsay, Ont. — Victoria County Council awarded the 
contract to Frank King, of Lindsay, for the removal of ap- 
proximately 2, 000 cu. yds. of solid rock and other work at 
Fenelon Hill. Eight tenders were received, ranging from 
$4,450 ot $8,737.50. 

Ontario, Province of, — A delegation from the Niagara 
district municipalities will have a conference with Hon. F. 
C. Biggs, Minister of Public Works and Highways, regard- 
ing the commencement of the work on the Hamilton- 
Niagara Highway at an early date. 

Ottawa, Out. — Authorization for the borrowing of a 
half million dollars for the construction and maintenance of 
good roads, and for current expenses, was granted Carleton 
County Council recently. County Road Supt., Samuel Me- 
Clure, Galetta, Ont. 

Owen Sound, Ont. — It is proposed to build a bridge 
over the harbor in order to connect up the C.P.R. tracks 
to provide intersw itching facilities. Both railroads are 
opposed to the scheme, but the city is in favor of it. The 
whole matter will shortly come up before the Railway Com- 
mission. Three schemes have been proposed, the most 
feasible being a bridge north of 10th Street, which will 
cost about $40,000. 

Quebec, Province of, — Work may soon be commenced 

on the construction of the lie Perrot bridges, the western 
from Vaudreuil to II le Perrol .and the eastern from lie Pel 
rot to St. Anne de Bellevue. The Provincial Government 

has already voted $600,1 for litis work and the Dominion 

Government has agreed to contribute $150,000. The 
Vaudreuil-Ille Perrol bridge will probably be of rein 
forced concrete and the St. Anne de Bellevue-Ile Perrot 
bridge of steel construction. 

St. Thomas, Ont. — Elgin County Council has estimated 

its share of count] road expenditures for 1:122 at $75,000, 

with the possibility of the amount being increased in June. 

if the construction program is enlarged, The sum ol 
000 will be spent for toad construction. $35,000 for main- 
n,l bridges, $5,000 for gravel 
pll development, and $5, I tor machinery. Road Super- 
intendent, Frank Pine,,. St. Thomas 

Sandwich, Ont. — Esses Count] Council passed a by-law 
authorizing the borrowing of $400,000 tor road construc- 
tion during the year. Road Superintendent, W. H. Kinster. 
Sandwich. 

Sandwich, Ont. — A by-law was passed bj Essex County 

Council authorising the borrowing of $400,000 to expend on 
county road build ' Road Superintendent. \V 

II Kinster. Sandwich. 

Sarnia, Onl. — A by-law was Introduced at B recent 
meeting Of l.ambton County Council to provide for the 
puildln tiles of concrete road on the 1 fit li sulci,.. id 

,,, Snmhr.i timated Coal being M0, 000. 

County Road Supt . John McCallum, AMnston, Ont. 

Toronto, <>nt. — The City council intends to extend 
and grade Bdgewood Ave, al an estimated coal om $11,750, 

Toronto, <>m. — T lunoil propose to acquire 

... extension of Simpson Ave. from I... can Ave 
to Carl i w Ave. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Transportation Commission asked 

,,,-,, i t,, provide ■ temporarj brid 

during the construction ol the proposed hiuh- 
level bridge over the Don. 



February 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Toronto, Out. — The Works Committee recommended 
the adoption of the report of Works Commissioner Harris 
for the construction of an asphalt pavement on Chestnut 
Park Road at a cost of $49,989. 

Toronto, Ont. — Works Commissioner Harris has recom- 
mended the construction of curbings on the following 
streets; Burgess Ave, Keuihvorth Ave., Glenmnunt Park Dd., 
Glenlake Ave., Patricia Road. Belhaven Road, and Batten- 
burg Ave. 

Toronto, Ont. — Works Commissioner R. C. Harris has 
recommended the construction of pavements on the follow- 
ing streets: Glenlake Ave.. $20,079; lane 1st west of Mark- 
ham St., $6,009; lane 1st east of Sacville St., $2,057; lane 
2nd south of College St., $2,508. Also the following cement 
concrete sidewalks: : Lawler Ave., $5,222: Lawton Ave.. 
$12.42; Oriole Gardens, $1,161; Pince Crest Road. $2,857; 
Strathmore Blvd.. $4,417; Windermere Ave., $3,233. 

Toronto, Ont. — Additions to the York County good 
roads system are under consideration by York County 
Council. The following sections are proposed: Kipling 
Avenue. New Toronto, from the Toronto and Hamilton 
Highway to the G.T.R.. % mile; Vandorf Road. Va mile to 
Vandorf Village and to G.T.R. Station. Albion Road, from 
Thistletovvn to Peel County Good Road-: Dufferin Street, 
from the city limits to connect with Vaughan Road; Queen 
Street east, to be connected with Kingston Road. 3.000 ft.; 
Sharon Road. 2'2 miles, to connect Holland Landing with 
Sharon also simultaneously to connect Simcoe and Ontario 
systems and avoid a seven mile detour. 

Victoria, B.C. — The Canadian Bridge Co. of Walker- 
ville. contractors for the highway section of the Johnston 
St. Bridge are assembling equipment and a considerable 
portion of the steel that will be required is already on the 
ground. W. O'Brien is in charge of the work. 

Whitby, Ont* — The expenditure of Ontario County 
Council for good roads in 1922 will total $88,700. Road 
Superintendent, D. J. Kean, Whitby. 

Whitby, Ont. — The route of the Whitby to Lindsay 
Provincial highway has been definitely decided upon and the 
plans deposited in the Registry Office here. Work will like- 
ly start in the spring. 

1 ork Tp., Ont. — The Township Council plans to ex 
tend Hillary Ave. 



WATER, SEWAGE AND REFUSE 



Chatham, Ont. — Mayor Harrington who recent l\ 
Stratford to inspect the incinerator there, will report l<> 
No. 3 committee of the City Council on the practicability of 
constructing an incinerator here. 

Kingston, Ont. — The City Council has decided to nave 

sewers laid in Regent and Mack Streets. City Bngil r, 

Howard S. Dick. 

New Toronto, Ont. — Au application is being made by 
I lie Municipal Council to the Ontario Government for ap- 
proval of the construction of a sewer from Second St. to 
the eastern town line. Clerk. W. H. C. Millard. 

Peterorough, Ont. — Waterworks Superintendent R. 
L. Dobbin in his report showed that by the commission lay- 
ing its own pipes in connection with the nitration plant. 
over $18,000 had been saved. Contracts for the plant were 
let for $304,813, and to the end of December, $219,936 was 
expended. 

Port Credit, Ont. — On the advice of the Provincial 
Board of Health, the four lake shore municipalities west of 
Toronto — Port Credit, Etobicoke. Mimico and New Toronto 
— are working together to arrange for a common water 
system. 

Toronto. <>nt. — Tenders will be called for the con- 
struction of sewers in the Leslie gardens subdivision, esti- 
mated to cost $40, I. 

Toronto, Out. — The Works Committee reduced the 
estimate of Works Commissioner Harris, amounting to 
$2,021,000 for sewers, to $500,000. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Board of Control recommended 
that the proposed water works emergency station and store- 
house at the northwest corner of Dundas St. and Hamilton 



imated to cost $14,000, been erected by day labor 
under the supervision of City Architect Price. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Board of Control awarded con- 
tracts to Angelo Cavotti for the laying and Jointing of water 
mains in Woodington Ave., at $1,143; Stratmore Boulevard. 
$594.56: Wolverleigh Boulevard. $590.60; Milverton 
Boulevard, $588 l l' and Glebehohne Boulevard, $589.11. 

Toronto, Ont. — Works Commissioner Harris I 
commended the construction of the following sewers: Mac- 
pherson Ave., $3,SS0; Foxbar Road, $11,630; lam 
of Sackville St.. from Salisbury Ave. to Amelia St.. $1.41.".; 
Ardagh St., $9,195. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Board of Control awarded the 
contract lor construction of a sewer in Strathmore Boule- 
vard, from Woodington Ave. to Glebemount Ave., to the 
Murphy Contracting Co.. at $2,460. Contracts were also 
awarded to Ruscica Bros. Co. for the following sewers: 
Wolverleigh Boulevard. Woodington Ave. to Glebemount 
Ave. $2,199.92; Glebeholme Boulevard, Woodington Ave. 
to Glebemount Ave.. $2,419.56; Milverton Boulevard. Wood- 
ington Ave. to Glebemount Ave.. $2,030.40. 

York Tp., Ont. — The Township Council received notice 
from the city of Toronto that 25 hydrants will be placed on 
Morningside. Kennedy Park Road and Runnymede Road. 



LIGHT, HEAT AND POWER 



Halifax, N.S. — A number of power developments are 
under consideration in this district. Investigations have 
been carried on at Bear River and Sheet Harbor, where 
8,000 h.p. and 25,000 h.p. respectively could be developed. 
At St. Margaret's Bay 10.700 h.p. is being developed at the 
new power plant and at Mahone on the Mush-a-Mush River 
16, I h.p. is being generated. 



RAILWAYS 



Hamilton. Ont. — Plans for the construction of an in- 
cline railway up the side of the mountain at the head of 
Ottawa St. wore presented to the Board of Control by T 
II. Simpson, on behalf of a syndicate. Estimated cost, 
% 100, 

New Westminster, 15. c. — The Dominion Department of 

Public Works awarded the contract for the construction of 
repairs to groins Nos. 1 and 3 at Annieville Rar. Kraser 
River, to the Praser River Pile Driving Co., New West- 
minster. B.C., al $6,432 (unit price). 

Ottawa, Out. — An order-in-council lias been passed 

authorizing the expenditure of $735, nun on steel rails for 
the government railways. 

St. Catharines, Ont. — Thorold and Crowland Town. 

-hips passed the by-law providing for the purchase of the 
Niagara. St. Catharines & Toronto Railway, while Humber- 

anil Grantham Townships defeated it. 
St. Johns, \tlil. — Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth 
company have been asked by the directors of the Newfound- 
land Products Corporation to act as their technical advisors 
in the development of the Humber River water powers and 
other projects. There is a total possible development of 
235,000 h.p. on the Humber River and neighborhood. Sur- 
veys 1: ii 1,1,. by the Reid Co. engineers, and the 
plans have already been submitted to the engineers repre- 
senting the Armstrong Witworth Co., whom, it is under- 
stood, have made an estimated of the cost of development. 
Messrs, Armstrong, Whitworth will contract to supply all 
machinery ami equipment for the power development ami 
for a proposed pulp and paper mill, and will also carry out 

instruction work. The estimated cost of the whole 

opmenl is about E4.000.000. 

Toronto, <>nt. — A resolution urging the Government to 

take action to hasten the electrification of the Midland 
branch of the Grand Trunk Railway and the Sudbury branch 
of the Canadian National System, will be introduced at a 
meeting of York County Council. 

Toronto, Out. — A new plan for radial entrances to the 



202 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 12, No. fi 



city, alternative to that drawn up by I ho Hydro-Electrjc 
Power Commission, was explained to the North Toronto 
Ratepayers' Association at a recent meeting, by W. P. Chap- 
man, and was endorsed by the association in principle. The 
plan provides for a central terminal between Edward and 
Dundas streets, and an open tunnel up the Teraulay street 
extension to another terminal at Belmont St. (Ramadan 
Park), then northwesterly along the C.P.R. to connect with 
the Guelph, Weston and Woodbridge lines. The Hamilton 
line would enter over the harbor development land to the 
new Union station and the Metropolitan by way of Bathurst 
street. 

Windsor, Oat. — Plans for the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company's proposed new freight sheds to be erected on 
Caron Ave. have been approved by engineers of the com- 
pany. The work, which will involve an expenditure of at 
least $250,000, will be started within two weeks. 

Winnipeg, Man. — D. C. Coleman, vice-president of 
the C.P.R. in charge of western lines, announced that pro- 
jected work of the company in Manitoba provides for a 
mechanical coaling plant at La Riviere, automatic signals 
at Sidney, and the improvement of water supply plants at 
Rathwell, McGregor and Wheatlands. Mechanical coaling 
plants will also be erected at Eagle River, Ont.; Estevan, 
Sask.; Swift Current, Sask.; and Medicine Hat, Alta. An 
additional ice-storage building will be erected at Okanagan 
Landing, B.C. and the water supplies will be improved at 
the following plants: Bredenbury, Hirsch, Frys, AVeyburn, 
Macoun, Elbow, Parkbeg, Fauna, Outlook and Gull Lake] 
in Saskatchewan; Bow Island and Lundlbreck, in Alberta;' 
and Klko and Creston, in British Columbia. The new office 
building at Moose Jaw, and the extension to the Island coal 
dock at Fort William, will be pressed to conclusion, and a 
considerable amount of work will be carried on in the 
replacement and standardization of bridges on the line. 



FACTORIES AND LARGE BUILDINGS 



Alliens, out. — The High School, recently destroyed bj 
lire, will be rebuilt. 

Brockville, Ont. — The Ontario Railway and Municipal 
Board has sanctioned the annexation by the town «n lirork- 
vilie of 125 acres in the township of Elizabethtown, where 
the piani or the Eugene F. Phillips Electrical Works, Ltd., 

will be erect.il. 

Chinguacousy Tp., Out, — The Township Council plans 
the erection of an addition to the Township Hall Clerk, 
Robert Kee, Cheltenham. 

Conrtenay, B.C. — R. Fraser Biscoe plans the erection 
of a theatre building. 

Edmonton, Alta. — Plans for the alteration of the LOlsl 
Street market building into s technical school bave been ap 
proved by the buildings and grounds committee of the Pub 

lie School Hoard. 

Guelph, Out. — PI u i,, r n,e new 

Collegiate and Vocational Institute will be completed by 
February IS, when tenders will be called for. Architect, 
Gordon Hutton, Hamilton. 

Kingston, Out. The Board of Governor ol the Gen 
eral Hospital awarded the contract for the construction of a 
new wini: to the Dixie Construction Co. 

Kitchener, Out, — The Grab Bhos Co., Mansion St., 
plan the erection of an addition to their building this spi ing 

Lakevtovr, Ont. — The erection of a new school 
|e< ted 

Lamtrton Park, Out, — The ratepayers of S S No :::: 
authorised the in ne debentures no) axoeeding 

155,000 for an addition to the tchobl and playgrounds 
Tenders «>n be called shortly. Chairman of School Board, 
A, Sb • 

Montreal, Que. — The premises of the Indi 
9 Mane Anne St . were damaged by Are to the extent 
of $23,000. 

Montreal, Que — Contract for the supply and Installs 
iion of ail wrooghl iron work in Mount Royal Bo pKal has 



been awarded to The Western Supply & Manufacturing Co., 
Pacific <Sr Yeoman St., Winnipeg. 

Mount Forest, Oat. — The memers of St. Paul Church 
plan the erection of a parish hall. 

North Toronto, Ont. — Plans for the erection of a new 
church building on the site of the present one were adopted 
at a recent meeting of the congregation of St. Clement's 
Anglican Church. Rector, Canon A. J. Fidler. 

Ontario, Province of, — Instead of rebuilding the King- 
ston Dairy School recently destroyed by fire, the Provincial 
Department Of Agriculture may build 'a modern structure 
at Kemptville in connection with the Agricultural College 
there, and dispense with the Kingston site. 

Port Colborne, Ont. — Fire damaged the Maple Leaf 
Milling Company's building and machinery to the extent of 
$15,000. The Maple Leaf Hotel was also badly damaged 
by fire. 

Port Stanley, Ont. — The London & Port Stanley Rail- 
way Commission plans the erection of an amusement hall in 
the park here this spring. Tenders will be called at once. 

Regina, Sask. — The Saskatchewan Motor Co., Ltd., 
plans the erection of a new plant. 

Riverside, Ont. — The Town Council plans the erection 
Of a new Municipal Hall and police quarters. 

Riverside, Ont. — A by-law was passed providing for the 
raising of $50,000 for the construction of houses. Clerk, 
C. J. McHugh. 

Sandwich, Ont. — Recommendations that an industrial 
school for girls be built in Essex County, in addition to a 
new jail and isolation hospital, were contained in the pre- 
sentement of the grand jury to County Judge J. .1. Cough- 
lin, at Sandwich. 

Sai-iiia, Ont. — A new factory will be erected by Mack- 
ey's Bfead Ltd. at a cost of $30,000. Head Office, Toronto. 

Scarboro Junction, ont. — The ratepayers decided to 
issue debentures amounting to $60,000 for the purchase of 
a school site. 

Stouft'villc, Out. — A movement is on foot by the Board 
of Trade for the erection of a library building. President, 
P. C. Hessel. 

Toronto, Ont. — The members of St. Stephen's \ 
Church plan the erection of a memorial hall. Rector. Ren 
T G. Wallace. 

Toronto, Ont. — Plans will be prepared at once bj 

City Architect Price for the proposed Reception Hospital 

l.i lie elected oil StllTCy Place. 

Toronto, <>n(. — Work on the construction of the new 

tabernacle of the Christian and Mlssionar) Alliance, on 
Christie St., will be started at once. 

Toronto, Ont. — A permit has been i>sned to the G. W. 

V. A, to erect a two-storey brick clubhouse on the north- 
west coiner ot College and Crawford Stn cosl oi 

■Mil 

Toronto, Ont. — The permit for the construction of the 

ii torey building at the uortheast corner of Bay and 
Temperance Street leneral Occident Assuram 

mads has been granted to the Sutherland Construction 

I !o . 'I'm i > ii i 

Toronto, Ont — Tin- Board of Control recommended 

that the Carpenter work on the new Northern Stables be 

carried out under the supervision of City Architect Price by 
daj labor, the contractor t" whom the contract was awa 
hairing tailed to cai rj same out, 

Toronto, <>nt. — Excavation has started tor tb. ■ 
of the new Church of the Resurrection, Mllvarton Boule- 

lUd Woodbine Axe The intention is to erect the. 

main p.. no. i. of the building at present, which will be 
added i" as required, approximate cost. 182.000 Rector, 
Ke\ E Glllman, 

Toronto, Ont, — Plans for the nan church whiob will 

be built at Rushton Road and St. Clair Ave are being pre- 
pared bj the Ulldlng ...n. untie. • of St Clair Avenue Melh- 
I lurch, The new ulldlng will cost $lnb.ooo. and the 
will launch a campaign shortly to raise 

ihe Brat Instalment of $46, iharles Bummerfleld Ii 

chairman of the building . ommittee. 



<j2> 



(Q 



A Weekly Paper for Civil Engineers and Contractors 



r 



The Structural Design of Pavements 

Sub-Base Consideration and Economic Depth of Foundation 
— Pressure Distribution and Impact Effects Shown by 
Tests — Drainage of Sub-Grade an Important Factor 

BY A. T. GOLDBECK 
Chief, Division of Tests, U. S. Bureau of Public Roads 



TjVXDAMEXTALL.Y, a pavement is 'a structure acted upon 
-T by a bewildering array of forces. Its structural de- 
sign is a complicated problem in mechanics, and ultimately 
we shall have to make use of the principles of mechanics if 
we ever hope to arrive at what seems to be a rational meth- 
od of design. Let us consider briefly some of the forces 
to which a pavement is subjected. 

In the first place, pavements may be roughly divided 
into two main types, those of the rigid and those of the 
non-rigid type. On both types the same external forces 
act, but the manner of their resistance and their effects are 
different, depending upon the characteristics of 'the pave- 
ment. The pavement structure, either of the rigid or non- 
rigid type, is a slab supported on the subgrade. The man- 
ner of its support is widely varying for this depends upon 
the nature of the soil and the amount of moisture present. 
Our investigations of subgrade materials throughout the 
country show us very conclusively that soils vary widely in 
their supporting properties, particularly at times when they 
contain large amounts of water, and this very difference in 
the supporting properties of different subgrade materials 
makes the question of foundation a most important one. 

Effect of Water on Subgrade 

Very plastic soils become exceedingly soft when they 
are saturated and the more porous, coarse-grained types, 
bordering on the sand or sand-gravel mitxures, are practi- 
cally unaffected by moisture. There is a wide range of soil 
types and a wide range of supporting values between these 
extreme limits. Special problems are encountered in dif- 
ferent sections of the country due to the unusual behavior 
of the subgrade under the action of water. Thus certain 
soils have the property of enormous expansion upon the 
absorption of water and corresponding shrinkage when they 
dry out. Such a condition, of course, results in non-uni- 
form support for the pavements and is to be encountered 
especially in the outlying rather than in the built-up sec- 
tions of the city, because the outlying sections offer more 
opportunity for these wide ranges of moisture conditions to 
exist. 

While discussing the question of the subgrade. the 
formation of ice in the saturated subgrade cannot be ne- 
glected. We are all familiar with the heaving of pavements 
due io this action. The presence of cracks is thus not only 
possible but a very frequent occurence before traffic is 
turned on the pavement, and in many cases the process of 
destruction begins through the action of forces produced 
through the movement of the subgrade alone. As stated, 
however, most of these problems concerning the subgrade 
have to do with outlying districts rather than with the pave- 
meats in the center of a well built-up city. 

Suppose the pavement slab is to be laid on the aver- 
age subgrade in which no provision has been made for 
drainage. Such a slab is subjected to the action of natural 



forces. We are all familiar with the expanding action due 
to rise in temperature and due to increase in moisture cou. 
tent with the tendency toward the production of pavement 
buckling. There are, of course, well developed and efficient 
methods to take care of these expansive forces. The 
matter of shrinkage of the pavement due to the fall of 
temperature and of drying out cannot be forgotten, for 
this is productive of cracking in concrete bases and concrete 
pavements before traffic is turned on the pavement. It is 
very natural that cracks should form under conditions of 
shrinkage when we consider the tremendous force of fric- 
tion developed between the subgrade and the concrete and 

















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PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION THROUGH DAMP SAND FILLS 
ntwt'ti *r*„to Tv.e»jv< i»i tao^At Chen** tum 
orarwft* nproM n^ tfl NT*? V.-T<-; - pmattKsa 
pounja pir s^-irt ntB •» vt *<ttm A <-a. \ 

<i int'io outatti rfpwnttr o tt in 

to*a> WMd 

FIG. 1— PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION THROUGH DAMP 
SAXD FILLS. 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2. No. 



when we consider also the low tensile resistance of concrete 
occurring in the early stages of hardening. The cracking of 
concrete basi ime importance in connection with 

aspbaltic pavements, since often times the base cracks ex- 



* * Wheels on line over Cells 
No. 2*3. 





Wheels on line over Celh 
A/o. I ■¥- z. 



CELL No 3 - MO Pff£3JUf?£. 
CELL No. 4-. 
CELL No. 2. 



KICURE 2. — PRESSURES UNDER CONCRETE SLAB 



tend through the wearing surface. We all recognize, of 
course, that these natural forces of expansion, contraction 
and heaving, due to frost action in the subgrade, are always 
likely to occur but the main problem with which we are 
concerned in connection with the design of pavements is 
the adequacy of the pavement for supporting the traffic to 
which it is subjected. We do not have to think back over 
a long period of time to the time when there were no ex- 
tremely heavy motor trucks and when the speed of heavily 
loaded vehicles was comparatvely a walking pace. Pave- 
ments today, however, as a matter of every day occurence, 
have to carry extremely heavy loads and this is the most 
important factor in the problem of proper pavement design. 

Reliance on Research 

There are still many problems to be solved in connec- 
tion with the economic design of pavements and many prob- 
lems in connection with the structural design to withstand 
traffic. We are continually attempting to get more and 
more llghl on these van ae by research methods. 

One investigation which we are conducting With tha Asphalt 
Association involves the question of the causes of shoving 
of sheet asphalt pavements. We are doing this with the 
hope of being able to And b means for the elimination of 
this nndesii isphalt Ws axe also 

studying qui characteristics ol bKu- 

mlnou . the proper mixtures of bltumlnou 

mil the construction of bituminous m acada m . These 
■ ill be conducted on a I through Dhe use of 

a circular track over which ordinary traffic will be run. 
Through careful observations of the test sections under 
traffic and the co-ordination of these sections with the 
laboratory tests of materials used, we hope to get some 



information which should lead to methods for the elmina- 
tion of waves in asphalt pavements. 

Pavement Structu rally Considered 

Let us consider what sort of structure a pavement is 
and what kind of forces it must resist. In the first place, 
the pavement is a slab which may or may not have the 
ability to resist bending. It is laid on a more or less yield- 
ing material which at various seasons of the year has dif- 
ferent conditions of moisture and which varies greatly in 
its characteristics throughout the country. The loads on 
top of the slab are sometimes at rest but generally in 
rapid motion. The surface of the slab is rarely extremely 
smooth, and in consequence the loads moving over this 
comparatively rough surface are applied not as static loads 
but with considerable impact. Suppose the pavement slab 
is of the yielding type, incapable of resisting bending, such 
as the macadam, bituminous macadam or concrete streets 
common in the suburbs and outlying districts of the city. 
When heavy loads are placed on the surface of such a 
pavement, the concentrated pressures at the surface are 
transmitted down through the pavement to the underlying 
subgrade. The thicker the pavement the greater will be 
the area distribution of the pressures and the smaller will 
be the pressure per square inch under load. It is a very 
common error to assume that the pressure intensity is uni- 
form and is distributed over a certain area of support, 
which area is defined by lines sloping 45 degrees from the 
point of application of the load. Such an assumption is 
far from the truth for the pressure intensity is highest 
directly under the load and spreads out to nothing at some 
distance from the load. The curves in Fig. 1 illustrate 
this point very nicely. They show the pressure distribu- 
tion at different depths of a sand fill when a concentrated 
load was placed on the top of it. 

Although we have taken pressure measurements with 
broken stone bases, we are not ready to publish the re- 
sults, ibut the curves will be somewhat similar to those 
shown. Suppose the highest intensity of pressure produced 
on the subgrade directly under the pavement exceeds the 
bearing value of the subgrade material, and let it be as- 
sumed that the pavement slab has no resistance to bending. 
It is very natural that under such conditions there will be 
local deformation of the slab under the load due to the 
yielding of the sugrade. If, on the other hand, the sup- 
porting value of the subgrade exceeds the highest intensity 
of pressure produced by the heavy concentrated load, there 
will not be excessive yielding and the pavement will not 
be deformed. 

Pressure Reaction 

Let us consider the mechanics of the pavement slab 
which fas perhaps of more common occurrence in city pav- 
ing, namely, the slab of the rigid type in which there is a 
concrete base supporting a wearing surface of asphalt. 
granite block or vitrified brick. Some few years ago we 
first made an effort to find out something of the pressure 
reaction under a concrete road when supporting a heaw 
concentrated load. We buried a number of so-called soil 
pressure cells under a concrete slab directly in contact with 
the sugrade and a heavy motor truck was used to apply the 
load on the slab and the distributions of the subgrade 
pressures under the slab were obtained, with this heavy con- 
Lted Wheel load on the surface. The curves shown in 
are typical of the distention of pressure (a 
pected under a concrete Blab it will be understood that 
it we are t,, arrive al a rational design theory we must know 
something of the upward subgrade reactions just 
mUSl Know their magnitude in the design of any other struc- 
ture, a number of pressure readings were taken under the 

over a period of several mouths, both with and with- 
out i,;iiii, . and the surprising feature of these measurements 
was the facl thai they showed anon great variations from 
time to time. Indicating very strongly that at times the 
slab was being supported in certain spots ami at times In 
others. The indications have since been borne out by 
other measurements, so that we know that a rigid slab 



February 14, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



certainly does not receive uniform subgrade support, and 
at times it bridges over areas offering no support whatever. 

Slab Stresses 

A little thought will show us that we may assume a 
number of conditions of subgrade support which are very 
common as applied to pavements. For instance, these con- 
ditions may be listed in the following cases: 

Case 1. That in which the slab is uniformly supported 
on the subgrade and is acted upon by the concentrated loads 
of traffic producing a typical curve of pressure distribution 
as already described. 

Case 2. A slab spanning a hollow spot in the sub- 
grade receiving a rim of support, a heavy load acting upon 
the center of the slab over a hollow spot. 

Case 3. A slab heaved by frost action at the sides with 
little support at the center, two heavy trucks passing one 
another. 

Case 4. A slab supported at the center, two trucks 
passing one another, tending to break the slab by tension 
at the top. 

Case 5. A heavy load at one corner of the slab tend- 
ing to break off that corner. 

The accompanying plate Xo. 3 gives approximate form- 
ulas for the maximum tensile stress that might be ex- 
pected in a concrete slab when subected to these different 
conditions. No attempt will be made to go into the theory 
from which these formulas were derived, as this has been 
treated elsewhere. ("Thickness of Concrete Slabs, by A. 
T. Goldbeck, Public Roads, April, 1919.) 

The analyses of these formulas will show that under 
the conditions assumed with two trucks passing one another 
the slab will have to be exceedingly thick to carry the loads 
without longitudinal cracking. If it were necessary for our 
roads to withstand static loads alone, our design problems 
would be comparatively simple, but unfortunately the forces 
exerted on the road surfaces are considerably higher than 
mere static loads. 

Impact Effects 

Our tests on the measurement of impact on roads have 
already been described before the Philadelphia Engineers' 
Club and have been printed in their journal. I wish, how- 
ever, to call attention again briefly to some of the results. 
We measure the impact by an approximate scheme, making 
use of the deformation under impact of a copper cylinder 
in comparison with a like deformation of a similar copper 
cylinder under a static load in order to express the magni- 
tude of the impact. It will be recalled that we used a num- 
ber of different weights of motor trucks running at differ- 
ent speeds, equipped with different kinds of tires and caused 
the trucks to produce impacts under different conditions. 
varying the height of fall from zero up to 4 in. Speaking 
approximately, these impact tests on a pavement of ordin- 
ary roughness showed that the maximum pressure produced 
under impact might 'be four or Ave times the wheel pressure 
when the truck is at rest. The amount of the impact was 
dependent very largely on the kind of tires, and to some ex- 
tent on the design of the vehicle. Apparently, the amount 
of cushioning supplied by the tire governs the amount of 
impact; the better the cushioning properties, the more near- 
ly the impact aproaches a static load. With impact effects 
under moving wheels equaling four or five times the static 
load of the vehicle, it is very apparent that such impacts 
are apt to have a very serious effect on the pavement sur- 
face, as well as on the entire pavement structure. 

We have just completed a large series of tests on pave- 
ment slabs oi different types subjected to impact and to my 
mind these tests apply directly to the conditions of city 
paving. The amount of impact having been determined, 
the question naturally arises in our minds as to wlm 
this amount of impact would have on different types of 
pavements. In order to determine this we laid down ;i 
number of slabs of concrete of different design and also a 
number of brick slabs on concrete as well as broken stone 
bases. W T e attempted to have half of these slabs on a very 
wet subgrade and half on a very dry subgrade in order to 
show us the effect of different subgrade support. Then we 



rigged up an impact machine that consisted of a heavy 
weight of 1,800 lb., shod with a piece of 12-in truck tire. 
Upon this weight we mounted a 5-ton truck spring and the 
spring supported a box in which was placed a weight of 



5 • unit tensile stress. 
P" concentrated load 
d • thickness of slab in inches 

w ■ weight of concrete per square inch with thickness u. 
s ■ width of slab in feet 

Case I - Slab Supported by Svbcyade - Cone of Support 

\EVd' d < J 10 

Casel-Slab Spanning a Circular Soft Spot in Sub- 
grade 




=> _2~R*1 6 



Casell- Slab Supported at Side* of Rood- Two 
Trucks Passing 

Case TZ -Slab Supported at Center -Two Trucks 
Passing. 



CaseT-Load at Corner Slab. 



FIGURE 3 — FORMULA FOR STRESS IX ROAD SLABS 
UNDER LOAD 

6,000 lb. This entire weight was then raised and allowed 
to fall repeatedly, beginning first at a very' small height of 
fall and after every 500 blows this height of fall was in- 
creased slightly. 

Pavement Thicknesses 

Generally, it might be stated as the result of these 
tests that the resistance shown by 1:1%: 3 concrete. 7 ft. 
square slabs is very consistent and increases uniformly with 
the increase in thickness. In the slab 6 in. or more in 
thickness only primary cracks formed, -while the 4-in. slabs 
were punched out at the center. From this it would seem 
that plain concrete surfaces 4 in. in thickness are entirely 
inadequate for heavy motor truck traffic. Monolithic brick 
slabs in most cases showed less resistance than 1:1% :3 
concrete slabs of the same depth. Failure seemed to re- 
sult from shearing of the brick top from the concrete base 
before full resistance of the monolith was developed. The 
indications are that under impact, shearing stresses are 
much more severe than under static loads. Grouted brick 
surfaces compared favorably with 1.1%:3 slabs of the same 
thickness, while grouted .brick beams showed resistance in 
excess of those offered by 1:1% :3 concrete in static loads. 
The slab strength of the concrete base was very little in- 
creased by bituminous filled brick surfaces. 

The indications are that the resistance of the specimens 
increased with increased bearing value of the subgrade 
The relation between the strength of 1:1% :3 and 1:3:6 
concrete specimens, as shown both by static beam tests and 
impact slab tests, differs from that shown by the compres- 
sive tests on cylinders and cubes. Although the compres- 
sive strength of 1:3:6 concrete was 50% of that of the 
1:1% :3 concrete, the difference between the beam and 
slaib strength of these two mixes does not exceed 20' 
a result of the analyses of these experiments, the curve 
shown in Fig. 4 was prepared indicating the relation be- 
tween the thickness of a 1:1% :3 concrete slab in inches 
and the resistance which such a slab 7 ft. square offers to 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



Vol. 4 2, No. 



impart when laid on a subgrade such as existed during the 
tests. Although such a curve does not lead us with cer- 
tainty to the rational design of concrete bases of pavements, 
it goes far in aiding our judgment as to what the proper 































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THICKNESS OF SLABS IN INCHES 

FIG. 4 — RESISTANCE OF 1 ; 1 hi : 3 CONCRETE SLABS 
TO IMPACT 

thickness of the pavement should be to withstand certain 
kinds of traffic. Our impact tests have already shown us 
what impacts to expect. The present curve shows us what 
slabs are capable of resisting various amounts of impact. 
Combining this information with what we know of sub- 
grade conditions, we are in a much better position to say 
when our pavement thicknesses are adequate. 
Practical Considerations 

In considering the design of such pavements, par- 
ticularly pavements in well built-up portions of the city, I 
believe that in general we can safely assume that the sub- 
grade will almost never become as wet and soft as it has a 
chance to become in country highways where the surround- 
ing country can become thoroughly water-soaked. I need 
not call your attention to the fact that such pavements are 
thoroughly protected from moisture from above. More- 
over, any water which through underground sources might 
have a tendency to accumulate, is conducted away by the 
numerous sewer pipes under the pavement. Then too. in 
congested portions of the city, the motor truck traffic ne- 
cessarily moves quite slowly, so that the impact is much 
reduced below what it might be on open stretches of con- 
crete. So that, no doubt, many pavements which have 
proven inadequate for country highways when subjected to 
heavy motor truck traffic, would give splendid Bervice In 
congested portions of cities It is true that no matter 
where an opening is made in a city pavement it will be found 
that the subgrade is moist, but recent experiments made 
by us seem to show that when soils have moisture in them 
Which docs not exceed the so-called "moisture equil 
their bearing value is quite high and when the moisture 
Is the "moisture equivalent" the bearing value |g 
greatly reduced, although this has not hern e 
a rule of universal application to all soils. I am of tie- 
opinion that the subgrade material under our citj 

ments practically never ha.- a percentage of moisture ex- 
ceeding the so-celled "mol ture equivalent." (Teste tor 

Soils with Relation to their Use In the Subgrade ol 
ways," by Messrs. Jackson and A. T. Qoldbeck, AS T M 
Proceedings for 1921). 

In the more open sections of the OUtlyli 
the cit ore danger of the subgrade becoming soft 

•re that WO might expect trouble from the nun 
binations of heavy loads and soft subgrades, for the corres- 



ponding conditions of traffic, I would feel inclined to design 
heavier sections for the outlying districts than for the well 
built-up sections of the city. In residential sections, fail- 
ures in pavements are often noted, notwithstanding the 
comparatively light traffic. This is particularly so in con- 
ditions where there are high terraces on one or both sides 
of the street and it is very probable that such a condition 
of topography is productive of high moisture content in 
the subgrade under the street. Under such conditions it 
will be well to keep in mind that here failure is likely to 
occur and here the design should be made heavier for the 
conditions of traffic to be met than elsewhere where the 
topographic conditions are more favorable toward natural 
drainage, or special drainage precautions should be used. 
For the conditions at Arlington we were unable to produce 
failure in any of our 10-ft. slabs, but we did succeed in 
breaking the remaining slabs. 

I hesitate to attempt, on the basis of my present 
knowledge, to formulate any definite rules of procedure In 
selecting the proper thickness of pavement for various con- 
ditions. I think that from what I have said thus far, and 
especially from a detailed study of the several papers which 
have been written in connection with our studies at the 
Bureau of Public Roads, you will not be lead far astray in 
letting these results aid your judgment, especially if you 
are careful to keep in mind the probable condition of sub- 
grade support and the probable traffic and its speed. — From 
a paper read recently before the Conference on City Pav- 
ing, at Philadelphia. 



ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF SUCTION DKKIMiKIt 



A20-in. suction dredger in use on the Sumas River in 
Washington was recently converted from steam to elec- 
tric operation by the Marsh Construction Company. As now 
arranged the dredger has a total connected load of 1,322.5 
h.p., with motors ranging up to 1,000 h.p. Current is used 
at both 2,300 and 440 volts, a cable and reel maintaining 
connection with the shore as the vessel moves forward. 

Power is taken from the 34,000-volts transmission line 
that parallels the line of operation of the dredger, leads 
running from it to a bank of three 500-k.v.a. transformers 
mounted on a scow moored to the bank of the river. This 
scow and the dredger are connected by a 1,000 ft. length 
of submarine cable carried by a reel mounted on a small 
bcow lashed to the dredger. This cable is paid out auto- 
matically as the dredger moves ahead until all the cable 
has been reeled out. The transformer scow is then cast 
adrift and moved ahead, the slack In the submarine cable 
is coiled up on the reel, and a new connection is made be- 
tween the transmission line and the transformer bank in 
its new position. 

The two largest power units on the dredger are the 
1,000 h.p. motor that drives the main pump at the rate of 
300 r.p.m., and the 150 h.p. motor that operates the cutter 
through a set of reduction gears. After the dredger had 
been In operation tor a few weeks material was being 
handled at the rate of approximately 600 ill. yd. an hour 

,. , tor power ot from 1 to l S cenl per yard. Under 
normal operating conditions the dredger requires from 900 
to 1,000 kw. 



A conference of Elgin County road foremen will be held 
in the Oourl House. St, Thomas, about March 1. Frank 
PlneO, County road superintendent will lie in the Cha 

siniil.i will be held in London on February 'J:'. 

under the direction of Engineer Talbot, superintendent of 
the Widdlesea county roads. 



The headquarters of the Ubertt Architectural 
tion win i.e removed from Edmonton to Calgary for a 
period of two yean, ami the next annual meeting of the 

i,,,n will he held in Calgary OOXl year. At a meeting 
held in Edmonton on Feb, 1. .lack Iturrell was selected pres- 
ident mid R. A Millar, secretary-treasurer. 



February 14, 1922 



THE CANADIAN ENGINEER 



THE ORGANIZATION OF METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS 



Report of Sub.Committee on Sewage Submitted to Ameri. 

can Society of Municipal Improvements — Powers 

of Boards Controlling Districts 



By Lang-don Pearse 

Sanitary Engineer, Sanitary Distriat of Chicago 

WITH increased attention to water supply and, in particu- 
lar, the development of pure water supply and clean 
waterways, considerable activity has resulted in the form- 
ation of various commissions, boards of districts, looking 
toward the provision of facilities for two or more municipali- 
ties acting together. These efforts have come about through 
the legal difficulty of co-operating without some method 
of joining responsibilities by organization, and with the 
knowledge that better development can be had through 
utilities, such as a water or sewer system, planned to serve 
a drainage area or district rather than individual towns 
by political boundaries. This tendency was early recog- 
nized in England through the formation of river boards, 
such as Birmingham, Tame and Rea Drainage Board, under 
whose control is the removal and disposal of sewage of 
Birmingham and surrounding territory. Such boards in 
England have been jointly organized under various parlia- 
mentary acts for the cleaning of streams to prevent nuis- 
ance. In the United States the tendency was originally to- 
ward the formation of commissions organized and empow- 
ered by the state to carry out specific work. Among the 
earlier commissions were the Metropolitan Sewerage Board 
in Massachusetts, serving Boston and the metropolitan area 
around, and the Metropolitan Water Board. These two 
were later consolidated into one board after the major por- 
tion of the work had been accomplished. The Water and 
Sewerage Board has developed largely into an operating 
organization. On the other hand, in the West, in Illinois, 
the formation of sanitary districts received an early start 
with the enabling act in 18S9 forming the Sanitary District 
of Chicago, a separate municipal corporation with broader 
powers than those of the Massachusetts Commission; the 
former being a separate municipality overlying other muni- 
cipalities, but with a particular purpose and indefinite life. 
Further, broader bonding and taxing powers were given 
then in the East. Other enabling acts have been passed in 
Illinois and in Indiana. In New Jersey, the formation of 
the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission and such joint 
projects, as the Plainfield, North Plainfield and Dunellen 
Sewerage District, 'have added to the list. 

In the desire to obtain municipal ownership of water- 
works in the State of Maine, the water district idea was 
developed largely through the efforts of Harvey B. Eaton, 
an attorney, who has summarized the history and enabling 
acts very completely in a paper entitled "Maine Water 
Districts and Appraisals" published by the New England 
Works Association. 

The Maine water districts resembled the Sanitary Dis- 
trict of Chicago, in that they had bonding and taxing powers 
and were overlying municipalities organized for a specific 
purpose, in the water districts, that of serving water. A 
number of districts have been organized in Maine. Else- 
where might be mentioned the Greater Winnipeg Water 
District and the Metropolitan Water Board of London 
(England). There are also a number of private water com- 
panies supplying groups of towns. 

In a report upon the metropolitan water and sewerage 
systems made to the Essex Border Utilities Commission. 
Windsor, Ont., (1917). Morris Knowles has covered very 
broadly the Metropolitan district idea, pointing out the 
need of community co-operation, the methods of securing 
unity action by (1) annexation, (2) extension of muni- 
cipal jurisdiction, (3) contracts between municipalities, 
(4) county 'administration, (5) private enterprise, (6) 
metropolitan districts. Various examples are discussed. 
and the difficulties. The methods in vogue of payment of 
costs are also discussed, chronologically. 



Our Committee has tried to summarize in convenient 
form most of the existing organizations. It is hoped that 
discussion may be promoted, and possibly further examples 
cited to make the report more complete. 

No mention will be made in this report of the com- 
missions organized to make engineering reports or metro- 
politan projects, such as the Metropolitan Sewerage Com- 
mission (N.Y. City), Commission on Additional Water Sup- 
ply (N.Y. Hering-Burr-Freeman), Charles River Dam Com- 
mission (Boston) and others. Their field has been a useful 
one, in most cases paving the way for construction and 
leading to broader acts for the construction organization. 
Schemes Tried for Organizing Metropolitan Ireas 

In general, it is the purpose of this report to cover 
largely the districts formed for sewerage or drainage of 
metropolitan areas, and not the drainage of farm areas. 
For the purposes of constructing the sewerage system of 
large metropolitan areas, and the disposal of sewage 
therefrom with the increase of population, and the need of 
more complete methods, various schemes have been tried as 
outlined. These may be summarized according to the de- 
gree of authority given, and appear to fall under four 
general groups. 

1. Commissions or boards formed by city councils for 
the specific purpose of building intercepting sewers large- 
ly and practically within the confines of one municipality. 
These hardly come within the definition of the metropolitan 
districts serving two or more municipalities, but should 
be mentioned because of the organization of such commis- 
sions as the Fitchburg Sewer Commission, and the Syra- 
cuse Intercepting Sewerage Board, and others. 

2. Boards or commissions appointed by elective offi- 
cers of cities, county or state, given resources, either limited 
by specific act or by action of the municipal or Federal 
bodies governing the municipalities composing the district. 
Under this classification might be placed such boards as the 
Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board, the Passaic Valley- 
Sewerage Commission, the Commission of the District of 
Columbia and others. 

3. The formation of sanitary districts which are 
complete municipalities in themselves, with powers of taxa- 
tion, with bond issues dependent upon referendum, and 
with officials appointed by county or state officers. Under 
this classification come the smaller sanitary districts in 
Illinois, such as those organized at Decatur, Bloomington, 
the North Shore Sanitary District, and Downers Grove. 

4. Sanitary districts organized as municipalities with 
complete taxing and bonding powers, without referendum 
on bonds, with governing officials elected by direct \ 

the people residing within the limits of the district. Under 
this classification comes the Sanitary District of Chicago. 

Practically all the districts mentioned and discussed 
in this report are those lying within the boundaries of one 
state. The Committee has thought it desirable to call to 
the attention of those interested the need of some form of 
organization which will insure co-operation between dis- 
tricts lying in two or more states. With the growth of 
pollution in streams, and the difficulties in obtaining suit- 
able water supplies such metropolitan difficulties may 
occur on stream watersheds, both from the water and sewer- 
age standpoint, involving two or more states, as in the case 
of the Ohio River, lor instance, involving Ohio, Kentucky, 
West Virginia, Pennsylvania and in Missouri territory in 
the vicinity of Kansas City where territory lying in Missouri 
has lo be considered. Such relations under the govern- 
mental organization of the United States would appear to 
require a federal Act covering the creation of river or drain- 
age boards, with powers extending over several states, to 
co-ordinate effort and use common policies in matters re- 
lating to use of streams for sewage disposal and the taking 
of water supply therefrom. This would appear to be the 
next development in a chain of acts which has been gra